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Topic: Anterior nuclei of thalamus


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In the News (Fri 16 Aug 19)

  
 ch13.doc
Olivary nuclei - These rhombencephalic nuclei are formed by alar column gray matter which migrates into ventral regions of the rhombencephalon, reeling their axons out behind them.
Optic nerve (II) - This second cranial nerve is composed of the axons of ganglion cells in the anterior layer of the neural retina (secondary neurosensory cells of the retina) which pass from the eyeball at the optic disc as the optic nerve.
Basal nuclei (of the cerebral hemispheres) - These heterogeneous nuclear masses are located subcortically within the cerebral hemispheres and include the amygdaloid body, and the caudate and lentiform nuclei.
cna.uc.edu /embryology/glossaries/ch13.doc

  
 Howstuffworks "How Your Brain Works"
Thalamus- The thalamus relays incoming sensory pathways to appropriate areas of the cortex, determines which sensory information actually reaches consciousness and participates in motor-information exchange between the cerebellum, basal ganglia and cortex.
Within each of these structures are centers of neuronal cell bodies, called nuclei, that are specialized for particular functions (breathing, heart-rate regulation, sleep):
The basic lower brain consists of the spinal cord, brainstem and diencephalon (the cerebellum and cortex are also present, but will be discussed in later sections).
science.howstuffworks.com /brain5.htm

  
 Fatal familial insomnia: a new Austrian family -- Almer et al. 122 (1): 5 -- Brain
thalamus (most prominent in medial and anterior thalamic nuclei)
brainstem nuclei and tract degeneration, and olivary `pseudohypertrophy'
Gautier JC, Blackwood W. Enlargement of the inferior olivary nucleus in association with lesions of the central tegmental tract or dentate nucleus.
brain.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/122/1/5

  
 BASIC CEREBRAL CORTEX FUNCTION OTHER THAN VISION
Fibers that synapse with the red nucleus in the midbrain, the nuclei of the pons and the inferior olivary nuclei of the medulla, all communicate with the cerebellum.
Although most nerve fibers pass directly from the olivary nuclei to the inferior colliculus as a tract of fibers known as the lateral lemniscus, many collaterals pass directly into the reticular activating system.
The anteriolateral system (shown in the diagram) carries weakly localized sensations of temperature, pain, itching, etc. along two tracts in the spine, one anterior and one lateral.
www.benbest.com /science/anatmind/anatmd6.html

  
 Limbic System: The Center of Emotions
Lesion or stimulation of the medial dorsal and anterior nuclei of the thalamus are associated with changes in emotional reactivity.
A little almond shaped structure, deep inside the antero-inferior region of the temporal lobe, connects with the hippocampus, the septal nuclei, the prefrontal area and the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus.
However, the importance of these nuclei on the regulation of emotional behavior, is not due to the thalamus itself, but to the connections of these nuclei with other limbic system structures.
www.healing-arts.org /n-r-limbic.htm   (3505 words)

  
 Limbic System: The Center of Emotions
Lesion or stimulation of the medial dorsal and anterior nuclei of the thalamus are associated with changes in emotional reactivity.
A little almond shaped structure, deep inside the antero-inferior region of the temporal lobe, connects with the hippocampus, the septal nuclei, the prefrontal area and the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus.
However, the importance of these nuclei on the regulation of emotional behavior, is not due to the thalamus itself, but to the connections of these nuclei with other limbic system structures.
www.healing-arts.org /n-r-limbic.htm   (3505 words)

  
 LONI NCRR Resources Protocols Cerebellum
The following left and right thalamic nuclei were included: the pulvinar, the anterior nucleus, all medial and lateral nuclei, as well as the meta-thalamus (i.e., medial and lateral geniculate bodies).
To confirm the lateral and inferior boundaries of the thalamus in the sagittal plane, coronal and axial viewing planes are also used.
Therefore the most midsagittal section of the cerebrum, which includes the septum pellucidum, is used to distinguish left from right thalamus and is included in the left volumetric measurements (Figure 1).
www.loni.ucla.edu /NCRR/Protocols/MaskingRegions_10.html   (207 words)

  
 Virtual Hospital: The Human Brain: Chapter 5: The Cerebral Hemispheres
The posterior thalamic peduncle and the optic radiation plunge backwards together in a parasagittally-oriented stratum of axons that joins the thalamus to occipital and inferior parietal areas of cortex.
Fibers that originate chiefly from the medial and anterior thalamic nuclei produce the anterior thalamic peduncle, which runs towards the anterior and inferior frontal cortical areas.
Axons of the superior thalamic peduncle run more or less vertically to connect the thalamus with posterior frontal and parietal cortical areas.
www.vh.org /Providers/Textbooks/BrainAnatomy/Ch5Text/Section09.html   (207 words)

  
 The origin and detailed structure of the mammalian brain
But the output of the corpus striatum, which in reptiles was projected to the midbrain as motor commands, is mostly redirected in mammals back to the neocortex by way of a relay in the thalamus (the ventral lateral and ventral anterior nuclei).
Part of the corpus striatum's output is relayed by the (ventral anterior) thalamus to regions throughout the frontal neocortex where the behavioral schemata are located.
The targets of the corpus striatum are all in the frontal neocortex (in the anterior forebrain), including both the body image and the behavioral schemata.
www.twow.net /ObjText/OtkCbGeRRS06C.htm   (207 words)

  
 Dorlands Medical Dictionary
lami, [TA]  paracentral nucleus of thalamus: one of the smaller reticular nuclei of the dorsal thalamus, situated ventrolateral to the dorsal medial nucleus and medial to the central lateral nucleus.
lami, [TA]  parafascicular nucleus of thalamus: one of the smaller reticular nuclei of the dorsal thalamus, situated medial to the centromedian nucleus and ventral to the dorsal medial nucleus.
lis,   central nucleus of spinal cord: a group of nerve cells in the gray substance in the central region of the anterior column of the spinal cord.
merckmedicus.com /ppdocs/us/common/dorlands/dorland/dmd-n-024.htm   (207 words)

  
 Vascular Syndromes of the Thalamus -- Schmahmann 34 (9): 2264 -- Stroke
Limbic nuclei of thalamus and connections of limbic cortex, I: organization of projections of the anterior group of nuclei and of the midline thalamic nuclei of the thalamus to the anterior cingulate gyrus and hippocampal rudiment in the monkey.
The functions of the VA nucleus are not well established.
The projections of the medial geniculate complex within the sylvian fissure of the rhesus monkey.
stroke.ahajournals.org /cgi/content/full/34/9/2264   (207 words)

  
 br-800epi.htm
The septal nuclei receive input from multiple midbrain nuclei, the substantia nigra, the CA1 region of the cornu ammonis, the subiculum, amygdala, lateral hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, and mamillary bodies.
The subcallosal area includes a cluster of small septal nuclei that lie immediately anterior to the paraterminal gyrus and anterior commissure.
      The gray matter of the hippo campus is an extension of the subiculum of the parahippo- campal gyrus.
spinwarp.ucsd.edu /NeuroWeb/Text/br-800epi.htm   (2797 words)

  
 Vascular Syndromes of the Thalamus -- Schmahmann 34 (9): 2264 -- Stroke
Limbic nuclei of thalamus and connections of limbic cortex, I: organization of projections of the anterior group of nuclei and of the midline thalamic nuclei of the thalamus to the anterior cingulate gyrus and hippocampal rudiment in the monkey.
The functions of the VA nucleus are not well established.
thalamic nucleus; VAF, ventral amygdalofugal pathway; VL, ventral
stroke.ahajournals.org /cgi/content/full/34/9/2264   (2797 words)

  
 Virtual Hospital: The Human Brain: Chapter 5: The Cerebral Hemispheres
In its anterior course it diverges slightly from the head of the caudate nucleus, passes beneath the ventral margin of the internal capsule, and--as the main efferent pathway from the amygdaloid nuclear complex--innervates septal nuclei, anterior hypothalamic nuclei, the anterior perforated substance, and the habenular nucleus (via the stria medullaris).
5-8: Caudate nucleus, thalamus and upper brainstem structures: right side of brain, from the medial aspect
The lateral surface of the caudate nucleus is in contact with the closely packed bundles of the internal capsule.
www.vh.org /adult/provider/anatomy/BrainAnatomy/Ch5Text/Section08.html   (2797 words)

  
 Cerebellum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Most of the efferent fibers originate within the dentate nucleus which in turn project to various midbrain structures including the red nucleus, the ventral lateral/ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus, and the medulla.
In the cerebellum, the PICA supplies blood to the posterior inferior portion of the cerebellum, the inferior cerebellar peduncle, the nucleus ambiguus, the vagus motor nucleus, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the solitary nucleus, and the vestibulocochlear nuclei.
The nonhuman analogue of the emboliform and globose nuclei is a single, fused nucleus interpositus (interposed nucleus).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cerebellum   (3840 words)

  
 Penn State Faculty Research Expertise Database (FRED)
The anterior and posterior paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus are included with the THALAMIC NUCLEI although they develop from the same pronuclear mass as the epithalamic nuclei and are sometimes considered part of the epithalamus.
The epithalamus is generally considered to include the habenular nuclei (HABENULA) and associated fiber bundles, the PINEAL BODY, and the epithelial roof of the third ventricle.
U.S. National Library of Medicine is the creator, maintainer, and provider of all MeSH 2004 data
fred.hmc.psu.edu /ds/retrieve/fred/meshdescriptor/D019261   (77 words)

  
 Spinothalamic Tract
Secondary spinothalamic nuclei can also cross over via the anterior white commissure (located ventral to the central grey commissure), into the lateral spinothalamic tract which runs in a column up the spinal cord in the anterior funiculus.
Examples of stimuli for the anterior spinothalamic tract could be touching soft fur, or running a feather across the bottom of the foot.
It should also be said that on their way up, these lateral spinothalamic tract fibers give of branches medially, into the reticular formation in the brain stem, and into the periaqueductal grey in the midbrain.
webpages.charter.net /mcmumbi/tr_spinothalamic.htm   (77 words)

  
 Thalamic Nuclei - Lab Exercise 8 - Medical Neuroscience Course - Dept of Neurobiology and Anatomy - University of Texas Medical School at Houston
Note that the dorsomedial (DM) nucleus of the thalamus is still prominent, the lateral dorsal (LD) nucleus has replaced the anterior nucleus, and the lateral group consists of the LD, lateral posterior (LP) nucleus, ventral posteromedial (VPM) and ventral posterolateral (VPL) nuclei.
Anteriorly, the internal medullary lamina encloses the anterior (A) nucleus, separating it from the ventral anterior (VA) nucleus (Nolte, Fig.
The centromedian (CM) nucleus is located within the internal medullary lamina and constitutes part of the intralaminar nuclear group.
nba.uth.tmc.edu /courses/neuro2003/lab/exercises/8/thalamic_nuclei.htm   (77 words)

  
 MCB 163: Mammalian Neuroanatomy
  red nucleus  a precerebellar relay nucleus that carries cerebellar outflow to the VA/VL thalamic motor nuclei, whose projections to premotor and supplementary motor cortex are critical in initiating movement; also, it is the origin of the rubrospinal tract, which targets distal flexors; this allows subconscious influences to reach muscles for fine motor control
  anterior pretectum  a multisensory nucleus located between the medial geniculate body and the reticular formation, it receives brainstem afferents from several modalities; it also receives retinal afferents and sends impulses rostrally to the Edinger-Westphal subdivision of the III nucleus, which then projects to the ciliary ganglion for parasympathetic control of pupillary muscle tone
  thalamic reticular nucleus  a thin band of exclusively GABAergic neurons on the lateral perimeter of the thalamus, and with specific auditory, visual, etc. cortical-recipient sectors; hypothesized to allow for selective gating of attention by the GABAergic suppression of irrelevant behavioral stimuli by cortical control; this is Crick’s searchlight hypothesis
mcb.berkeley.edu /courses/mcb163/exams/2001/2001-lab3.html   (830 words)

  
 ICP monitors
From inferior colliculus to nuclei of the superior olivary complex, lateral lemniscus, and dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei.
These fibers end in the ipsilateral and contralateral reticular formation, superior olivary nuclei, and nuclei of trapezoid body or ascend in contralateral lateral lemniscus as i) and ii) to the inferior colliculus.
• Inferior colliculus through brachium of inferior colliculus to medial geniculate body (parvocellular portion) of the thalamus.
www.ucsf.edu /nreview/02.2-Anatomy-CranialNerves/CN08-cochlear.html   (922 words)

  
 eMedicine - Diffuse Axonal Injury : Article by Jeffrey R Wasserman, DO
Within the basal ganglia, the effect of DAI produces parenchymal atrophy brought on by shrinkage of astrocytes in the lateral and ventral nuclei, with sparing of the anterior and dorsomedial nuclei, the pulvinar, centromedian nuclei, and lateral geniculate bodies.
The most commonly involved area is the frontal and temporal white matter, followed by the posterior body and splenium of the corpus callosum, the caudate nuclei, thalamus, tegmentum, and internal capsule.
Most commonly, the posterior body and splenium are involved; however, the process is believed to advance anteriorly with increasing severity of disease.
www.emedicine.com /radio/topic216.htm   (2628 words)

  
 v414lab11.html
The superior cerebellar peduncle carries the cerebellum's output to the thalamus and from there to the output parts of the cerebral cortex.
(superior) cerebellar peduncle in the tegmentum (aka, the brachium conjunctivum); the cerebellum is served by three pairs of peduncles (big tract formations): inferior, middle and the superior, tagged here.
Those dark dots are trochlear fibers in the anterior (or superior) medullary velum descending towards their decussation; after decussating, the trochlear fibers loop into the anterior medullary velum, execute their cross to the side opposite their origin and then come out onto the surface.
www.indiana.edu /~pietsch/v414lab11.html   (2628 words)

  
 Week 7 Lab...
Remember the relationship of the caudate nucleus with the lateral ventricle, and the relative positions of the caudate and lentiform nuclei and the thalamus.
Thus, the caudate nucleus is in the floor of the anterior horn and the body; and in the roof of the inferior horn.
The head of the caudate nucleus and the thalamus are closer to the midline; the lentiform nucleus ‘fits in’ between the two.
www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au /hb207/02weekpages/wk07/week07_4lab.htm   (2628 words)

  
 Week 7 Lab...
Remember the relationship of the caudate nucleus with the lateral ventricle, and the relative positions of the caudate and lentiform nuclei and the thalamus.
Thus, the caudate nucleus is in the floor of the anterior horn and the body; and in the roof of the inferior horn.
The head of the caudate nucleus and the thalamus are closer to the midline; the lentiform nucleus ‘fits in’ between the two.
www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au /hb207/02weekpages/wk07/week07_4lab.htm   (1761 words)

  
 S089106189900053.abstract.en
Cholinergic neurons of the mesopontine complex have extensive ascending projections to the forebrain: the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus extensively innervates the anterior thalamus, the anteroventral nucleus in particular, whereas the pedunculopontine nucleus has widespread projections to both the thalamus and extrapyramidal structures.
In contrast, large electrolytic lesions involving other thalamic nuclei or extrapyramidal structures did not change the number of NADPH-diaphorase neurons or their intensity of staining in the laterodorsal tegmental nuclei.
The intensity of the NADPH-diaphorase staining of neurons of the pedunculopontine nucleus, however, remained unchanged bilaterally.
www.elsevier.com /cdweb/journals/08910618/articles/17/4/S089106189900053.abstract.en   (1761 words)

  
 66154.030814&ELEMENT_SET=DECL
deep brain targets according to the present invention are the anterior nucleus of the thalamus, intralaminar thalamic nuclei, dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus, locus coeruleus, mammillary bodies, lateral hypothalamus, substantia nigra pars compacta, substantia nigra pars reticulata, superior colliculus, tegmentum, ventral tegmentum, tectum, medial thalamus, nucleus accumbens, ventral striatum, and ventral pallidum.
If the sensory or discriminatory aspects of pain relay are desired to be alleviated then the primary somatosensory cortex, secondory somatosensory cortex, and/or the insular cortex may be stimulated.
The method of claim 19, wherein the target site is the ventral tegmentum.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=03/66154.030814&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (5498 words)

  
 Thalamus
It is important to note these groups of nuclei and know of their thalamic functions.
divided the nuclei into three regions: anterior group, medial group and the lateral group.
The nuclei are separated by myelinated medulary bands.
www.cwru.edu /dental/web/neuro/tlm.html   (5498 words)

  
 Retrograde temporal order amnesia resulting from damage to the fornix -- Yasuno et al. 67 (1): 102 -- Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
The lesion in the present patient included not only the fornix but also parts of the dorsomedial and anterior thalamic nuclei,
bilateral anterior fornix and the anterior parts of medial thalamus
Correlation of fornix damage with memory impairment in six case of colloid cyst removal.
jnnp.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/67/1/102   (1756 words)

  
 IX. Neurology. 4e. Composition and Central Connections of the Spinal Nerves. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body.
The descending fibers in the spinal tract of the trigeminal terminating in the nucleus of the tract probably establish relations through connecting neurons with motor nuclei in the anterior column of the spinal cord and with motor nuclei of the medulla.
Axons from the large fusiform cells of the dorsal nucleus pass partly by way of the striæ medullares to the trapezoid body and lateral lemniscus and the nuclei associated with the former, and partly transversely beneath the inferior peduncle and spinal tract of the trigeminal to the trapezoid body.
This tract lies dorsal to the medial fillet; approaches close to it in the tegmentum and terminates in a distinct part of the thalamus.
bartleby.com /107/191.html   (1756 words)

  
 Dorlands Medical Dictionary
corticonuclear tract,   the nerve fiber tract formed by fibers (corticonuclear fibers) of the pyramidal tract that arise in the cerebral cortex, descend in the internal capsule, and synapse in the various motor nuclei of the mesencephalon, pons, and medulla oblongata.
thalamo-olivary tract,   a bundle of fibers descending from the thalamus to the olivary nucleus.
intersegmental tract of spinal cord, anterior,   fasciculus proprius anterior medullae spinalis.
www.mercksource.com /pp/us/cns/cns_hl_dorlands.jspzQzpgzEzzSzppdocszSzuszSzcommonzSzdorlandszSzdorlandzSzdmd_t_15zPzhtm   (1756 words)

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