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Topic: Aneuploidy

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In the News (Wed 21 Aug 19)

  Aneuploidy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aneuploidy is a chromosomal state in which abnormal numbers of specific chromosomes or chromosome sets exist within the nucleus.
In humans the most common form of aneuploidy is trisomy, or the presence of an extra chromosome in each cell.
Monosomy, or the loss of one chromosome from each cell, is another kind of aneuploidy.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Aneuploidy   (339 words)

 Polyploidy and Aneuploidy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Aneuploidy- is the scientific term that refers to the occurrence of one or more extra or missing chromosomes.
This is the reason pregnancies involving aneuploidy of the larger chromosomes are generally not viable and result in miscarriage.
The aneuploidies most often seen in liveborns tend to be of smaller chromosomes such as 13, 18, 21, or the sex chromosomes.
www.mc.edu /campus/users/rbuckley/leslie.htm   (1015 words)

 PGD at IRMS - IVF and infertility clinic of New Jersey, NJ and New York, NY.
Therefore, the theory regarding aneuploidy risk and advancing maternal age is that over time the chromosomes in the egg are less likely to divide properly leading to the egg having an extra or missing chromosome.
According to current figures, the chance for a woman delivering a baby with aneuploidy is on average 1% if she is 35-39 years of age and ~3.5% if she is 40-45.
The accuracy of PGD for aneuploidy is approximately 90%.
www.sbivf.com /pgd_aneuploidy.htm   (1936 words)

 Aneuploidy Testing
Aneuploidy is a term used to describe a chromosome problem, such as Down syndrome, that is caused by an extra or missing chromosome.
The difference in the risk for aneuploidy in embryos versus live borns is due to the fact that a pregnancy with aneuploidy is less likely to attach to the uterus (implant) and has a greater risk for miscarriage.
The purpose of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy is to increase the pregnancy rate, reduce the number of pregnancy losses, and reduce the number of babies born with aneuploidy conditions.
www.reproductivegenetics.com /aneuploidy.html   (1100 words)

 Guardian Unlimited | The Guardian | Preventing accidents of growth
Aneuploidy is an accident of growth, in which dividing cells produce an abnormal number of chromosomes.
Aneuploidy screening is yet another way to offer hope to couples who take IVF treatment - and to make sure of healthy children when a "test tube" embryo is successfully implanted.
Aneuploidy is not a genetic defect, it is an accident of cell machinery that becomes more likely with increasing years.
www.guardian.co.uk /uk_news/story/0,3604,979698,00.html   (388 words)

 Our Stolen Future: What is aneuploidy and why is it important?
Aneuploidy is an error in cell division that results in the "daughter" cells having the wrong number of chromosomes.
Another type of aneuploidy, "mitotic" aneuploidy, is associated with virtually all solid tumor cancers.
Research on the causes of aneuploidy now focus on the pattern of alignment of the chromosomes during cell division.
www.ourstolenfuture.org /newscience/oncompounds/bisphenola/2003/2003-0328aneuploidy.htm   (1199 words)

 Aneuploidy Theory of Cancer
Aneuploidy is known to be an efficient mechanism for altering the properties of cells, and it is also conceded that aneuploid cells are found in virtually all solid tumors.
Sufficient (indeed overwhelming) evidence is already in hand to convict aneuploidy of the crime of cancer and release gene mutations from custody [6-17].
What would gravely weaken the aneuploidy theory would be confirmed cases of diploid cancer (in which the tumor cells have balanced chromosomes), and with the culprit genes found lurking in every cell.
www.annieappleseedproject.org /annieappleseedproject/antheorofcan.html   (1537 words)

 Aneuploidy and cancer—the vintage wine revisited - Nature Biotechnology
, aneuploidy as the functional genetic basis of cancer passes both these tests in ways that should be of interest to biotechnologists of a variety of stripes.
Because aneuploidy simultaneously imbalances, through effects in gene dosage, large numbers of balance-sensitive proteins, including those involved in the mitotic spindle apparatus, its occurrence in a cell results in a self-perpetuating chromosomal instability.
Continuous chromosome reassortment, catalyzed by aneuploidy, as Duesberg and his colleagues argue in their most recent paper, is a likely mechanism to explain the high mutation rates of cancer cells.
www.nature.com /nbt/journal/v19/n1/full/nbt0101_22.html   (1042 words)

 Aneuploidy and Deletions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Aneuploidy is the condition of having less than or more than the normal diploid number of chromosomes, and is the most frequently observed type of cytogenetic abnormality.
In other words, it is any deviation from euploidy, although many authors restrict use of this term to conditions in which only a small number of chromosomes are missing or added.
Generally, aneuploidy is recognized as a small deviation from euploidy for the simple reason that major deviations are rarely compatible with survival, and such individuals usually die prenatally.
arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu /hbooks/genetics/medgen/chromo/aneuploidy.html   (417 words)

 Aging and aneuploidy in human oocytes and follicular cells.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The incidence of chromosomal aneuploidy in the oocyte and surrounding follicular cells in women of different ages was investigated.
Oocytes and granulosa cells derived from ovarian specimens from a random population of 289 adult patients ages 16 to 76 years undergoing gynecologic surgery for nonovarian pathology were cultured for short periods, and cytogenetic preparations were scored for chromosome number and morphology.
A significant difference between the percentage of granulosa cell aneuploidy in the 25 to 34 years group and all other age groups was found, suggesting a decrease of the tendency for granulosa cells to exhibit aneuploidy in older age groups.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_3745811.html   (200 words)

The aneuploidy theory was introduced by David von Hansemann in 1890 [19] and first formally stated by Theodor Boveri in 1914 [20].
Boveri points out that a natural consequence of his aneuploidy theory is that the risk of tumors would increase with age since in aging cells the process of cell division is more frequently disturbed [24].
In spite of a century of evidence implicating aneuploidy as the cause of cancer, a leading researcher guesses that "If you were to poll researchers … 95 percent would say that the accumulation of mutations [to key genes] causes cancer" [1].
www.redflagsweekly.com /features/rasnickP.htm   (3897 words)

 Changes in Chromosome Number
Aneuploidy is the second major category of chromosome aberrations in which chromosome number is abnormal.
For example, the study of persons trisomic for only part of human chromosome 21 has made it possible to localize determinants specific to Down syndrome to various regions of chromosome 21, hinting that some aspects of the phenotype might be due to trisomy for single major genes in these chromosomal regions.
This lower level of functional aneuploidy in XXX than that in XXY, plus the fact that the pseudoautosomal genes appear to lead to feminization, may explain the feminized phenotype of XXY individuals.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /books/bv.fcgi?db=Books&rid=mga.section.1179   (5025 words)

 Our Stolen Future: Bisphenol A causes aneuploidy
Aneuploidy is a condition in which cells have the wrong number of chromosomes.
Their laboratories were engaged in collaborative research testing proposed reasons for why aneuploidy, and thus Down Syndrome, is more common in the babies of older women.
Importantly, congression failure is known to increase in older human oocytes, consistent with the increased frequency of aneuploidy in the oocytes of older women.
www.ourstolenfuture.org /newscience/oncompounds/bisphenola/2003/2003-0401huntetal.htm   (1348 words)

Aneuploidy is the second major category of chromosome mutations in which chromosome number is abnormal.
In one study of 67 people with CML, 33 proved to have an extra Philadelphia chromosome and the remainder had various aneuploidies; the most common aneuploidy was trisomy for the long arm of chromosome 17, which was detected in 28 people.
Of 58 people with acute myeloid leukemia, 21 were shown to have aneuploidy for chromosome 8; 16 for chromosome 9; and 10 for chromosome 21.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /books/bv.fcgi?db=Books&rid=iga.section.3080   (2602 words)

 Peter H. Duesberg
Research in Carcinogenesis: Aneuploidy, an abnormal balance of chromosomes is (i) ubiquitous in cancer, is (ii) proportional to the degree of malignancy of cancer, and (iii) inevitably generates abnormal phenotypes, because it alters the dosages and expression of thousands of normal genes.
Aneuploidy then renders chromosome segregation and maintenance error-prone because it unbalances teams of spindle proteins, repair enzymes, and even centrosome numbers.
Aneuploidy versus gene mutation hypothesis of cancer: recent study claims mutation, but is found to support aneuploidy.
mcb.berkeley.edu /faculty/BMB/duesbergp.html   (668 words)

 Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy in the Female Mouse Current Biology, v.13, 1apr03
Meiotic aneuploidy is infrequent in the mouse, and baseline rates of hyperploidy (i.e., cells with >20 chromosomes, representing one-half of all nondisjunctional events) are approximately 0.5%– 1.0% [11].
Based on previous studies of human oocytes and of mouse mutants, we hypothesized that congression failure in the mammalian oocyte is causally related to aneuploidy and that it results from endocrine disturbances that affect the final stages of oocyte growth [8, 9].
For both congression failure and aneuploidy analyses, the scoring of all preparations was conducted by two independent observers who were blinded with respect to the status (control versus treated) of the specimens.
www.mindfully.org /Plastic/Plasticizers/BPA-Mouse1apr03.htm   (5850 words)

 Aneuploidy correlated 100% with chemical transformation of Chinese hamster cells -- Li et al. 94 (26): 14506 -- ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
in 1914 that aneuploidy is the cause of cancer (1, 2).
by hydrocarbons (25) induces aneuploidy insufficient for carcinogenesis.
that aneuploidy is a consequence of transformation (16).
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/94/26/14506   (5864 words)

 Aneuploidy, or What're A Few Chromosomes, More or Less?. In the Pipeline:   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Aneuploidy is found in a wide range of cancer cells - but is it a cause of cancer, or is it an effect?
The aneuploidy advocates believe that some cell types are prone to genomic instability, giving them a much greater chance of racking up enough mutations to become cancerous.
That's where aneuploidy is still a bit young, as a well-investigated hypothesis, to offer me anything to work on.
www.corante.com /pipeline/archives/2002/08/27/aneuploidy_or_whatre_a_few_chromosomes_more_or_less.php   (1060 words)

 Human Sperm Aneuploidy - Genetic and Environmental Causes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Levels of aneuploidy seen for each of the 24 chromosomes in sperm from each of the 200 twins will be scored.
The sperm aneuploidy frequencies will also be used to compare differences between: (1) males; (2) chromosomes; (3) chromosomes within males; (4) chromosomes within males between ejaculates; and (5) levels of sperm morphological abnormalities.
Males identified as having significantly high levels of aneuploidy will be further studied, along with their co-twins (who may be concordant or discordant for high aneuploidy levels) and controls, to test if differences in alpha-satellite DNA sequences, centromere associated proteins (CENPs), or premature centromere division are correlated with the elevated aneuploidy frequencies.
www.vipbg.vcu.edu /hg/grant/HD33527.shtml   (370 words)

 Aneuploidy and malignancy: an unsolved equation -- Dey 57 (12): 1245 -- Journal of Clinical Pathology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
aneuploidy and the role of aneuploidy in malignancy are discussed.
Aneuploidy versus gene mutation as cause of cancer.
Merotelic kinetochore orientation is a major mechanism of aneuploidy in mitotic mammalian tissue cells.
jcp.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/57/12/1245   (3259 words)

 plating assay for aneuploidy in N. crassa
We used this assay to demonstrate that elevated frequencies of aneuploidy previously reported to be associated with reduced DNA methylation were not, in fact, due to the methylation deficiencies.
In an attempt to validate the finding of enhanced aneuploidy, methylation was reduced in a dim+ met-7 (methionine) auxotroph, by starving for methionine, and a high frequency of aneuploidy was observed.
Instead, we followed another sexual-cycle phenotype that is associated with the ability to generate aneuploids; misshapen spores and a high proportion of white spores (dead, presumably due to a chromosomal deficiency).
www.fgsc.net /fgn44/hagemann.html   (1254 words)

 Duesberg.com - Book Review - Oncogenes, Aneuploidy and AIDS: A Scientific Life & Times of Peter H. Duesberg.
Oncogenes, Aneuploidy and AIDS has other global themes such as how science should be done, and the prominent role of metaphoric language in popular and professional scientific writing.
The aneuploidy view is very different fr om the current mainstream one, in which cancers arise because of the stepwise accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, sometimes assisted by mutator genes in a chromosomally normal human cell.
Thus, as is well known, but nevertheless conveniently ignored, a mutation in a tumor -suppressor gene may be associated with a high frequency of colorectal carcinomas in one genetic background, but the same mutation in a different genetic background yields a perfectly normal colon totally free of carcinomas.
www.duesberg.com /books/oncogenes.html   (1547 words)

 Mad2 prevents aneuploidy and premature proteolysis of cyclin B and securin during meiosis I in mouse oocytes -- Homer ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Mad2 prevents aneuploidy and premature proteolysis of cyclin B and securin during meiosis I in mouse oocytes -- Homer et al.
Articles by Homer, H. Articles by Herbert, M. Mad2 prevents aneuploidy and premature proteolysis of cyclin B and securin during meiosis I in mouse oocytes
Hassold, T. and Hunt, P. To err (meiotically) is human: The genesis of human aneuploidy.
www.genesdev.org /cgi/content/full/19/2/202   (4058 words)

 Aneuploidy vs. gene mutation hypothesis of cancer: Recent study claims mutation but is found to support aneuploidy -- ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Aneuploidy vs. gene mutation hypothesis of cancer: Recent study claims mutation but is found to support aneuploidy -- Li et al.
Aneuploidy vs. gene mutation hypothesis of cancer: Recent study claims mutation but is found to support aneuploidy
is the imbalance that aneuploidy imparts on the spindle apparatus,
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/97/7/3236   (5468 words)

 Sensitivity of mouse oocytes to nicotine-induced perturbations during oocyte meiotic maturation and aneuploidy in vivo ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Sensitivity of mouse oocytes to nicotine-induced perturbations during oocyte meiotic maturation and aneuploidy in vivo and in vitro -- B.Mailhes et al.
Hummler, E. and Hansmann, I. (1988) Pattern and frequency of nondisjunction in oocytes from the Djungarian hamster are determined by the stage of first meiotic spindle inhibition.
Mailhes, J.B. and Yuan, Z.P. (1987) Differential sensitivity of mouse oocytes to colchicine-induced aneuploidy.
molehr.oupjournals.org /cgi/content/full/6/3/232   (3421 words)

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