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Topic: Anglo Irish Treaty


  
  Treaty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Treaties can be called by many names: treaties, international agreements, protocols, covenants, conventions, exchanges of letters, exchanges of notes, etc.; however all of these are equally treaties, and the rules are the same regardless of what the treaty is called.
Treaties can be loosely compared to contracts: both are means of willing parties assuming obligations among themselves, and a party to either that fails to live up to their obligations can be held legally liable for that breach.
Such treaties between colonizers and indigenous peoples are an important part of political discourse in the late 20th and early 21st century, but the treaties being discussed are internationally considered to be part of the nation's domestic law, and to have little international standing.
www.bucyrus.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Treaty   (2885 words)

  
 Anglo-Irish Treaty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed between representatives of the British government and envoys plenipotentiary (i.e., negotiators empowered to sign a treaty without reference back to their superiors) of the Irish Republic on December 6, 1921.
In December 1922 a new Irish constitution was enacted by the Third Dáil, sitting as a Constituent Assembly.
The Treaty's provisions relating to the Crown, governor-generalship and its superiority in law were all repealed from the 1922 Constitution by Eamon de Valera, who became President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State (prime minister) in 1932.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/anglo_irish_treaty   (977 words)

  
 Anglo-Irish Treaty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Anglo-Irish Treaty was a treaty between the British government and representatives of the (extra-judicial) Irish Republic which concluded the Anglo-Irish War.
The treaty was signed in London by representatives of the British government and envoys plenipotentiary of the Irish Republic (i.e., negotiators empowered to sign a treaty without reference back to their superiors) on December 6, 1921.
The Treaty's provisions relating to the monarch, governor-general and the treaty's own superiority in law were all deleted from the Constitution of the Irish Free State in 1932, following enactment of the Statute of Westminster by the British Parliament.
www.hartselle.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Anglo-Irish_Treaty   (1312 words)

  
 Anglo-Irish War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
To purist Irish Republicans, the Anglo-Irish war had begun with the Proclamation of the Irish Republic during the Easter Rising of 1916.
Republicans argued that the conflict of 1919-21 (and indeed the subsequent Irish Civil War) was the defense of this Republic against attempts to destroy it.
The IRA, as the 'army of the Irish Republic', was perceived by members of Dáil Éireann to have a mandate to wage war on the Dublin Castle British administration running Ireland.
www.sterlingheights.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Anglo-Irish_War   (1982 words)

  
 Irish Parliamentary Party - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The 1916 Easter Rising and the British reaction to it, and the clumsy attempt at conscription radicalised Irish politics to such an extent that the IPP lost almost all of their seats in the 1918 general election to the more militant Sinn Féin, and was dissolved.
The greatest achievement of the IPP was the introduction to Irish society of parliamentary tradition and all that went with it -- a fully up and running local government administration with its diverse institutions, which had rooted itself more deeply than anyone could have imagined into the life of the country.
This is perhaps the highest tribute that can deservedly be bestowed upon the old Irish Parliamentary Party, which during fifty years of hard and exacting as well as frustrating parliamentary labours, established and fostered the development of representative institutions which gave stimulus to democratic action and discussion at every level of political involvement.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Irish_Parliamentary_Party   (674 words)

  
 Republic of Ireland - FreeEncyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Irish Free State/Éire remained a member of the British Commonwealth until the declaration of a republic in April 1949.
Irish governments have sought the peaceful unification of Ireland and have cooperated with Britain against the violent conflict between paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland known as the Troubles.
The official languages are Irish (Gaelic), the native Celtic language, and English, which is constitutionally described as a secondary official language.
openproxy.ath.cx /re/Republic_of_Ireland.html   (2092 words)

  
 Anglo-Irish - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The term Anglo-Irish was applied to Irish aristocrats of British or partially British descent, or indeed to all members of the Peerage of Ireland since the flight of the Earls.
They were usually of Irish ancestry and considered themselves Irish, but adopted the English ways and manners of speaking, though not always English politics.
People who the term would have referred to in the past have been partly assimilated into Irish society, and would now be described as "southern Irish Protestants", or "Protestants of the Republic of Ireland".
www.bexley.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Anglo-Irish   (576 words)

  
 Constitution of the Irish Free State - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Constitution of the Irish Free State was the constitution of the southern Irish state established in December 1922.
The Constitution was shaped by the requirements of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed between representatives of the British Government and the Irish Republic in December 1922.
In 1936, then President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State Eamon de Valera had a replacement constitution drafted by John Hearne, called Bunreacht na hÉireann, for which he gave formal notice to King Edward VIII of Ireland in July 1936.
www.marylandheights.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Constitution_of_the_Irish_Free_State   (810 words)

  
 SingaporeMoms - Parenting Encyclopedia - Irish Civil War
The Irish Civil War (June 1922–April 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of today's Republic of Ireland.
Opponents of the Treaty objected to the fact that it retained constitutional links between the United Kingdom and Ireland, and that the six counties of Nothern Ireland would not be included in the Free State.
Under the treaty the state was not to be called a republic but a "free state" and it was only to include twenty-six southern and western counties of Ireland.
www.singaporemoms.com /parenting/Irish_Civil_War   (1002 words)

  
 CAIN: The Anglo-Irish Treaty, December 1921
The foregoing provisions of this Article shall be reviewed at a Conference of Representatives of the British and Irish Governments to be held at the expiration of five years from the date hereof with a view to a share in her own coastal defence.
The Government of the Irish Free State agrees to pay fair compensation on terms not less favourable than those accorded by the Act of 1920 to judges, officials, members of Police Forces and other Public Servants who are discharged by it or who retire in consequence of the change of Government effected in pursuance hereof.
This instrument shall be submitted forthwith by is Majesty's Government for the approval of Parliament and by the Irish signatories to a meeting summoned for the purpose of the members elected to sit in the House of Commons of Southern Ireland, and if approved shall be ratified by the necessary legislation.
cain.ulst.ac.uk /issues/politics/docs/ait1921.htm   (963 words)

  
 ANGLO-IRISH TREATY FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Irish side were split on the Treaty, and it was only narrowly ratified in the Dáil.
The Irish Free State created by the Treaty came into force on 6_December 1922 by royal proclamation, after its constitution was enacted by the Third_Dáil and the British parliament.
Griffith died partially from exhaustion; Collins, at the signing of the Treaty, had said that in signing it, he may have signed his "actual death warrant", and he was correct: he was assassinated by anti-Treaty republicans in Béal_na_mBláth in August 1922, barely a week after Griffith's death.
www.whereintheworldiskerry.com /Anglo-Irish_Treaty   (1145 words)

  
 The Anglo-Irish Treaty: Seed of 'The Troubles' -- The Wild Geese Today
Irish history is full of men and women who put their lifes on the line for Irish freedom.
Rightly or wrongly, Collins believed that the Irish forces could not sustain the all-out war the British were likely to initiate; certainly Collins would have been one of the finest judges of this.
Perhaps the Irish could have held out against the might of Britain longer and attained the 32-county republic, or perhaps Lloyd George was bluffing.
www.thewildgeese.com /pages/treaty.html   (1473 words)

  
 Articles - Irish Civil War   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Anglo-Irish Treaty arose from the Anglo-Irish War (or "Irish War of Independence"), fought between Irish separatists (organised as the extra-legal Irish Republic) and the British government, from 1919-1921.
The Anti-Treaty IRA claimed that it was defending the Irish Republic, that had been declared in 1916 during the Easter Rising and created by the First Dáil and had been unlawfully usurped by those who accepted the compromise of the Free State.
The fact that The Irish Civil War was fought between Irish Nationalist factions meant that the issue of Northern Ireland was ignored and Ireland was spared what could have been a far bloodier civil war based on ethnic and sectarian lines over the future of Ireland's six north-eastern counties.
www.gaple.com /articles/Irish_Civil_War   (2496 words)

  
 Ireland - becoming a free state
Irish liberation from British rule was achieved as the result of a struggle extending over several centuries and marked by numerous rebellions.
By the terms of the treaty, all of Ireland except the six counties constituting Northern Ireland was to receive dominion status identical with that of Canada.
With the question of the treaty the chief issue, an election for a provisional Dáil was held in June 1922.
www.iol.ie /~dluby/history.htm   (2932 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
This slightly enlarged the sovereignty of the new Irish state, but it also confirmed the right of the six counties of Northern Ireland to opt out of the arrangement, which they did.
The Treaty was signed on behalf of Great Britain by Lloyd George and leading members of his cabinet and on behalf of Ireland by Arthur Griffith, Michael Collins, and other members of the Republican cabinet.
But the terms of the treaty had been accepted by the Irish signatories only because Lloyd George had threatened war on Ireland if they were rejected.
www.bampfa.berkeley.edu /exhibits/irish/angloirishtreaty.html   (288 words)

  
 Travel and Historic Sites -- West Cork Ambush Sites -- The Wild Geese Today
The carnage was a grievous blow and dramatic warning to the hitherto unbloodied Auxies, and the morale of the IRA and the Republican cause soared.
Collins -- military tactician, economist, statesman, co-founder of the Irish State, and son of a farmer -- was born at Woodfield, near Clonakilty, County Cork, in October 1890.
The resulting treaty with Britain secured independence for 26 counties of Ireland, but also led to a tragic civil war in which Collins himself was killed in August 1922, at Béal na mBláth, County Cork, less than 20 miles from his birthplace.
www.thewildgeese.com /pages/westcork.html   (1554 words)

  
 The Anglo-Irish Treaty
The Irish delegation consisted of Michael Collins, the famous Irish fighter, Arthur Griffith, Robert Barton, Duffy and Duggan.
The English were adamantly opposed to an Irish republic and wanted the Irish to agree to Dominion status, signing an oath of allegiance and the exclusion of six counties of Ulster.
The terms were not presented to the Irish again - the threat of war was the clincher for Collins and Griffith, who believed that the Irish could not win an all-out war against the British.
www.suite101.com /article.cfm/british_social_history/66331   (545 words)

  
 Three Monkeys The Anglo-Irish Treaty and the Irish Civil War
Either the Irish accepted an oath of allegiance to the British crown or not, and all the adjectives in the world wouldn’t be able to hide it.
Collins spoke publicly of the Treaty as a stepping stone to achieve further freedom for Ireland; privately in IRB circles he hinted that the Treaty was a device for Ireland to build up its own army and eventually force Britain to hand over Northern Ireland.
Tellingly, while upholding the Treaty terms as a government minister and later running the Free State army, Collins was also secretly arming IRA units in the North who were attacking police barracks in a flagrant violation of the Treaty.
www.threemonkeysonline.com /threemon_printable.php?id=70   (5206 words)

  
 Anglo-Irish Treaty -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In December 1922 a new Irish constitution was enacted by the (Click link for more info and facts about Third Dáil) Third Dáil, sitting as a (Click link for more info and facts about Constituent Assembly) Constituent Assembly.
Furthermore (though it was not generally realised at the time), the (A militant organization of Irish nationalists who used terrorism and guerilla warfare in an effort to drive British forces from Northern Ireland and achieve a united independent Ireland) IRA was in trouble, with little ammunition or weaponry left.
(Irish statesman (born in the United States); as president of the Irish Free State he was responsible for the new constitution of 1937 that created the state of Eire (1882-1975)) Eamon de Valera
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/A/An/Anglo-Irish_Treaty1.htm   (938 words)

  
 The Irish Civil War, 1922-1923 by Paul V. Walsh - A NYMAS Fulltext Resource   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Ironically, the most publicly outspoken critic of the Treaty, De Valera, was in reality the least important (all the more so when, at the head of the opponents of the Treaty, he left the Dail in protest three days after its ratification).
Rather, it was the rejection of the Treaty by the majority of the I.R.A. that threatened the outbreak of civil war.
Now the opponents of the Treaty threatened to keep them from leaving, either because they would be used to eliminate their presence in the Four Courts, which would re-ignite the war between Britain and Ireland, or through provocation on their own by attacking British troops, which would produce the same results.
www.libraryautomation.com /nymas/irishcivilwar.html   (13488 words)

  
 Articles - Anglo-Irish Treaty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of association between Ireland and the British Empire, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the (extra-judicial) Irish Republic which concluded the Anglo-Irish War.
It established an Irish dominion within the British Empire known as the Irish Free State and allowed the previously existing Northern Ireland, created by the 1920 Government of Ireland Act, to opt out of the Irish Free State, which it duly did.
Opponents of the Treaty, primarily Éamon de Valera, mounted a military campaign of opposition which produced the Irish Civil War (1922–23).
lastring.com /articles/Anglo-Irish_Treaty?mySession=46d6d798a3205f07...   (1330 words)

  
 The Anglo-Irish Treaty
The British side proposed partioning the country into two parts: a section in the north to be governed by Protestants and in the south, the Irish Free State governed predominately by Nationalists.
Failure to do this would result in "an immediate and terrible war." The Anglo-Irish Treaty, the first ever treaty between England and Ireland, was signed by both sides around 2 a.m.
Although Collins firmly denied that he signed the Treaty to avoid the threats hurled by Lloyd George, there are still questions to consider regarding his decision to go in the first place and his subsequent actions once he arrived in London:
www.geocities.com /heathcliffiam/mctreaty.htm   (1549 words)

  
 Triskelle - Irish History - Civil War
The division of Ireland, as agreed with in the Anglo-Irish Treaty, has caused a rift in the Dáil Éireann, the parliament of south Ireland.
The Irish Republican Army (IRA) and its predecessor the Irish Volunteer Force (IVF), tended to be independent from politics.
Until then the Irish Republican Army (IRA) had operated within the limits of common warfare, but they felt they had to response on the executions of their brothers in arms with equal measures.
www.vincentpeters.nl /triskelle/history/civilwar.php?index=060.160   (967 words)

  
 NTU Info Centre: Anglo-Irish Treaty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Image Unavailable The Anglo-Irish Treaty was a treaty between the British government and the Irish Republic which brought the Anglo-Irish War to an end and established the Irish Free State.
It was signed in London by representatives of the British government and envoys plenipotentiary (i.e., negotiators empowered to sign a treaty without reference back to their superiors) of the Irish Republic on December 6, 1921.
Opponents of the Treaty mounted a military campaign of opposition which produced the Irish Civil War (1922–23).
www.nowtryus.com /article:Anglo-Irish_Treaty   (988 words)

  
 Triskelle - Irish History - War of Independence
The Irish Republic was proclaimed and the Dáil Éireann was in fact the Government and Eamonn de Valera the President.
Ambushes carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA), such as the Soloheadbeg Ambush or the Kilmichael Ambush, alternated with retaliations from the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) or British army.
Because the division of Ireland was not retracted in this treaty it causes discord in Sinn Féin and in the Irish Republican Army (IRA).
www.vincentpeters.nl /triskelle/history/warofindependence.php?index=060.150   (428 words)

  
 Dáil Éireann - Volume 257 - 09 December, 1971 - Ceisteanna—Questions. Oral Answers. - Anglo-Irish Treaty ...
The Taoiseach: It was decided by the Government that the event for which there should be a special State commemoration in relation to the year 1921 was the Anglo-Irish Truce of that year, and the 50th anniversary of the Truce was duly commemorated in July, 1971.
You are jealous of them and have never given them their place in Irish history.
I did not say the same of Michael Collins but had I done so I would not have in any way felt I was denigrating either Griffith or Collins because I would equally refer to Seán Lemass and Éamon de Valera as Civil War figures.
www.oireachtas-debates.gov.ie /D/0257/D.0257.197112090007.html   (435 words)

  
 BBC - History - Civil war 1922 - 1923   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson was murdered by the IRA in London on 22 June: Lloyd George's government insisted that the Provisional Government of the Irish Free State take action or it would consider the Treaty to have been broken.
Within a short time buildings were cleared of Irregulars but a guerrilla warfare, more deadly than that during the War of Independence, followed in the countryside, accompanied by assassinations and the destruction of buildings, bridges and other installations.
The issue that divided nationalists was not so much partition as the fact that the Treaty kept the Free State within the Empire.
www.bbc.co.uk /history/timelines/ni/civil_war.shtml   (251 words)

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