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# Topic: Angular resolution

 Angular resolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Angular resolution describes the resolving power of any optical device such as a telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye. Thus it is worth bearing in mind that the Rayleigh criterion is an empirical estimate of resolution based on the assumption of a human observer, and may slightly underestimate the resolving power of a particular optical train. The highest angular resolutions can be achieved by arrays of telescopes called astronomical interferometers: these instruments can achieve angular resolutions of 0.001 arcsecond at optical wavelengths, and much higher resolutions at radio wavelengths. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Angular_resolution   (986 words)

 9.7 Astrophysics By definition the angular resolution of a telescope is the minimum angular separation between two equal point sources such that they can be just barely distinguished as separate sources. In simpler language, the angular resolution of a telescope is an angle that indicates the sharpness of the telescope’s image. The effective angular resolution of two such radio telescopes is equivalent to that of one gigantic dish with a diameter equal to the baseline, or distance between the two telescopes. webs.mn.catholic.edu.au /physics/emery/hsc_astrophysics.htm   (5881 words)

 Angular resolution The angular resolution of the detector depends on the neutrino for two reasons. The resolution thus obtained is shown in figure 5.7 for both the muon and the neutrino. Below about 10 TeV the resolution on the neutrino direction is dominated by the angle between the neutrino and the muon in the interaction, while above that energy it is limited by the accuracy of the muon reconstruction. www.nikhef.nl /~t61/proj/thesis/main/node82.html   (210 words)

 Astronomy & Electronics Centre Theoretically, the angular resolving power depends on both the wavelength at which observations are made and on the diameter, or aperture, of the telescope’s objective lens (refractor), or mirror (reflector). However, the linear resolution of a telescope system (or for that matter a spotting scope or photographic lens) is independent of its aperture, but depends on its focal ratio. 3) Linear resolution and sharpness are determined by a telescopic system’s focal ratio, not its aperture; and 4) Everything else being equal, an f/10 telescope, for example, should produce a sharper image on film than the one obtained from an f/4 instrument, regardless of the diameter of their respective mirror or objective lens. members.ozemail.com.au /~aecclaudio/article1.htm   (4043 words)

 Panoramic Resolution We prefer to use the focal length to define panorama resolution because it is a parameter that is central to the mathematics of projection, and is a well-defined for any panoramic image format. Panorama resolution defined in terms of the focal length happens to be the minimum angular pixel density for the panorama formats we consider here, when "square" pixels are used. Panoramic resolution is the angular pixel density expressed in units of pixels per degree as determined by the focal length. www.worldserver.com /turk/quicktimevr/panores.html   (981 words)

 Imaging the Surfaces of Stars Because red giant and supergiant stars present the largest angular diameters in the sky, they are the first stars apart from the Sun to have been imaged, albeit so far with angular resolution just sufficient to resolve their disks. The angular resolution of the VLTI which scales inversely with wavelength is shown across the top of the graph. Because of the common angular resolution and the common sensitivity to thermal sources the most obvious science overlap is in the study of stellar surfaces. www.ras.ucalgary.ca /SKA/science/node14.html   (2290 words)

 Space angle resolution From simulation of signal, the median of the space angle uncertainty is 3.3 degrees (figure 18) using the cuts in table 2. Since the sky is binned in zenith and azimuth, the corresponding error in each angular variable is determined for zenith and azimuth by the Monte Carlo (figure 19). The measured angular resolution is detector limited so AMANDA-II should be better, and further improvements in B10 analysis may improve the angular resolution. www.ps.uci.edu /~youngs/pointsource/node15.html   (399 words)

 General Information Recent years have seen an explosive growth in the capabilities for high angular resolution astronomical observations at all wavelength regimes, from the x-rays to the radio. In particular, high angular resolution observations have begun to play a vital role in studies of the star formation process, providing new insights and testing physical models. High spatial resolution is necessary to separate the different environmental regimes within the clouds from one another, and to determine their relation with one another. www.phys.unsw.edu.au /iau221   (1276 words)

 Resolution In the last half of a millisecond before bounce, insufficient resolution of the energy phase space leads to a poor representation of the Fermi energy in the degenerate neutrino gas when the trapped neutrinos are compressed to high densities. The entropy in the high energy resolution run carries the slight enhancement from before, overlapped by a slightly narrower and deeper cooling at the launch of the neutrino burst. Note that the apparent difference in the run with higher energy resolution is not a real difference, it stems from an insufficient time match between the output files and shows the rapidly decaying luminosity profile at a slightly earlier time. www.cita.utoronto.ca /~liebend/transport/node25.html   (821 words)

 High Angular Resolution-The A+ Configuration These will (a) increase the resolution of the VLA at all frequencies and enlarge the range of resolutions over which it has ``scaled-array capability", (b) improve the dynamic range, field of view and extended-source sensitivity of the VLBA, and (c) provide the VLBA with a ``scaled-array" capability similar to the VLA's, which it presently lacks. Sub-arc-second resolution observations with the present VLA are possible only at the higher frequencies where the brightness sensitivity needed to detect nonthermal phenomena may be inadequate because of the source spectra. This resolution falls squarely in the ``uncovered gap" between the VLA and VLBA at just the frequencies where imaging would be least corrupted by atmospheric and ionospheric phenomena. www.cv.nrao.edu /vla/upgrade/node12.html   (676 words)

 Multiwavelength Milky Way Definitions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18) Angular resolution is a measure of the angular size of the smallest object that can be distinguished by a telescope. The angular diameter is the angle that is subtended by the diameter of an object. A resolution element is the depiction of the smallest object resolved by the instrument, scaled to the image size. adc.gsfc.nasa.gov /mw/mmw_define.html   (441 words)

 Diffraction Limited Resolution All telescopes have an inherent limitation to their angular resolution due to the diffraction of light at the telescope's aperture. The limit for the telescope's resolution is set by the diffraction at the aperture of the telescope. The Rayleigh criterion for resolution of two point sources is that the central maximum of one images lies at the first minimum of the second image (Figure 2). www.pha.jhu.edu /~jlotz/aoptics/node2.html   (399 words)

 Introduction to High Resolution Spectroscopy - Angular momemtum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18) Angular momentum is similarly a measure of how difficult it is to stop a particle moving in a circle. The angular momentum is shown by the fl arrow. It similarly has magnitude, which depends on how fast the ball is orbiting and is represented by the length of the arrow, and direction, represented by the arrow. www.hull.ac.uk /chemistry/spectroscopy/angular_momentum.php   (254 words)

 Virtual Reality / VR and 3D graphics resource - VResources   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18) For the human, the maximum angular resolution of the eye is around 1 arc minute for the smallest point that can be seen (it can be as little as 1/3 minutes of arc per pixel in some specific circumstances). Ideally, the angular resolution for a given HMD helmet should be lower than 4.43 minutes of arc per pixel. Even if we consider the angular resolution and the field of view (FOV) of a HMD, it is still difficult to really visualize the general value of a HMD with an other. vresources.org /articles/vre_articles/analyhmd/analysis.htm   (2775 words)

 [25.02] The Universe at High Angular Resolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18) Sub-milliarsecond resolution in the UV-optical domain, combined with the unique spectral diagnostics available at these wavelengths, will be an invaluable resource for many areas of astrophysical research in the 21st century. Increasing the angular resolution to the sub-milliarsecond level will result in an advance of at least two orders of magnitude compared to that provided by HST and will lead to unprecedented opportunities for astrophysical studies of the observable Universe. Simultanous attainment of ultra high resolution and observation of faint objects is technically very difficult, and the inevitable compromises must be driven by the science goals. www.aas.org /publications/baas/v36n2/aas204/87.htm   (137 words)

 L2S4 We characterize the angular resolution by the smallest angle that can be discerned in an image. The angular resolution is proportional to the ratio of the wavelength of the radiation divided by the telescope aperture (see text, pp. Fourth, the angular resolution of a large ground-based telescope is limited by the distortion of light waves by the Earth's atmosphere. super.colorado.edu /~astr1020/L2S4.htm   (1061 words)

 Re: image resolution limits The fundamental limit of optical resolution is determined by the wavelength of light that is used to illuminate the object. This point is about 25 centimeters (10inches) from the typical unaided human eye and the angular resolution of the eye at this point is about 1/60 degree (.0167 degree). The measured angular resolution published on the web pages is very close to the theoretical limit given by equation 2. www.madsci.org /posts/archives/may97/864446241.Ph.r.html   (2021 words)

 Time Calibration Study for Anita Lite In this report, we describe the analysis procedure of the calibration data and show the results on the time resolution, its amplitude dependency, the correlation between time and azimuthal angle, the angular resolution of the ANITA-Lite and expectation of the angular resolution for the ANITA-Heavy detector. The 0.17 ns of time resolution on the cross-polarization on the antenna 1 should be near the optimal value for the 4 sigmas threshold. Of course, it is vitally important to differentiate events initiated in the ice from those produced in the atmosphere, a task that increases in difficultly toward the horizon. www.ps.uci.edu /~jwnam/anita/timecal/tcal.html   (1073 words)

 Astronomy 1, Solutions : Assignment #7 The angular resolution is proportional to the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation. angular resolution = 0.25 (1/50) = 0.005" arc The telescopes use eyepieces with focal lengths of 7mm, 12mm, and 25mm. plato.acadiau.ca /courses/phys/1513/Assign07.htm   (1028 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18) The angular resolution of a given telescope is theoretically limited by diffraction [1]. However, for telescopes mounted on the ground, the experimental angular resolution does not approach the theoretical boundary. Therefore, the angular resolution of a 10 m telescope is the same as that of a 10 cm telescope, about 1 arc-second [2]. www.phy.duke.edu /ugrad/thesis/crawford/ThesisChapter1.doc   (3672 words)

 Lightfield Photography This paper explores the fundamental tradeoff between spatial resolution and angular resolution that is inherent to integral photography. We argue that for many real-world scenes it is beneficial to sacrifice angular resolution for higher spatial resolution. The missing angular resolution is then interpolated using techniques from computer vision. www.cs.washington.edu /homes/kzheng/research/lfcam.shtml   (199 words)

 Angular resolution However, the angular resolution plays a larger role in the mass measurement when the photons are at large rapidity, so in order to minimize the number of channels, the presampler is finely segmented only for In the end-caps, the lever arm for the angular measurement is smaller, and the resulting vertex resolution in z, even with a finely segmented presampler, is not much better than the size of the interaction diamond. Hence, it was concluded that a presampler is not needed in the end-caps. atlas.web.cern.ch /Atlas/TP/NEW/HTML/tp9new/node106.html   (497 words)

 ESA - Space Science - Home - Observations: Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18) The angular resolution of a particular telescope depends on two main parameters: its diameter and the wavelength of the signal it is receiving. The angular resolution of the resulting image is as good as that obtained from a single antenna with a diameter equal to the largest separation (or ‘baseline’) between the individual antennas. The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique – the ultimate case of interferometry – was originally developed in the 1960s by astronomers who were seeking ways to push the angular resolution of radio telescopes to the limits for studies of distant celestial objects. www.esa.int /esaSC/SEM8FUXDE2E_index_2.html   (395 words)

 WMAP Observatory_Angular Resolution The priority for the WMAP space mission is to map the entire sky with > 0.3° angular resolution where the cosmological return is high, and the data cannot be readily obtained in any other way. The WMAP optics feature back to back 1.4 m x 1.6 m primary reflectors which lead to an angular resolution of < 0.25° in the highest frequency (90 GHz) channel. The following table gives the angular resolution to be obtained from each of the five WMAP frequency bands. map.gsfc.nasa.gov /m_mm/ob_techres.html   (196 words)

 Image Complexity, Angular Resolution and Observing Time In addition to the well-known trade-off between observing time and sensitivity, we have trade-offs with maximum resolution and with the sampling interval in the visibility plane. The choice of angular resolution is fairly straightforward. Increased angular resolution (resulting from longer baselines) leaves the point-source sensitivity constant, but decreases brightness sensitivity in proportion to the beam area (see Table 2). www.atnf.csiro.au /people/lstavele/ca_obs_guide/node16.html   (447 words)

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