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Topic: Angular measurements

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In the News (Fri 19 Jul 19)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Angular correlations of gamma-rays belonging to the high-energy part of the 1 MeV-bump were measured and found to be close to an isotropic distribution.
The measured angular correlations with respect to the recoil direction were geometrically transformed, by means of a simulation program, to the normal vector to the reaction plane, in order to explain the significant anisotropic distribution with respect to this direction.
The results from the angular correlation measurements with respect to the alpha-particle and the incident beam directions reveal that alignment of the residual nucleus was not established in these directions which is in agreement with the direct nuclear reaction theory.
lynx.uio.no /rezazadeh/TH/summary.html   (1398 words)

 Examples of Torque Measurements   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
In angular-dependent measurements the temperature and the applied field strength are kept constant and the magnetic torque is recorded as a function of the angle d between the applied field and the c-axis of the sample.
In field-dependent measurements the temperature and the angle d are kept constant and the magnetic torque is recorded as a function of the applied field.
Measurements performed in different fields show the "crossing point" where the magnetization M seems to be field-independent.
www.physik.unizh.ch /groups/groupkeller/torque/examples.html   (199 words)

 Mobile Crossing
The equator becomes an obvious point for measuring latitude it is defined as 0 degrees while points North are measured as degrees on North latitude until you reach 90 degrees at the north pole.
Similarly the southern hemisphere is measured in degrees of south latitude.
Angular measurements, however, are not particularly convenient for measuring distances and, even in its simplest form requires the use of trigonometry.
www.mobilecrossing.com /support/coordinates4.html   (820 words)

 #AH140 - Angular Measurements with Goniometers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The TSD130B is commonly used to measure angular rotation on the elbow, knee and shoulder.
The torsiometers are used to measure angular twisting (as on the torso, spine or neck) as opposed to bending.
Extend the ankle to the maximum extension anticipated during measurement and attach the fixed endblock to the posterior of the leg with the goniometer in position 1 (maximum length) so that the axis of the leg endblock are coincident.
www.biopac.com /AppNotes/app140goniometer/goniometer.htm   (2701 words)

 Renishaw - Measure angular pitch and yaw   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
For angular measurement to take place, there must be a rotation of one optical component (the angular reflector) with respect to the other (the angular interferometer).
The angular interferometer is placed in the beam path between the laser head and the angular reflector, as shown in Figure 1.
measurement is independent both of the distance between the laser and the angular interferometer and of the distance between the angular interferometer and the angular reflector).
www.renishaw.com /client/category/UKEnglish/CAT-546.shtml   (563 words)

 No Title
Beta-Gamma Angular Correlations in Au and Rb, Phys.
Gamma-Gamma Angular Correlation in Au (with J.V. Kane), BAPS 4, 171 (1956).
Angular Correlation Measurements in the Decay of Hg (with H.
dept.physics.upenn.edu /facultyinfo/frankel/papers/lowen   (178 words)

 Survey Manual Version January 2000   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
An angular observation is a single, unadjusted determination of the size of an angle.  A single angular observation is derived by subtracting the value of a pointing on a reference object from the value of a pointing on an observed station.
Minimum angular measurement is the mean of at least two observations, one in the direct mode and the other in the reverse mode.
Vertical angular measurements are also required to reduce slope measured distances to horizontal distances.  Most EDM instruments used bythe Department are equipped with zenith sensing devices that provide the reduction internally.  These instruments display the operator’s choice of slope, horizontal or vertical distance.
www.state.nj.us /transportation/eng/documents/survey/Chapter3.htm   (7130 words)

 The Cross Staff
The cross staff is an ancient instrument to measure angular size or angular separation.
For measuring angular separations, it is best to align the objects so that they just barely disappear behind the jaws you choose.
Use the graph to obtain the angular separation.
www.physics.sfasu.edu /markworth/cross-staff.htm   (317 words)

 Reflectance Calibration Tables   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Measurements of the angular properties of the painted barium sulfate panels were made using a Bidirectional Reflectance Factor Reflectometer, DeWitt and Robinson, 1976, in our indoor laboratory.
Angular measurements of some reference panels were made beginning in 1977 for a gray canvas panel and a painted barium sulfate panel for illumination zenith angles from 10 to 55 degrees.
Beginning in 1984 the angular measurements were made from illumination zenith angle from 10 to 80 degrees.
cobweb.ecn.purdue.edu /~frdata/FRData/data/Reflectances.html   (597 words)

 WMAP Goals: Parameters- Content   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Large angular scale measurements are most sensitive to variations in the gravitational potential at low red shift.
This is the angular scale subtended by the horizon at z ~ 500.
Since the FIRAS measurements of the spectrum have already determined the photon energy density, we can use the measurement of the amplitude of fluctuations on this angular scale to determine the matter energy density.
map.gsfc.nasa.gov /m_mm/sg_parameters6.html   (398 words)

 ESA Science & Technology: Payload Module
By measuring the instantaneous image centroids from the data sent to ground, Gaia measures the relative separations of the thousands of stars simultaneously present in the combined two fields.
The a posteriori on-ground data processing is a highly complex task, linking all relative measurements and transforming the location (centroiding) measurements in pixel coordinates to angular field coordinates through a geometrical calibration of the focal plane, and subsequently to coordinates on the sky through calibrations of the instrument attitude and basic angle.
The accuracy of the measurements depends on the stellar type and relies on the stability of the basic angle of 106.5° between the two telescopes.
sci.esa.int /science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=40129&fbodylongid=1917   (451 words)

The methods for measuring distances on the closest scales are the most naive and geometric, using essentially no physics beyond definitions of distances and velocities.
This relied on two facts: 1) the relationship between transverse and angular velocities with respect to an observer at the origin; and 2) the fact that parallel paths of a group of objects tend to converge to a point at infinity (with that point being in their direction of travel, relative to the observer).
Three measurements -- direction of motion, angular velocity, and recessional velocity -- are thus enough to give the distance to such a cluster.
www.emory.edu /PHYSICS/Faculty/Benson/380-04/notes/2/2.html   (652 words)

 Sidereal Period of the moon
We intend to measure the sidereal period of the moon by noting how the moon moves with respect to a nearby star.
Measure the angular separation using the angular scales on the SC-1.
Identify the same star you used on night one, measure its angular separation from the moon, transfer its position to the SC-1, then to you sheet of paper, and measure its angular separation on the sheet of paper.
www.physics.sfasu.edu /markworth/Moon_Obs.htm   (592 words)

Measure and label marks that are 3 and 5 meters away from the sighting object.
Answer: Size of the sighting object and angular size both decreased because when you view an object from farther away it appears smaller, therefore its angular size is smaller.
Discuss how angular measurements can be used to find the height of an object, such as a mountain, that cannot be measured directly.
education.jpl.nasa.gov /educators/angular.html   (491 words)

 The Reliability of Angular Measurements in Hallux Valgus Deformities
The angular measurements to determine the hallux valgus angle were slightly less reliable, but 86.2% of photos were repeatedly measured within a range of 5° or less.
In the measurement of the distal metatarsal articular angle, 58.9% of photographs were repeatedly measured within a range of 5 degrees or less.
This study validates the reliability of the measurement of the hallux valgus and the 1-2 metatarsal angle.
www.datatrace.com /medical/faiintlweb/2205_01.html   (291 words)

 Attitude control system for three-axis stabilized satellite in near-equatorial orbit - Patent 5259577
The roll error, measured by a terrestrial sensor, is filtered to provide two components: a component at the orbital angular frequency and a component at the nutation angular frequency.
The latter speed is measured by means of a rate gyro or calculated by differentiating the roll angle as measured by an Earth sensor.
In this case the tachometers associated with the wheels provide a continuous measurement of their speed of rotation and the tachometer and the position sensor of the pivoted wheel sense the angular speed and the angular position of the pivot.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5259577.html   (4189 words)

 Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)
The IMU is a single unit in the electronics module which collects angular velocity and linear acceleration data which is sent to the main processor.
Even though the IMU is not located at the vehicle center of mass, the angular rate measurements are not effected by linear or angular accelerations.
The accelerometer triad, and angular rate sensors within the IMU are mounted such that their sensor coordinate axes are not aligned with those of the vehicle.
www.ssl.umd.edu /projects/RangerNBV/thesis/2-4-1.htm   (640 words)

 Cool Cosmos
In astronomy, we often use angular measurements to describe the apparent size of an object in space and the apparent distances between objects.
The angular measure of an object is usually expressed in degrees, arcminutes or arcseconds.
To get a rough estimate of the angular size of objects in space, you can go out on clear night when the moon is up.
coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu /cosmic_classroom/cosmic_reference/angular.html   (224 words)

 Measuring Angles in the Sky
A minute of angular measurement is called a "minute of arc" and written as "arcminute", and abbreviated as "arcmin".
A second of angular measurement is in turn called a "second of arc" and written as "arcsecond" or "arcsec".
For example, the angular diameter of the (full) Moon is the angle measured at point O if the points A and B represent the North and South poles of the Moon.
www.geocities.com /angolano/Astronomy/PIinSky.html   (1381 words)

 NIST Calibration Services: Angular Measurements
Angle blocks are measured in an angle comparator system consisting of a special chamber and two autocollimators.
The wedge is inserted between the autocollimator and reflecting target and measured.
In this reversal technique the difference in the two measurements is equal to twice the actual angle.
ts.nist.gov /MeasurementServices/Calibrations/Angular.cfm   (678 words)

Angle measurement is a fundamental part of surveying field observations, as the combination of a direction and a distance gives a polar vector to a point and hence a unique location of that point in space.
The instruments that have been developed to facilitate angle (or direction) measurement are the magnetic compass, the sextant and the theodolite.
If I was to measure from Point A to Point B, and then from Point B back to Point A the difference in the bearings should be 180°.
www.sli.unimelb.edu.au /Horizons/Documents/angle.html   (799 words)

  - Cosmonautics on edge of Centuries
Navigating a spacecraft involves measuring its radial distance and velocity, the angular direction to it, and its velocity in the plane-of-sky.
The art of spacecraft navigation draws upon tracking data, which includes measurements of the Doppler shift of the downlink carrier and the pointing angles of DSN antennas.
This permits the measurement of the induced Doppler shift to within 1 Hz, since the uplink frequency is known with great precision.
library.thinkquest.org /C006381/SN.shtml   (1359 words)

 #PH140 - Angular Measurements with Goniometers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The SS20L is optimal for measuring angular rotation on the wrist or ankle.
The SS21L is commonly used to measure angular rotation on the elbow, knee and shoulder.
Measurements of pronation /supination may now be made from the grey plug.
www.biopac.com /AppNotes/app140goniometer/progoniometer.htm   (2711 words)

 Celestial navigation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The measured angle between the celestial object and the horizon is directly related to the distance between the subpoint and the observer, and this measurement is used to define a circle on the surface of the Earth called a celestial line of position (LOP).
The sextant and octant are most accurate because they measure angles from the horizon, eliminating errors caused by the placement of an instrument's pointers, and because their dual mirror system cancels relative motions of the instrument, showing a steady view of the object and horizon.
Latitude was measured in the past either at noon (the "noon sight") or from Polaris, the north star.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Stellar_navigation   (2330 words)

 Basics of Space Flight Section II. Space Flight Projects
Since the Earth's own orbital parameters and inherent motions are well known, the measurements we make of the spacecraft's motion as seen from Earth can be converted into the sun-centered or heliocentric orbital parameters needed to describe the spacecraft's trajectory.
Measurements of the Doppler shift of a coherent downlink carrier provide the radial component of a spacecraft's Earth-relative velocity.
While the angles at which the DSN antennas point are monitored with an accuracy of thousandths of a degree, they are not accurate enough to be used in determining a distant interplanetary spacecraft's position in the sky for navigation.
www2.jpl.nasa.gov /basics/bsf13-1.html   (2082 words)

 Astronomical Leage - Astro Note 11: Celestial Coordinate Systems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Since the celestial sphere appears as a two dimensional, curved surface, two angular measurements are required to specify one object's position relative to another.
Coordinates are then specified by angular measure around the great circle from the reference point and by angular distance from the reference plane along another great circle perpendicular to that plane.
That intersection where the Sun appears to cross the celestial equator from south to north is chosen as the reference point and is known as the vernal equinox.
www.astroleague.org /al/astrnote/astnot11.html   (607 words)

 GPS Information Center: What is Latitude And Logitude?
The equator is the imaginary line from which latitude is measured; it is equidistant from the poles, dividing the globe into the northern and southern hemispheres.
Latitude is the measured position north or south of the equator, and is expressed by angular measurements ranging from 0° at the equator to 90° at the poles.
Longitude is the measured position east or west of a the 'prime meridian', and is measured in angles ranging from 0° at the prime meridian to 180° at the International Date Line.
www.casanovasadventures.com /catalog/gps/p3030.htm   (859 words)

 Mapping REWHC Trails
Angular Measurement Error - Two flavors of angular measurement error are anticipated, one due to the accuracy of the sighting process itself and one due to the angular roundoff accumulations.
Since the person measuring and recording may be different, better accuracy is obtained if the recorder loudly and audibly repeats the called measurement for the measurer to hear.
The secondary bearings will be used, first adjusting for angular measurement at all points and computing loop closure error (assuming distance measurements accurate), then adjusting distance at all points and computing loop closure (assuming angular measurements accurate).
www.rewhc.org /trailmapping.shtml   (1108 words)

 Gyroscope Benefits of the Motus System
For example, using it, one can measure a hand tremor with the arm/hand held vertically or in a horizontal plane, yielding the same clear tremor measurement.
Furthermore, since the gyroscope measures true inertial angular rate it can, for example, be placed at either end or in the middle of a lower leg and achieve identically correct results.
Since the gyroscope measures angular rate in degrees per second, a simple integration will yield angular position.
www.motusbioengineering.com /gyroscope-benefits.htm   (459 words)

 Catalogue: J/A+A/386/492
The entries for the angular diameter and the upper limit should be mutually exclusive, and the error is not always given.
For LO measurements, this is often only the projected separation along the occultation PA. In case of multiplicity (triple and higher), only one entry is reported, without a specific rule.
In case of a multiple star, only one entry is present and the same considerations apply as for sep. Note on R: Brightness ratio (brighter to fainter), at the observation wavelength as reported in lambda and/or in the corresponding reference.
cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr /htbin/Cat?J/A+A/386/492   (1340 words)

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