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Topic: Andean states

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  On-the-Record Briefing: Andean Regional Initiative
The United States response to and support for that effort was approved by Congress in July of the year 2000.
What we see with the President's Andean Regional Initiative of this year for Fiscal Year 2002 funding is an effort that is, in fact, more balanced between the economic social development and institutional reform side and the law enforcement and security side.
Counter-drug obviously is a part, a very important part, of the Andean Regional Initiative, but it is an attempt to integrate a coherent approach that covers all elements of the problems and threats affecting the Andean region and indirectly the United States of America today.
www.state.gov /p/wha/rls/rm/2001/2925.htm   (5849 words)

  3. Andean Civilizations. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History
Andean states developed in every kind of environment imaginable, everything from mountain valleys high in the Andes to arid coastal plains.
Thus, Andean civilization pursued many evolutionary paths, which came together in a remarkable mosaic of states that depended on one another for survival.
The formation of states both on the coast and in the highlands was also fostered by continuous interchange between coast and interior.
www.bartleby.com /67/56.html   (253 words)

 Five Elements of Andean Culture
Andean midwives respect this heritage by assuring that the birth process is a private one.
Andean midwives know that humans are similar to animals in regards to birth and that separation of a human mother from her baby can produce the same results.
The first-time Andean mother is clear-headed and fully aware of the new sensations in her body as she goes into labor.
www.stetson.edu /other/andeanculture/children.html   (3241 words)

 Speeches - Andean Community -CAN - "ASEAN – Andean Cooperation: An Andean Perspective"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-16)
The Member States of the Andean Community include Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, which have a combined population of more than 110 million, total GDP of about 300 billion dollars, and a total trade of 80 billion dollars.
The Andean Presidential Council, comprised by the Heads of States of the five Member Countries, is the highest-level, political body of the Andean Community.
The Andean Court of Justice may also conduct arbitration procedures, hear labor disputes involving bodies or institutions of the Andean Community, and claims alleging that a body or institution of the Andean Community is not fulfilling its responsibilities.
www.comunidadandina.org /ingles/press/speeches/alegrett8-5-00.htm   (1620 words)

 EU - Andean Community Ministerial Meeting
Under the chairmanship of the Greek Presidency of the EU, the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Andean Community and the European Union met in Athens on 27 March 2003 on the occasion of the XIth Institutionalised Ministerial Meeting between the European Union and the Rio Group.
At the meeting, the Andean Community and the European Union exchanged ideas and opinions on the political and economic situation in both regions, and on the state of and prospects for relations between them.
The EU Ministers welcomed the efforts of several Andean States to establish national dialogues aiming at creating a broad political consensus and fostering social cohesion in their countries.
europa.eu.int /comm/external_relations/andean/doc/mm27_03_03_en.htm   (446 words)

 The Economics of Cocaine Capitalism
In the Andean states and Mexico, now the transit center for most cocaine entering the United States, the illegal cocaine economy is intertwined with the legal economy.
It is little wonder that the Andean coca constituencies have largely succeeded in blocking forcible eradication of coca crops in Bolivia and in Peru and maintaining trafficking in Colombia.
Andean countries seem more anxious to contain pernicious manifestations of the cocaine trade, such as narco-terrorist violence and high-level corruption, than to attack the trafficking infrastructure.
www.cosmos-club.org /web/journals/1996/lee.html   (3206 words)

 Lecture1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-16)
Andean civilizations  developed in the mountain valleys of the Andes and river valleys on the dry desert coast.
During the last period of of Andean prehistory, the Inca conquered all previous kingdoms and united the highlands and the coast from Ecuador to Chile.
The earliest complex societies in the Andean region appeared on the coast and were intensively exploiting marine resources.
www.uweb.ucsb.edu /~hes0/Anth3/Lecture24.htm   (1135 words)

While the United States has played one of the most influential roles in the drug wars, the countries with the most at stake are those in South America where the largest parts of the wars, or at least the most violent parts of them, are carried out.
Drug traffickers were upset with the government’s implementation of the 1979 extradition treaty with the United States (the government had recently begun to extradite drug lords for trial in the United States) and cooperated with the guerrilla group M-19 in their attack on the Palace of Justice in downtown Bogota.
In the United States it seems that we often look only at the U.S. interests in the drug wars, and we often forget that the people with the largest stake in the drug wars are the people of the Andes region, where the cocaine is produced.
www2.truman.edu /~marc/webpages/andean2k/cocaine/drugwars.html   (1739 words)

Andean countries, therefore, should use the FTAA negotiations as a means to enhance their liberalisation efforts, to consolidate the Andean Community regime in relevant areas, and to engage in constructive dialogue with their larger partner in a forum where trade issues are the focus.
The Andean countries are in a unique position within the Western Hemisphere, lying between the two main sub-regional poles of NAFTA and MERCOSUR, to play a positive role in pushing forward the negotiations and to help find areas of common ground between the larger players.
Andean Community countries, as well as other countries in Latin America and the Caribbean need to jump start the institutional or "second generation" reforms that are essential to achieve macroeconomic stability.
www.oas.org /speeches/speech.asp?sCodigo=02-0185   (2557 words)

 The Andean Pact ...A Friend of Foreign Enterprise
The Andean Pact was a direct response to the frustration felt by many of the Andean countries to the shortcomings of the Latin American Free Trade Area (ALALC), an economic integration program that began in 1960 and included all of the Spanish-speaking republics of South America plus Brazil and Mexico.
Judgments of the Tribunal of Justice are legally binding on the member states and a refusal to adhere to the court’s holdings permits the complaining member states to take appropriate retaliatory measures, such as restricting or suspending the preferential tariff treatment granted to the noncooperative state under the Cartagena Agreement.
In 1976 the Andean Reserve Fund, headquartered in Bogota, Colombia, was formed to extend credit and guarantee loans to member states with balance of payment problems and contribute to the harmonization of monetary, exchange, and finance policies among the member states.
www.mercosurconsulting.net /Articles/article2.html   (5492 words)

 South America
However, all South American states sharply limited European immigration from Europe in the hopes of limiting the unemployment of native-born workers, this despite a remarkable fluorescence of popular culture that depended heavily upon immigrant skills and immigrant influences in the erstwhile immigrant-receiving countries.
Argentina -- as of 2000 the fifth-wealthiest state in the world on a per capita basis, and home to 60 million inhabitants -- is likewise a major force to be reckoned with, both as the most populous Hispanophone state in the world and as as a major influence on the rest of the Hispanophone world.
These three states lack the cultural influence of Argentina, but they are all stable social democratic states that are just as marked by their immigrant heritage as anywhere else in the world.
www.ahtg.net /TpA/tpasouam.html   (3866 words)

 TNI Alternative Regionalisms
The coca leaf in its natural state harms no one and moreover should be industrialized for different beneficial ends for humanity.
States have the right and the obligation to guarantee food sovereignty and security of their population, ensuring that the collective good prevails over the interests of agribusiness.
The guarantees and protection of States must be extended to investors that truly invest in the country and any dispute between a foreign investor and a State must be resolved under national jurisdiction and not by international arbitration panels which are already causing severe harm to Andean countries.
www.tni.org /altreg-docs/baseline.htm   (1325 words)

Trade negotiators from three Andean countries have called on the US to show more flexibility in their ongoing free trade agreement (FTA) negotiations, saying that its intransigence on agriculture and intellectual property rights was preventing a final agreement.
Andean governments negotiating the FTA are facing strong opposition from their own agricultural producers, who insist they cannot compete against farmers supported by the US treasury.
Andean countries, however, were initially unconvinced of the need for such measures, arguing that data of this kind has nothing to do with innovation -- the ostensible reason for the existence of intellectual property protections.
www.ictsd.org /weekly/05-09-14/story2.htm   (973 words)

 CRS Report: RL30790 - The Andean Trade Preference Act: Background and Issues for Reauthorization - NLE
The table contrasts selected Andean country import data in 1995 and 1999 to reflect changes that may have occurred during a time when the ATPA program was in full force.
However, the political good will extended by the United States in the form of ATPA trade preferences may be a positive force for bilateral relations and encourage trade and investment, regardless of the economic costs and benefits, which by most accounts, are small.
Where the two programs overlap, many Andean exporters prefer to use ATPA because it covers more tariff categories, tends to be more liberal and easier to qualify under, and has had a ten-year authorization and so has never expired as has the GSP on various occasions in the 1990s.
www.ncseonline.org /nle/crsreports/finance/fin-4.cfm   (5420 words)

 Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series / Chile / Glossary
A Paris-based organization of the European countries, Australia, Canada, and the United States that promotes economic and social welfare throughout the OECD area by assisting its member governments in the formulation of policies designed to this end and by coordinating these policies.
Established by the Ninth International Conference of American States held in Bogotá on April 30, 1948, and effective since December 13, 1951, the OAS has served as a major regional organization composed of thirty-five members, including most Latin American states and the United States and Canada.
States of assembly, siege, emergency, and catastrophe that may be declared under Article 40 of the constitution by the president of the republic, with the consent of the National Security Council, cover the following exceptional situations, respectively: a foreign war, an internal war or internal commotion, an internal disturbance, and an emergency or public calamity.
lcweb2.loc.gov /frd/cs/chile/cl_glos.html   (3995 words)

Over the course of the twentieth century, the United States had constructed drugs such as cocaine as a moral evil, making it the perfect guise under which to continue to promote its economic interests in the Andes.
In testimony before Congress, the DEA stated that, “…there is little to indicate the insurgent groups are trafficking in cocaine themselves either by producing HCL and selling it to Mexican syndicates, or by establishing their own distribution network in the U.S.” (Meza 1999: 3).
With this understanding of resistance, the Andean people’s overt defiance to the United States’ coca eradication efforts speaks to coca’s place within the Andean consciousness, illustrating its historical construction as something inextricable.
college.holycross.edu /coca/tmhoppe/drug.html   (1562 words)

 University Press of Florida: Andean Diaspora
The volume is a major contribution to Andean archaeology and anthropology, the burgeoning field of Tiwanaku studies, and worldwide studies of complex societies.
Noting that the Tiwanaku civilization was far more pluralistic than is commonly believed, he contends that early states in the Andes, and perhaps throughout the ancient world, were segmentary in nature and that they remained so even as they grew into larger empires.
After introducing the role of diasporas in early state growth, Goldstein synthesizes recent research on the Tiwanaku civilization of highland Bolivia, Chile, and Peru.
www.upf.com /book.asp?id=GOLDSS04   (428 words)

 [No title]
The United States concluded negotiations with Peru in December 2005 and signed the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement in April 2006.
Total two-way trade with the Andean countries of Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador was approximately $24 billion in 2004.
The three Andean countries collectively represent a market of over $8 billion for U.S. exports, and are home to close to $8 billion in U.S. foreign direct investment.
www.export.gov /fta/negotiation/Andean/index.asp?dName=negotiation   (280 words)

 Andean mountain cat conservation, Andean Cat Alliance
In addition to natural rarity and habitat loss, the prime threat to the survival of the Andean cat is direct persecution by humans.
Some local residents kill the Andean cat because they consider it dangerous to humans and domestic animals, though it is only slightly larger than domestic cats.
Since high mountain ranges like the Andes often define international borders and therefore transect the Andean cat's habitat, it is imperative that a multinational and cooperative effort be undertaken to conserve the Andean cat throughout its range.
www.wildnet.org /andean_cat.htm   (570 words)

 Dispatch, Vol 1, No 9, October 29, 1990   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-16)
As we move into the second year of the Andean implementation plan, we are building on the FY 1990 plan, which involved strengthening of political will, military and law enforcement effectiveness, and the targeting of trafficking organizations.
The intent of this effort, based on a continuing assessment of the performance of the Andean states, is to carry forward the progress we have made and address the shortcomings we have noted.
The role of the United States is to limit domestic demand for drugs and assist other countries to reduce the supply of illegal drugs, develop alternative sources of income for coca growers, and enhance interdiction capabilities.
dosfan.lib.uic.edu /erc/briefing/dispatch/1990/html/Dispatchv1no09.html   (9363 words)

 George Bush Presidential Library and Museum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-16)
The United States is indeed fortunate to have these leaders as allies in a cooperative fight against drugs.
Peru's economy is beginning to grow again, and the Andean States will expand trade with the United States under this new Andean trade preference initiative that I signed into law last December.
While the United States invests billions of dollars on the drug war within the United States, it only devotes a small amount to Peru for alternative development to combat drugs, et cetera.
bushlibrary.tamu.edu /research/papers/1992/92022702.html   (5728 words)

 Andes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Andean range is composed principally of two great ranges, the Cordillera Oriental and the Cordillera Occidental, often separated by a deep intermediate depression, in which arise other chains of minor importance, the chief of which is Chile's Cordillera de la Costa.
The high-altitude Polylepis forests are present in the Andean areas of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.
The main surviving languages of the Andean peoples are those of the Quechua and Aymara language families.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Andean   (1401 words)

 Mountain High, White Avalanche — www.greenwood.com
A study examines the structure of the cocaine trade in the Andean nations-Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Ecuador and Venezuela-and in Panama.
Moreover, countries on the Andean periphery, such as Panama, have become enmeshed in the trade as transit points and money-lanudering centers.
This book examines the cocaine trade in the Andean states and Panana with a special emphasis given to the relationship between cocaine and power.
www.greenwood.com /catalog/C3234.aspx   (318 words)

 Human Rights Watch: Americas : Ecuador
The United States should suspend Ecuador’s trade benefits due to the country’s failure to comply with the labor rights requirements of the Andean Trade Preferences Act, Human Rights Watch said today in a petition filed with the U.S. Trade Representative.
The Andean countries, however, have proposed language that would at least require countries to enforce their domestic non-discrimination laws, but the United States has reportedly not accepted this proposal.
In investigations in Egypt, Ecuador, India, and the United States, Human Rights Watch has found that the children working in agriculture are endangered and exploited on a daily basis.
www.hrw.org /americas/ecuador.php   (1137 words)

 Item Details
Gender, rights and race in Andean nation-building Sarah A. Radcliffe Focusing on Ecuador and Peru, this paper argues that indigenous women’s rights have not been incorporated into the nation-building processes of Andean states.
As a consequence, the rights granted by states – and those fought for by peasants, indigenous peoples and women - have not adequately guaranteed indigenous women’s rights.
That is, indigenous women fall between the edifice of rights constructed by the states and political movements of the region.
old.developmentgateway.org /content/item-detail?item_id=250567   (141 words)

 Human Rights Watch
It has come to our attention that during these negotiations, the Andean countries have proposed to include the elimination of employment and workplace discrimination on the list of “internationally recognized labor rights” identified in the accord.
We believe that it is wrong and misguided for the United States to resist the efforts of the Andean countries to strengthen non-discrimination provisions in the U.S.-Andean Free Trade Agreement.
If the United States truly seeks to promote labor rights through trade and be a world leader on workers’ human rights, at a minimum it should accept without delay the Andean countries’ proposal to help protect the most vulnerable workers from discrimination.
www.commondreams.org /news2005/0906-13.htm   (542 words)

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