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Topic: Antenna biology


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  One gene provides fruit fly both antenna and color vision
Ian Duncan, Washington University professor of biology, and his wife, research assistant Dianne Duncan, provided the Desplan laboratory fruit fly (Drosophila) clones and mutants and technical assistance that helped locate where the gene, called spineless, is expressed in the retina.
In humans the closest known homolog (counterpart) is the arylhydrocarbon ('dioxin') receptor, a key protein in human health that senses a wide variety of synthetic compounds and then activates expression of detoxification genes.
The dioxin receptor is studied closely in cancer biology and toxicology.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2006-04/wuis-ogp040406.php   (754 words)

  
 Antenna morphology and pheromone-based mate location in Polyphemus moths.
Based on these features of moth biology, I predicted that male saturniids able to successfully locate females, will either have proportionately larger antenna for a given body size, or will be larger over all in both body and antennae size than the average male.
Scaling relationships between antennae length and width and antennae length and body size for males and females were determined using regression analysis.
Large antennae do indicate a greater number of receptors; however, it may be the sensitivity of receptors, rather than the number, that is important in mate location.
ibscore.dbs.umt.edu /journal/Articles_all/2001/Heydenreich.htm   (2640 words)

  
 Rediscovering Biology - Unit 7 Genetics of Development: Expert Interview Transcripts
Interview with John Postlethwait, PhD Postlethwait is a professor of biology at the University of Oregon, Institute of Neuroscience.
What we found was that there were similar coordinates that told where the position was in an antennae, in a leg, and there was the same general properties that told anterior from posterior, back and front and proximal and distal in the appendage.
And this mutation-it's called antennapedia-had made a change in the gene that regulates a a whole group of genes that cause a cell to be a leg cell or an antenna cell.
www.learner.org /channel/courses/biology/units/gendev/experts/postlethwait.html   (2770 words)

  
 BioNews Feature   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The antenna was placed at one end of a wind tunnel that was constructed with a plastic tube about a yard long and 16 inches diameter.
In the second experiment, a detached antenna, also wired to electrodes, was attached to the back of a live moth using a tiny piece of Velcro.
In this case, one of a live moth¹s two antennas was wired to an electrode, while a tiny microelectrode was inserted into the olfactory lobe, part of the moth¹s brain at the base of that antenna.
www.biology.utah.edu /bionews2.php?story=vickers.txt   (936 words)

  
 Artificial Antenna Helps 'Cockroach Robot' Scurry Along Walls :: Robotics Trends :: Robots and Robotics Technology ...
The key, Cowan said, is the cockroach's antennae, which touch adjacent walls and alert the insect to obstacles.
When the antenna signals that the robot is veering too close to the wall, the controller steers it away.
Cowan believes the cockroach-inspired antennae being developed by his team could eventually provide a new generation of robots with an enhanced ability to move safely through dark and hazardous locations, such as smoke-filled rooms strewn with debris.
www.roboticstrends.com /modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=654&mode=thread   (952 words)

  
 The paper
The antenna system consists of hundreds of pigment molecules (mainly chlorophyll or bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoids) that are anchored to proteins within the photosynthetic membrane and serve a specialized protein complex known as a reaction center.
The probability of transfer is dependent on the distance between the transition dipoles of the donor and acceptor molecules (1/R6), the relative orientation of the transition dipoles, and the overlap of the emission spectrum of the donor molecule with the absorption spectrum of the acceptor molecule (see van Grondelle and Amesz, 1986).
The antenna system of the green sulfur bacteria is composed of bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoids and is contained in complexes known as a chlorosomes that are attached to the surface of the photosynthetic membrane.
www.life.uiuc.edu /govindjee/paper/gov.html   (12489 words)

  
 Antenna (biology)
Antennae (singular antenna) are paired appendages connected to the front-most segments of arthropods.
Antennae are jointed, at least at the base, and generally extend forward from the head.
The three basic segments of the typical insect antenna are the scape (base), the pedicel (stem), and finally the flagellum, which often comprises many units known as flagellomeres (the number of flagellomeres can vary greatly, and is often of diagnostic importance).
www.dejavu.org /cgi-bin/get.cgi?ver=93&url=http://articles.gourt.com/%22http%3A%2F%2Farticles.gourt.com%2F%3Farticle%3DAntennae   (310 words)

  
 Interactive Fly, Drosophila
Thus, both the transformation of antenna to leg and the tarsal deletions caused by spineless mutations appear to be atavistic (representing an ancestoral form), suggesting that spineless played an important role in the evolution of distal limb structures in the arthropods.
Antennae are often elongated appendages used for probing the environment, and it is plausible that as part of antennal specification, spineless came to have an appendage elongation function.
In both antenna and leg discs, Distal-less is expressed in the distal regions and is required for distal development.
www.sdbonline.org /fly/dbzhnsky/spinles1.htm   (1611 words)

  
 Wired News: Horny Moths Make Sense of Smell
The antenna was placed at one end of a wind tunnel constructed with a plastic tube about a yard long and with a 16-inch diameter width, which was stimulated with different odor plumes.
Vickers calls this a "cyclops" antenna, because it was attached between and perpendicular to the living moth's antennas.
A wire is attached to one of the moth's antenna, and a very fine glass-tipped microelectrode is inserted into a single neuron in the primary olfactory area on the antenna lobe.
www.wired.com /news/technology/1,42540-1.html   (1196 words)

  
 Earth Change News on Earth Changes TV on the Web
Although moths have antennae that are a million times more sensitive to odor than is the human nose, researchers believe that the basic principles of this model olfactory system apply to all animals, including humans.
When the scent first hits a moth's antenna, specialized nerve cells along the antenna recognize the odor and produce small electrical signals that are then transmitted to other nerve cells in the animal's brain.
But each time his antenna gets a whiff of pheromone, stimulated nerve cells in the antenna send a brief signal to the appropriate subset of nerve cells in the male's brain.
www.earthchangestv.com /biology/March2001/0322behavior.htm   (923 words)

  
 NPS: Nature & Science » Biology Resources »
Detailed information on identification, biology, and management of specific pest ants should be obtained from the local Cooperative Extension Service, your regional National Park Service Integrated Pest Management coordinator, or from the References listed at the end of this module.
The best way to tell them apart is to look at the club on the end of the antenna with a magnifying glass and count the number of segments; thief ants have two segments, while Pharaoh ants have three.
Ant biology should be considered when deciding whether or not to use insecticides.
www.nature.nps.gov /biology/ipm/manual/ants.htm   (4592 words)

  
 Faculty of Arts & Sciences: News and Events
Termed a plasmonic laser antenna, the design consists of a metallic nanostructure, known as an optical antenna, integrated onto the facet of a commercial semiconductor laser.
Moreover, optical antennas operate in the visible and infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum; these wavelengths are far smaller than the wavelengths used in Wi-Fi.
The new device integrates an optical antenna and a laser into a single unit, consists of fewer components, has a smaller footprint (takes up less space), and benefits from an improved signal-to-noise ratio relative to previous approaches.
www.fas.harvard.edu /home/news_and_events/releases/laser_09062006.html   (562 words)

  
 Zoology- Clipart ETC
Antenna Antenna of leaf-eating beetle, showing smelling pits on the expanded terminal segments.
Antenna Antenna of crayfish, with auditory sac at base.
Antenna Antenna in flies; aristate, the arista bare.
etc.usf.edu /clipart/galleries/Science/zoology_a-g.htm   (1984 words)

  
 Welcome to Jingjing Li's homepage
Designing antenna devices radiating and receiving electromagnetic energy coherently at optical frequencies is not a trivial task because the properties of the metals at radio/microwave and optical frequencies are very different.
In my works several optical antenna prototypes using plasmonic materials are proposed and analyzed in details, together with quantitative analysis on their applications in communication and biology.
The goal of this is a project to design and fabricate antenna devices transmitting and receiving electromagnetic signals coherently at optical frequencies.
www.seas.upenn.edu /~jingjing/jingjing.htm   (1672 words)

  
 Biologists' New Approach: Do Not Shoot the Radio SHARON BEGLEY / Wall Street Journal 21feb03
This discovery ushered in the era of the gene and gave birth to a new field: molecular biology.
In November, Eli Lilly and Co. established a systems biology lab in Singapore, where it expects to spend $140 million over five years, and several biotech start-ups are hitching their stars to the new paradigm.
Systems biology analyzes a living thing as a whole, not one gene or one protein at a time.
www.mindfully.org /GE/2003/Systems-Biology21feb03.htm   (849 words)

  
 SPIE Bookstore
Understanding how these antennas work and how they can be utilized at different frequencies ranging from radio to terahertz requires some insight into the physics of antenna operation and a knowledge of the basic parameters for their operation.
The chapter discusses the impact of antennas in various systems, to give the reader an idea of the range of their applications that include communications, remote sensing, radar, biomedicine, etc. In Chapter 2 the reader is introduced to the fundamentals of antennas.
These antennas are still used today in a variety of applications such as communication, TV broadcasting, and navigation.
bookstore.spie.org /index.cfm?fuseaction=DetailVolume&volume=TT50   (788 words)

  
 Aerosol Operation Crimes & Cover Up   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
No other wires or antennas were used in this test, just the human body alone as the input to the ELF measurement device.
The gain of the circuit was adjusted with the potentiometers to the ELF range which governs the primary electromagnetic activity of the human brain.
The frequencies that were received by the 'antenna' were subsequently amplified by the circuit and sent to a logging frequency meter.
www.carnicom.com /elf22.htm   (579 words)

  
 Engineers Unveil Plasmonic Laser Antenna
Termed a plasmonic laser antenna, the design consists of a metallic nanostructure, known as an optical antenna, integrated onto the facet of a commercial semiconductor laser.
Moreover, optical antennas operate in the visible and infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum; these wavelengths are far smaller than the wavelengths used in Wi-Fi.
The new device integrates an optical antenna and a laser into a single unit, consists of fewer components, has a smaller footprint and benefits from an improved signal-to-noise ratio relative to previous approaches.
www.photonics.com /content/news/2006/September/6/84387.aspx   (667 words)

  
 Yale > Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology > Graduate Program
Through physiological recordings we have provided a functional map of olfactory receptor neurons, showing that neurons with a particular odor specificity are restricted to a particular spatial domain of the antenna.
We are now integrating the functional map with the molecular map, by determining which receptors are expressed in neurons of a particular odor specificity.
Hallem, E., Ho, M., and Carlson, J.R. The molecular basis of odor coding in the Drosophila antenna, Cell 117, 965-980.
www.biology.yale.edu /facultystaff/carlson.html   (807 words)

  
 Photosynthesis
Many antenna pigments transfer their light energy to a single reaction center by having this energy "hop" to another antenna pigment, and yet to another, etc., until the energy is "trapped" in the reaction center.
In many systems the size of the photosynthetic antenna is flexible, and photosynthetic organisms growing at low light (in the shade, for example) generally will have a larger number of antenna pigments per reaction center than those growing at higher light intensity.
In the case of PS I and similarly organized reaction centers from green and heliobacteria, the antenna portion, with six transmembrane helices, is attached to the N-terminal end of the reaction center proteins.
photoscience.la.asu.edu /photosyn/education/photointro.html   (5304 words)

  
 Spacecraft and Instrumentation
A 2-axis steerable high-gain parabolic antenna was mounted on a boom near one edge of the lander base.
A UHF (381 MHz) antenna provided a one-way relay to the orbiter using a 30 W relay radio.
The lander carried instruments to achieve the primary scientific objectives of the lander mission: to study the biology, chemical composition (organic and inorganic), meteorology, seismology, magnetic properties, appearance, and physical properties of the martian surface and atmosphere.
library.thinkquest.org /19455/viklanspace.htm   (476 words)

  
 Participants and Projects 1997
Possible roles include use of the antenna for locating the female, for orientating correctly in order to copulate, and for the release of a pheromone which may have a calming effect on the female.
By shortening the antenna of the males, identification of the roles of the male X. stemmator antenna was attempted.
Further study in which segments of the antenna are covered while the entire antenna are kept intact is necessary to corroborate the findings, and will be carried out in the fall.
www.southwestern.edu /academic/biology/bs-rp/student97.html   (1432 words)

  
 Biology 4A Student Resources
Fruit flies with a particular mutation in one of their many hox genes, for example, will develop an anatomically normal leg - in the spot where an antenna should be.
The homeobox is a 180-basepair sequence of DNA that has been found in all homeotic genes (and also in many other regulatory genes).
Mutation causes legs to grow from the wrong segment, in this case, where the antennae are supposed to be.
www.biologycorner.com /bio4/notes/homeobox.php   (529 words)

  
 Record: One gene provides fruit fly both antenna & color vision
A team of researchers that includes WUSTL biologists has discovered that a gene involved in the development and function of the fruit fly antenna also gives the organism its color vision.
The husband-and-wife duo in the Department of Biology in Arts & Sciences provided fruit fly clones and mutants and technical assistance that helped locate where a gene called "spineless" is expressed in the retina.
Ian Duncan, WUSTL professor of biology in Arts and Sciences, and his wife, research assistant Dianne Duncan, provided the Desplan laboratory fruit fly (Drosophila) clones and mutants and technical assistance that helped locate where the gene, called "spineless," is expressed in the retina.
record.wustl.edu /news/page/normal/7027.html   (834 words)

  
 Antenna (biology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In most adults, the antenna are sensory organs, but they are used by the nauplius larva for both feeding and swimming.
In some groups of crustaceans, such as the spiny lobsters and slipper lobsters, the second antennae are enlarged, while in others, such as crabs, the antennae are reduced in size.
The large flatenned plates in from of the eyes of a slipper lobster are the modified second antennae
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Antenna_(biology)   (483 words)

  
 Felling antenna forests ONR’s AMRF-C
Caption: USS George Washington (CVN 73) bristles with antennas and dishes.
Antenna growth--apart from the continuously increasing procurement and maintenance costs of individual "stovepipe" antenna types--has increased ships' radar cross-sections.
The need for new antennas also has required extensive modifications in ship design to manage the added weight, as well as complex restrictions on use to minimize dangerous electronics interference.
www.light-science.com /onrfell.html   (612 words)

  
 Principles of Biology Review Notes
The antenna pigment molecules of photosystem II absorb blue and red photons.
The reason for the antenna pigment molecules is to enable photosystem II to capture more photons.
The energy from the absorbed photons is similarly funneled to its reaction center, which is a specialized chlorophyll a molecule.
www.ksu.edu /biology/bio/test   (1898 words)

  
 ESA - Astrolab - Expedition 14 ready for spacewalk
Inspection of a Kurs antenna on the Progress 23 cargo carrier is the next task.
During docking on 26 October, Mission Control Moscow was unsure whether the antenna was fully retracted, delaying the final latching of the spacecraft for more than three hours.
If the antenna is found to be fully extended, Tyurin will use a screwdriver to release a latch, manually retract the antenna and secure it with ties.
www.esa.int /SPECIALS/Astrolab/SEMPYIANMUE_0.html   (370 words)

  
 One gene provides fruit fly both antenna and color vision
The areas stained blue are regions in the fruit fly where the spineless gene is expressed.
WUSTL biologists Ian and Dianne Duncan have spent years making discoveries of how the gene is involved in making the fruit fly antenna.
Now they are part of a team that has found that spineless plays a key role in the organism's color vision.
news-info.wustl.edu /tips/page/normal/6842.html   (859 words)

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