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Topic: Anomalous cosmic ray

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In the News (Wed 20 Mar 19)

  Cosmic Ray K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects
In astrophysics, cosmic rays are radiation consisting of energetic particles originating beyond the Earth that impinge on the Earth's atmosphere.
Cosmic rays are composed mainly of ionized nuclei, roughly 87% protons, 12% alpha particles (helium nuclei) and most of the rest being made up of heavier atomic nuclei.
Cosmic rays, also known as cosmic particles, were initially believed to originate in radioactive isotopes in the ground.
www.juliantrubin.com /encyclopedia/astronomy/cosmicrays.html   (1137 words)

Scientists have found that a portion of anomalous cosmic rays -- charged particles accelerated to enormous energies by the solar wind -- results from interactions with grains from a belt of comet-sized objects near Pluto's orbit.
Recent observations of anomalous cosmic rays are puzzling because of the unexpected presence of iron, silicon and carbon.
The solar wind then sweeps them out and accelerates them to anomalous cosmic ray energies at the edge of the solar system, where they are bounced to and fro by magnetic fields in the solar wind and in the medium beyond the solar system, according to Schwadron.
www.newswise.com /articles/view/?id=COSMIC.MIE   (875 words)

 Cosmic ray Summary
Incoming galactic cosmic rays are scattered on magnetic irregularities in the solar wind, resulting in "solar modulation" of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum.
The energy density in cosmic rays in the galactic disk is comparable to that found in starlight and in the galactic magnetic field, and therefore must play an important, if so far poorly understood, role in the cycle of star formation.
Secondary cosmic rays are particles produced within Earth's atmosphere as a result of collisions between primary cosmic rays and molecules in the atmosphere.
www.bookrags.com /Cosmic_ray   (5418 words)

 The Solar Isotope Spectrometer
This so-called "anomalous cosmic ray" (ACR) component is now thought to represent neutral interstellar particles that have drifted into the heliosphere, become ionized by the solar wind or UV radiation, and then been accelerated to energies >10 MeV/nucleon, most likely at the solar wind termination shock.
Note that the ACR (lower energy) Ne isotopic ratio is lower than it is in galactic cosmic rays, implying that the GCRs contain a component rich in 22Ne.
Measurements of anomalous cosmic rays, free from contamination of solar and interplanetary particles at lower energy and free from GCR contamination at higher energies are best made in the energy interval from ~5 to 25 MeV/nucleon, where the flux is a decreasing function of energy.
www.srl.caltech.edu /ACE/CRIS_SIS/sis.html   (964 words)

 New theory resolves mystery of anomalous cosmic rays -- Gerard's place
These cosmic rays, among the most energetic particle radiation in the solar system, are thought to be produced at the termination shock -- the boundary at the edge of the solar system where the million-mile-per-hour solar wind abruptly slows.
McComas and Schwadron say that understanding the role of the termination shock's shape in the energization of anomalous cosmic rays may be a stepping stone to understanding the influence of shock shapes for energization of particle radiation throughout the cosmos.
The production of anomalous cosmic rays requires a connection to the termination shock (the point where it's pierced by the magnetic field line) and the ability for energetic particles to reside near that connection for up to about a year.
www.voy.com /202927/10.html   (2141 words)

 Cosmic rays [Oulu]
Cosmic ray particles are travelling very close to the speed of light, and the most energetic particle ever observed had about 20 Joules of kinetic energy (equivalent to the energy of a fast shot ball).
As a cosmic ray enters the atmosphere, it will collide with a particle in there (usually a nitrogen or oxygen molecule), or interact with the molecules, exciting them and thus causing an outer space influence upon the Earth's environment.
Cosmic rays are creating the same, harmfull effects in near space around the Earth as are the radiation belts and, in addition, affect radio communication in polar regions (see also space weather).
www.oulu.fi /~spaceweb/textbook/crays.html   (349 words)

 Anomalous cosmic ray - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
When electrically neutral atoms are able to enter the heliosheath (being unaffected by its magnetic fields) subsequently become ionized, they are thought to be accelerated into low-energy cosmic rays by the solar wind's termination shock which marks the inner edge of the heliosheath.
It is also possible that high energy galactic cosmic rays which hit the shock front of the solar wind near the heliopause might be decelerated, resulting in their transformation into lower-energy anomalous cosmic rays.
Anomalous cosmic ray hydrogen spectra from Voyager 1 and 2
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Anomalous_cosmic_ray   (258 words)

 SPACE.com -- Comet Collisions Help Generate Puzzling Cosmic Rays, Study Shows
Anomalous cosmic rays are so named because they form in the relative vicinity of the Earth, near the sun, and have lower energy than galactic and intergalactic cosmic rays, which form in the far reaches of the galaxy and beyond.
Cosmic rays move throughout the universe at light speed and constantly bombard the Earth.
The solar wind then sweeps them out and accelerates them to anomalous cosmic ray energies at the edge of the solar system, where they are bounced to and fro by magnetic fields in the solar wind and in the medium beyond the solar system, Schwadron said.
www.space.com /scienceastronomy/comet_collisions_021105.html   (701 words)

 ACE Browse Parameter Information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
CRIS measurements of the flux of cosmic ray nuclei with nuclear charge Z>=10 and kinetic energy from ~100 to ~400 MeV/nuc are derived from the counting rate of Ne to Ni nuclei (nuclear charge 10<=Z<=28) that stop in the four CRIS "telescopes", each composed of fifteen 3-mm thick solid state detectors.
These particles have energies at the approximate maximum of the galactic cosmic ray energy spectrum (as measured at 1 AU) and they are expected to vary relatively slowly over the 11-year solar cycle, in approximate anti-correlation with the sunspot number.
Anomalous cosmic rays originate from interstellar neutral particles that are swept into the heliosphere, ionized, picked up by the solar wind and carried to the solar wind termination shock, where they are accelerated to energies of ~1 to ~50 MeV/nuc.
www.astro.wisc.edu /astro114/ACE/ASC/browse/browse_info.html   (2875 words)

 Voyager Journeys to Interstellar Space
A cosmic ray particle, which is ionized, scatters off of the magnetic irregularities, bouncing back and forth like a ping-pong ball.
Cosmic rays are most effectively swept out when the sun is most active during its 11-year cycle.
So you would expect that during minimum solar activity, the cosmic ray flux intensity would not be much different closer to the sun than it is at their source.
pr.caltech.edu /periodicals/EandS/articles/LXVI/stone.html   (4144 words)

 The Reappearance of Anomalous Cosmic Ray Hydrogen (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Comparison of the anomalous and galactic cosmic ray modulation for the two solar minima indicates that there is substantial modulation of the...
14.5%: Observations of Anomalous Cosmic Ray Hydrogen from the..
Observations of Anomalous Cosmic Ray Hydrogen from the..
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /463086.html   (269 words)

 WIND Instrument Descriptions
To study acceleration, composition and transport of energetic particle populations, including particles from solar flares, particles accelerated in interplanetary shocks, and the anomalous component and galactic cosmic rays.
Cosmic gamma-ray bursts are among the most violent and energetic processes known to exist in nature, characteristically emitting most of their luminosity at gamma-ray wavelengths.
The detector is a 215 cubic cm high purity n-type germanium crystal of dimensions: 6.7 cm (diameter) X 6.1 cm (length), radiatively colled to 85 degrees K. The germanium serves as a reaction medium for incoming gamma rays, which, depending on their energy, are either stopped by or passed through the detector crystal.
www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov /istp/wind/wind_inst.html   (2618 words)

Cosmic Rays are atomic nuclei (generally protons) and electrons that are observed to collide with the Earth's atmosphere with exceedingly high energies.
The intensity of the Intergalactic particles and the cosmic radiation that affect the Earth depends on the intensity of the SW.
The trends of the intensity of Intergalactic Cosmic Rays, the Nucleons of Helium of the Intergalactic Cosmic Rays and the Variability of the tropospheric temperature have common characteristics toward the increase.
biocab.org /Cosmic_Rays_Graph.html   (1519 words)

 Science -- Stone 293 (5527): 55
These anomalous cosmic rays diffuse and drift inward from the shock, establishing an intensity gradient that provides a fourth method for estimating the shock distance.
A related study used the duration of a transient inward flow of anomalous cosmic rays, leading to a shock distance of 88.5 ± 7 AU (16).
The Cosmic and Heliospheric Learning Center provides a definition of anomalous cosmic rays as well as a presentation on cosmic rays with a section on anomalous cosmic rays.
members.tripod.com /ajDubre/Physics-2/EdgeInterstellarSpace/55.html   (3541 words)

 Spaceflight Now | Breaking News | Kuiper Belt implicated in cosmic rays mystery
Recent observations of anomalous cosmic rays are puzzling because of the unexpected presence of iron, silicon and carbon, notes Schwadron.
As the grains produced by collisions in the Kuiper Belt drift in toward the sun, they are bombarded by solar wind particles, which causes sputtering and frees the carbon, silicon and iron atoms from within.
Cosmic rays, the most energetic particles in the cosmos, move throughout the universe at light speed and constantly bombard the Earth.
spaceflightnow.com /news/n0211/02cosmic   (1125 words)

The cygnets were not charged cosmic particles since they are affected by the galactic magnetic field which randomizes their directional flow and ruins any chances of ascertaining their astronomical source, which can only be determined if they correlate with activity in other frequencies that might contain a known periodicity or direction.
Thus in order to determine point sources of cosmic rays it is better to examine neutral particles, which retain their primary trajectory across the galaxy and when travelling at relativistic speeds will also retain their unique signature, which has been the case with Cygnus X-3 and Hercules X-1.
In order to send cosmic rays in the Earth's direction with the solar region being significantly inside the limit to the probability distribution has been estimated to be about 0.5 radian (Meinel, private communication, 11 July 2006).
www.andrewcollins.com /page/articles/thecygnusmystery_cygnusx3.htm   (4739 words)

 Dr. Eric Christian
Cosmic rays give us one of our few direct sources of material from outside the solar system.
His primary observational interest is in galactic cosmic ray isotopic composition and cosmic ray antimatter.
solar system, called anomalous cosmic rays, solar modulation of cosmic rays (the solar wind blows a bubble that keeps out low energy cosmic rays) and a puzzle in solar modulation called the charge-sign asymmetry problem.
imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov /docs/features/bios/christian/eric_c.html   (1197 words)

 News and Views From The Electric Universe
Anomalous cosmic rays are supposed to come from the Termination Shock--but Voyager 1 found otherwise.
Researchers expected Voyager 1 to encounter the greatest number of anomalous cosmic rays at the inner boundary of the heliosheath "because that's where we thought anomalous cosmic rays were produced." Surprise: Voyager crossed the boundary in December 2004 and there was no spike in cosmic rays.
However, the most interesting effect may be found in the "cathode drop" region to the left of the voltage peak, where the powerful electric field has been estimated to accelerate solar wind protons away from the Sun at cosmic ray energies of the order of 10 billion electron volts.
www.holoscience.com /news.php?article=8y4g4zng   (2188 words)

 Ulysses - Science - Bibliography
"Cosmic Rays at All Latitudes in the Inner Heliosphere" in "The Heliosphere near solar minimum: the Ulysses perspective", A. Balogh, R.G. Marsden, and E.J. Smith (Eds)., Springer, pp.
Rigidity Dependence of Cosmic Ray Proton Latitudinal Gradients Measured by the Ulysses Spacecraft: Implications for the Diffusion Tensor, J. Geophys.
The cosmic ray radial and latitudinal intensity gradients in the inner and outer heliosphere 1996-2001.
ulysses.jpl.nasa.gov /science/bibliography/cospin.html   (3210 words)

 MAST paper, from IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 31, No. 3, May 1993
This so-called "anomalous cosmic ray" (ACR) component is now thought to represent a sample of neutral interstellar particles that have drifted into the heliosphere, become ionized by the solar wind or UV radiation and then are accelerated to energies up to tens of MeV/nuc [10].
An important prediction of this model is that anomalous cosmic rays should be singly ionized, in comparison to galactic cosmic rays which are essentially fully stripped.
This trapping, which was predicted by Blake and Friesen [18], apparently occurs when a singly-charged anomalous cosmic ray with a rigidity somewhat above the geomagnetic cutoff penetrates deeply into the magnetosphere and loses some or all of its remaining electrons in the upper atmosphere, such that its resulting rigidity is suddenly below the trapping limit.
www.srl.caltech.edu /sampex/mast.html   (4141 words)

 New Hypothesis Tackles Cosmic Ray Mystery
The area is called the termination shock, and the Voyager 1 spacecraft passed through the blunt nose of the region in December 2004 without detecting the phenomenon, called anomalous cosmic rays.
The problem was that the rays, among the most powerful particle radiation in the solar system, were mostly no-shows at the termination shock, and therefore Voyager 1's data rendered 20 years of predictions about them wrong.
Production of anomalous cosmic rays requires a connection to a point at the termination shock that is pierced by a magnetic field line, and the ability of energetic particles to reside near that connection for up to about a year.
www.spacedaily.com /reports/New_Hypothesis_Tackles_Cosmic_Ray_Mystery.html   (1144 words)

 NRL - Cosmic-ray Physics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
NRL began studies of cosmic rays in 1949.
NRL's principal vehicle for studying cosmic rays, however, was the Skyhook balloon, a 10-million-cubic-foot plastic balloon that carried detectors to an altitude of 140,000 feet.
The HIIS detectors were mounted on the space-facing end of the LDEF and comprised large stacks of plastic track detectors with a total geometry factor of 2.0 m2-sr.
www.nrl.navy.mil /content.php?P=COSMICRAY   (286 words)

 [No title]
At SRL the study of energetic particles in interplanetary space encompasses Galactic cosmic rays, coming from outside the Solar System; solar energetic particles coming from the Sun; and a relatively new component called "anomalous" cosmic rays, which consists of the neutral (un-ionized) local interstellar material accelerated in the outer heliosphere.
The SRL group has developed the anomalous cosmic rays into a tool for studying the acceleration and transport of energetic particles within the Solar System, for deducing the global properties of the heliosphere, and for studying the nature of interstellar material itself.
Recent studies of the radial dependence of anomalous cosmic rays between Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 indicates that the termination shock location varies from ~65 AU to ~85 AU with increasing solar activity.
www.pma.caltech.edu /~donnad/GSR/hiengast.html   (1598 words)

 ScienceDaily: New Theory Resolves Mystery Of Anomalous Cosmic Rays
Some Cosmic Rays Originate Within Solar System, Researchers Find (October 31, 2002) -- Researchers have found that a portion of anomalous cosmic rays -- charged particles accelerated to enormous energies by the solar wind -- results from interactions with dust grains from a belt of...
Cosmic Ray History Encoded In Abundances Of Light Elements (June 1, 1999) -- By taking a closer look at two of the lightest elements in the universe, a University of Illinois scientist is helping to solve a mystery that lies at the intersection of cosmology, cosmic rays and...
Possible Origin Of Cosmic Rays Revealed With Gamma Rays (November 5, 2004) -- An international team of astronomers has produced the first ever image of an astronomical object using high energy gamma rays, helping to solve a 100 year old mystery - an origin of cosmic rays.
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2006/02/060221092918.htm   (2411 words)

 On the mechanism of anomalous cosmic-ray nuclear interactions with photoemulsion nuclei
The mechanism of the formation of anomalous relativistic ion interactions is analysed on the basis of the modified nuclear pionisation model.
Anomalous interactions are shown to occur in heavy-ion collisions at energies greater than approximately 10 GeV/nucleon.
It is found that the existing selection criterion for central collisions is inapplicable in such an energy range and for heavy projectiles.
stacks.iop.org /0305-4616/10/1311   (246 words)

The primary scientific objectives are to measure the elemental and isotopic composition of solar energetic particles, anomalous cosmic rays, and galactic cosmic rays over the energy range from ~1 to several hundred MeV per nucleon.
Discovery that the interplanetary spectrum of anomalous oxygen extends to at least 100 MeV/nucleon, implying that the ACR acceleration mechanism (termination shock?) accelerates particles to at least 1.6 GeV.
Discovery (in collaboration with Voyager, Ulysses, and Pioneer spacecraft) that the intensity of ACR oxygen ions increases with heliolatitude during the 1993 approach to solar minimum, in contrast to the opposite behavior observed at the previous solar minimum; this confirms predictions of one class of particle transport theories which include particle drift.
sunland.gsfc.nasa.gov /smex/sampex/mission   (1375 words)

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