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Topic: Antarctic Treaty

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  Antarctic Treaty System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all land and ice shelves south of the southern 60th parallel.
The treaty was signed by 12 countries, including the United States and the Soviet Union, and set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation and banned military activity on that continent.
The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement prevents development and provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental impact assessments, waste management, and protected areas.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Antarctic_Treaty   (1191 words)

Activities shall be planned and conducted in the Antarctic Treaty area so as to accord priority to scientific research and to preserve the value of Antarctica as an area for the conduct of such research, including research essential to understanding the global environment.
The Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings shall draw the attention of any State which is not a Party to this Protocol to any activity undertaken by that State, its agencies, instrumentalities, natural or juridical persons, ships, aircraft or other means of transport which affects the implementation of the objectives and principles of this Protocol.
Wastes removed from the Antarctic Treaty area shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be returned to the country from which the activities generating the waste were organized or to any other country in which arrangements have been made for the disposal of such wastes in accordance with relevant international agreements.
sedac.ciesin.org /entri/texts/antarctic.treaty.protocol.1991.html   (6651 words)

 Introducing The Antarctic Treaty
The Antarctic Treaty was signed in Washington on 1 December 1959 by the twelve nations that had been active during the IGY (Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States and USSR).
In 1991, on the thirtieth anniversary of the Treaty, the parties recognised the continuing strength and relevance of the Treaty by adopting a declaration recording their determination to maintain and strengthen the Treaty and to protect Antarctica's environmental and scientific values.
Visitors to the Antarctic should ensure that they are familiar with the legal requirements that apply to them - for example, the applicable laws may be those of the country where the expedition is being planned, or the country from which the expedition departs.
www-old.aad.gov.au /information/treaty/treaty.asp   (2721 words)

 Antarctic Treaty Information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The Antarctic Treaty governs the actions of people in Antarctica.
preamble signed the Antarctic Treaty on 1 December 1959 at Washington, D.C. The Treaty entered into force on 23 June 1961; the 12 signatories became the original 12 consultative nations.
Additional meetings within the Antarctic Treaty system have produced agreements on conservation of seals, conservation of living resources, and comprehensive environmental protection.
www.antarcticconnection.com /antarctic/treaty/index.shtml   (340 words)

 Antarctic Treaty
Besides the ban on mining, the Antarctic Environmental Protocol designates the whole continent and its ecosystems as a "natural reserve devoted to peace and science." Antarctica is the world's last great wilderness, a continent of remarkable beauty and a vital international scientific laboratory.
The Antarctic Treaty has demilitarised the continent but, ironically, the best-equipped personnel for transport over rough terrain are the military forces of the various countries conducting scientific research.
The 1980 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources was negotiated in response to large-scale trawling for fin fish and krill (shrimp-like creatures) during the 1960s and 1970s.
www.dhushara.com /book/diversit/extra/antarc.htm   (1320 words)

 Australian Antarctic Division - A Remarkable Agreement
The Treaty avoided the stumbling block of sovereignty disputes by declaring that during the Treaty no acts would constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica.
The Protocol, which came into force in 1998, was the culmination of a growing concern among the parties to the Antarctic Treaty about the global importance of the antarctic environment and the need to protect it from the effects of increasing human antarctic activity.
In 1964 the Antarctic Treaty parties recognised the importance of conservation measures in the Antarctic by initiating the "Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora".
www.aad.gov.au /?casid=2416   (1355 words)

 Antarctic Treaty Documents - History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The Antarctic Treaty was signed on December 1, 1959, by Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Great Britain, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, the USSR and the United States of America.
Two major accomplishments of the Antarctic Treaty were to preserve Antarctica for peaceful purposes and to avoid a confrontation among the claimant states on the issue of territorial claims.
The Antarctic Convergence is the fluctuating border between the Antarctic and Southern Oceans, the boundary where the cold Antarctic waters meet the warmer northern waters.
users.erols.com /jackbobo/History.htm   (1332 words)

 Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development: Antarctic Treaty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Part of this process has reference to regulations embodied in other international treaties such as the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78), relating to control of marine pollution in the Antarctic Treaty area.
The Treaty and its various component instruments contain requirements that activities in the region be based on scientific advice.
Treaty publications are available nationally from the relevant government department of the Parties.
www.greenyearbook.org /agree/nat-con/antarc.htm   (1296 words)

 Antarctic Treaty System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
are not yet signatories to the treaty, and whose...
The treaty was signed by 12 countries, including the United States and the Soviet Union, and set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and banned military activity on that continent.
The Antarctic Treaty System's yearly Consultative Meetings are the international forum for management of the region.
www.wikiverse.org /antarctic-treaty-system   (586 words)

 The Antarctic Treaty 1 Dec 1959
Reports from the observers referred to in Article VII of the present Treaty shall be transmitted to the representatives of the Contracting Parties participating in the meetings referred to in paragraph 1 of the present Article.
The present Treaty shall be registered by the depositary Government pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
Article XIV The present Treaty, done in the English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each version being equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America, which shall transmit duly certified copies thereof to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States.
sedac.ciesin.org /entri/texts/acrc/at.txt.html   (1454 words)

 Australian Antarctic Division - Antarctic Law & Treaty
There are sections on how the Treaty deals with Antarctic territorial claims, including claims by Australia, other international agreements such as the Law of the Sea, and the annual round of Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (ATCM).
Treaty Partners outlines the interests of the 45 countries that have become parties to the Antarctic Treaty since 1961.
Madrid Protocol was created under the Antarctic Treaty System in 1991 to make certain mutually agreed resolutions on the environment legally binding upon member nations.
www.aad.gov.au /?casid=76   (255 words)

 SCAR » Antarctic Treaty
The Antarctic Treaty System is the whole complex of arrangements made for the purpose of regulating relations among states in the Antarctic.
The original Parties to the Treaty were the 12 nations active in the Antarctic during the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58.
The Treaty is augmented by Recommendations adopted at Consultative Meetings, by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Madrid, 1991), and by two separate conventions dealing with the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (London 1972), and the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (Canberra 1980).
www.scar.org /treaty   (321 words)

 Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade: Antarctic Division - Antarctic Treaty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The Antarctic Treaty was signed in 1959 by the twelve nations that had been active in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year (Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States and USSR).
The primary purpose of the Antarctic Treaty is to ensure “in the interests of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord”.
A key element of the Treaty is its Article IV, the effect of which is to set aside potential sovereignty disputes between Treaty Parties by providing that previously asserted positions with respect to territorial claims to Antarctica can be neither enhanced nor diminished during the Treaty’s life.
www.mfat.govt.nz /foreign/antarctica/treaty/antarctictreaty.html   (457 words)

 The Antarctic Treaty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
A land which the Antarctic Treaty parties call a natural reserve, devoted to peace and science.
The Antarctic Treaty came into force on 23 June 1961 after ratification by the twelve countries then active in Antarctic science.
This introduction to the Antarctic Treaty was adopted at the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting in Peru, May/June 1999.
www.antarctica.ac.uk /About_Antarctica/Treaty   (350 words)

Despite constituting the central Antarctic governing agreement, the scope of the Antarctic Treaty remains somewhat ambiguous because Article IV provides that the treaty applies to the Antarctic continent and its ice shelves, but does not affect rights over the high seas surrounding Antarctica.
At the same time, it is axiomatic that protection of the Antarctic environment depends on consensus among the Antarctic Treaty parties and all nations engaging in mineral activities on the continent subscribing to agreed-upon safeguards if adverse environmental impacts are to be minimized.
All that is needed is an Antarctic Treaty System suited for the unique problems and opportunities certain to arise once the oil begins to flow and capable of peacefully carrying the Consultative Parties and the rest of the world into the Antarctica of tomorrow.
www.law.fsu.edu /journals/landuse/Vol132/Ward.htm   (14385 words)

 CIA - The World Factbook -- Antarctica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial operators and British and Russian national expeditions began exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of the Antarctic Circle.
In order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in 1959, it entered into force in 1961.
the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes
www.cia.gov /cia/publications/factbook/geos/ay.html   (619 words)

 US Department of State Bulletin: The success of the Antarctic Treaty - John D. Negroponte's address before the Center ...
Through their operation, Antarctica is an effective zone of peace-is, perhaps, the only region of the planet in which one can say that the principles and purposes of the UN Charter have, in fact, been realized in practice.
In a wonderfully imaginative stroke, article IV of the treaty allows the activities in Antarctica to go forward, in spite of the territorial claims of some and the lack of assertion or recognition of claims by others.
Last but not least, the treaty parties have succeeded in cooperating in respect to this ice-covered continent, in spite of frequent and often acute bilateral differences between them on other matters.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m1079/is_v87/ai_5107233   (1187 words)

 Fact Sheet: The Antarctic Treaty System
The foundation for this system is the Antarctic Treaty, which became effective in 1961.
Article IV clarifies that the Treaty does not repudiate any existing claim, but it prohibits their assertion as well as the establishment of new claims.
Antarctic Treaty System, An Assessment, 1986, Proceedings of a Workshop Held at Beardmore South Field Camp, Antarctica, January 7-13, 1985, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Auburn, F.M., 1982, Antarctic Law and Politics, C. Hurst and Co.
www.asoc.org /general/ats.htm   (906 words)

 Antarctic Time Line of Discovery
It is nearly impossible to exhibit a detailed chronology of exploration in the Antarctic region simply due to the fact that there have been over 300 expeditions to the Antarctic mainland, not to mention the subantarctic islands.
Unfortunately, their ship Antarctic was crushed in the ice pack after leaving the crew on the island thereby creating two separate groups of explorers.
The treaty was framed as an agreement so the continent "shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes".
www.south-pole.com /p0000052.htm   (2085 words)

 Antarctic Treaty
The Antarctic Treaty consists of fourteen articles concerning with the protection and conservation of Antarctica.
ARTICLE IX - The Treaty declares that the signatories meet periodically so that the discussion of the use of Antarctica for peaceful purposes, the facilitation for scientific research, the facilitation of international scientific cooperation, and the preservation and conservation of living resources can be met to the standards set by the Treaty
In 1972 a law was produced for the protection and survival of the Antarctic Seals.
www.geocities.com /mhdogz/anttreaty.html   (590 words)

 New Zealand Antarctic Heritage Trust: preservation of Antarctic heritage   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The Ross Sea huts constructed by successive British Antarctic expeditions represent the earliest intact buildings remaining on Earth’s southernmost continent, dating from the heroic age of Antarctic exploration.
Although intended only for each expedition’s immediate needs, they have survived around a century of Antarctic blizzards, and constitute an exceptional example of heritage of this remarkable period of human endeavour.
The Antarctic Heritage Trust, a New Zealand based charity, exists to conserve those expedition bases on behalf of the international community.
www.heritage-antarctica.org /index.cfm   (303 words)

 Antarctic Treaty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The Antarctic Treaty internationalized and demilitarized the Antarctic Continent and provided for its cooperative exploration and future use.
No insurmountable conflicts or issues divided the conference, and negotiations culminated in a treaty signed by all 12 nations on December 1, 1959.
Approved by the U.S. Senate, U.S. ratification was deposited August 18, 1960, and the treaty entered intoforce on June 23, 1961,.
fas.org /nuke/control/antarctic   (95 words)

 [No title]
South Afrcian chair of the International Antartic Treaty consultative meeting (ATCM) announced the appointment of an executive secretary of the antarctic treaty and the accession of Ukraine as a new consultative party to the treaty
WEDNESDAY, 26 MAY 2004: The chairperson of the 27th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM), South Africa's Horst Kleinschmidt, who heads the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism's Marine and Coastal Management Branch, made two important announcements today, Thursday 26 May 2004 at the 27th ATCM in Cape Town.
Ukraine was also admitted this morning as the 28th Consultative Member country to the Antarctic Treaty.
www.environment.gov.za /NewsMedia/MedStat/2004May26/antarticTreaty_26052004.html   (270 words)

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