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Topic: Anthropic principle

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  Anthropic principle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The term "anthropic principle" was first proposed in 1973 by theoretical physicist Brandon Carter in his contribution to a symposium titled "Confrontation of Cosmological Theories with Observational Data" honouring Copernicus's 500th birthday.
He took this opportunity to articulate the anthropic principle as the contrary of what has come to be called the Copernican principle (which Copernicus did not articulate), which denies that the position of human beings in the cosmological order is in any way privileged.
Proponents of the anthropic principle suggest that we live in a universe that appears to be "fine-tuned" to allow the existence of life as we know it because otherwise we would not be there to observe this universe, cf.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Anthropic_principle   (2179 words)

 MichaelACorey.com - Your Portal to an Exciting New Perspective on Science and Theology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Anthropic Principle is a speculative hypothesis that attempts to relate the structure of the universe to the underlying conditions that are necessary for the existence of observers.
The Anthropic Principle is controversial because it implies a teleological linkage between the structure of the universe and the existence of human beings.
It is important to distinguish between the Anthropic Principle and a curious set of physical facts known as "anthropic coincidences." The Anthropic Principle proper is a speculative hypothesis regarding the possible role of humanity in the cosmos, whereas the various anthropic coincidences are empirical observations that relate the apparent "fine-tuning" of the universe life.
www.michaelacorey.com /article.html   (3697 words)

 The Anthropic Principle
The Anthropic Principle was first suggested in a 1973 paper, by the astrophysicist and cosmologist Brandon Carter from Cambridge University, at a conference held in Poland to celebrate the 500th birthday of the father of modern astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus.
The Anthropic Principle is an attempt to explain the observed fact that the fundamental constants of physics and chemistry are just right or fine-tuned to allow the universe and life at we know it to exist.
The Anthropic Principle says that the seemingly arbitrary and unrelated constants in physics have one strange thing in common--these are precisely the values you need if you want to have a universe capable of producing life.
ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/rossuk/c-anthro.htm   (1167 words)

 Phl 356: Lecture #10   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
An anthropic coincidence consists of some feature of the laws of nature, the fundamental constituents of matter, or the initial condition of the universe that had to take a value within some interval in order for life (and hence, for human observers) to exist at all.
The principle of mediocrity is a rule-of-thumb for the conduct of science.
The principle of mediocrity is a reasonable thing to presume at the beginning of our investigations, but when we discover overwhelming evidence that our own universe is very special, this evidence should override the apriori rule of thumb.
www.la.utexas.edu /phl356/lec11.html   (3796 words)

 Final anthropic principle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The final anthropic principle (FAP) is defined by physicists John D. Barrow and Frank J. Tipler's 1986 book "The Anthropic Cosmological Principle" as a generalization of the anthropic principle as follows:
Barrow and Tipler make a "very tentative prediction" that the FAP appears to imply that the Universe is either flat or closed (and not open; see topology of the universe).
Critics of the Final Anthropic Principle claim that its arguments violate the Copernican Principle, that it incorrectly applies the laws of probability, and that it is really a theology or metaphysics principle made to sound plausible to laypeople by using the esoteric language of physics.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Final_anthropic_principle   (553 words)

 Anthropic principle - CreationWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The anthropic principle is used to develop scientific explanations in cosmology.
The Anthropic Principle was first defined in 1973, during a synopsia commemorating Copernicus’s 500th birthday.
For example, the Anthropic Principle is a concept that some respected cosmologists use to explain some of the "fine tuned" features of our observable universe.
www.nwcreation.net /wiki/index.php?title=Anthropic_principle   (648 words)

 Luboš Motl's reference frame: Anthropic principle lacks confidence
The anthropic principle argues that the vacuum is selected more or less randomly and we should not be really looking for the rules that determine the right one; the existence of potentially intelligent structures such as galaxies and humans is supposed to provide us with the only extra selection criterion.
In other words, the anthropic principle wants to replace fundamental physics and quantitative statements as the explanation of the properties of the Universe by a popular vote where it is the people who are in charge; it wants to replace science by democratic politics.
Because the anthropic principle wants to introduce democracy to physics, it follows from the vote that the anthropic principle is either wrong or internally inconsistent.
motls.blogspot.com /2005/08/anthropic-principle-lacks-confidence.html   (1415 words)

 anthropic principle
With respect to the anthropic principle, we simply exist in one of the many universes where intelligent life is possible and did evolve.
The anthropic principle does demonstrate that all of our cosmological models are constructed by augmenting the results of observations by a philosophical principle.
For example, the Copernican principle (now known as the cosmological principle) states that the portion of the Universe we observe is not special or privileged, but is representative of the whole.
abyss.uoregon.edu /~js/ast123/lectures/lec19.html   (2692 words)

First proposed by Brandon Carter in 1974,{5} the Anthropic Principle has assumed a number of different forms, generating a great deal of confusion concerning what it is precisely that the principle means to assert.
Teleologists and Anthropic philosophers enjoy a peculiar "love/hate" relationship: they agree that the delicate balance of cosmological and physical conditions necessary for intelligent life does cry out for some sort of interpretation which will render it intelligible; but they differ radically as to what that interpretation should be.
Anthropic philosophers contend that due to the self-selection effect imposed by our own existence we can only observe a limited number of worlds; therefore, we should not be surprised at observing this one.
www.leaderu.com /offices/billcraig/docs/teleo.html   (8672 words)

 Anthropic Principle and the Theory of Everything - Anthropic Principle - Theory of Everything - Thermodynamics - ...
This, anthropic-bias, is the basis for the physics of the anthropic principle, which, in of itself, is just a circular reasoned tautology or a truism, but the really unique thing about this is the precarious nature with which it occurs.
The anthropic principle has a significant impact on cosmology if it is based on the observed reality, rather than "many-worlds", and "quantum uncertainty", interpretations, because our universe is specially constrained if our universe is the only possible result of our big bang.
That's the hard physics data point, but the biggest problem of attaching science to the Anthropic Principle of the past was that it did not include proper consideration for the human potential for increasing the entropy of the universe.
www.geocities.com /naturescience/EntropicAP.html   (3419 words)

 anthropic principle
Carter distinguished between two degrees of the hypothesis: the weak anthropic principle, which was essentially a generalization of Dicke's idea, and the strong anthropic principle, which went much further and claimed that "the Universe...
As for the implications of the anthropic principle for extraterrestrial life, they are controversial.
According to one view, if the nature of the Universe is such that it must inevitably give rise to life as we know it, then its biogenic powers have presumably been exercised elsewhere and many times over.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/A/anthropic.html   (431 words)

 DISF - Interdisciplinary Encyclopaedia of Religion and Science | Anthropic Principle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Nevertheless, such a principle is entirely valid only for a certain cosmological “model”, those corresponding to a homogeneous and isotropic universe, in which the study of the space-time on medium and large scale, can legitimately leave out of consideration possible dishomogeneities and non-uniformity on a small and local scale.
Regarding the adjective “anthropic”, in the strong formulation, the emphasis of the Principle puts into first place the observer since he or she is the “receptor of the information of the universe”, and only secondarily on the conditions of being human.
The remark made by J. Merleau-Ponty (1984), according to whom the Anthropic Principle represents a significant epistemological turning-point in the philosophy of 20th century science, thanks to its capacity to open again the discussion with respect to the non-accidental role that humankind plays within the physical understanding of the universe, should be fully endorsed.
www.disf.org /en/Voci/31.asp   (11283 words)

 Final anthropic principle: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The anthropic principle in its most basic form states a truism: that any valid theory of the universe must be consistent with our existence as carbon-based...
Teleology is the position that there is design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in the works and processes of nature, and the philosophical study of that...
Extropianism, also referred to as extropy, is a transhumanist philosophy characterized by a set of principles regarding extropy, defined by dr....
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/f/fi/final_anthropic_principle.htm   (1655 words)

 Barrow and Tipler on the Anthropic Principle vs. Divine Design
In their massive study The Anthropic Cosmological Principle, [1986]{1} John Barrow and Frank Tipler provide the most comprehensive analysis to date of the so-called Anthropic Principle and its relation to the classic teleological argument for a Divine Designer of the cosmos.
According to their analysis, the Anthropic Principle evolved out of the traditional design argument for God's existence, particularly one version of that argument, the eutaxiological version, which was based on the presence of discernable order and mutual harmony in nature in abstraction from any anthropocentric purpose being in view.
In any case, the move on the part of Anthropic philosophers to posit many worlds, even if viable, represents a significant concession because it implies that the popular use of the WAP to refute teleology in a universe whose properties are coextensive with the basic features of our universe is fallacious.
www.leaderu.com /offices/billcraig/docs/barrow.html   (2947 words)

 The Anthropic Principle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The anthropic cosmological principle asserts that the laws, constants and basic structure of the universe are not completely arbitrary.
Theologically, the anthropic principle has led to a revival of the argument from design, which had lost its intellectual respectability when Darwin came along.
Fundamentalists with intellectual pretenses also like the anthropic principle, but they conveniently omit the relationship between the human evolutionary time scale (billions of years) and that of the universe (also billions).
www.winternet.com /~gmcdavid/html_dir/anthropic.html   (979 words)

 The Impertinent Anthropic Principle
While the so-called anthropic coincidences are at least arguably important, the Anthropic Cosmological Principle -- which attempts to answer the anthropic coincidences -- seems a failed enterprise.
The Weak Anthropic Principle (WAP) states simply, "If conditions weren't right for us to be here, we wouldn't very well be here to remark on the fact." Of course this is no answer to the presumed improbability of a universe which happens to contain us, or even intelligence at all (much less life!).
Nick Bostrom (2) points out that the Anthropic Principle may be considered presumptive evidence for many universes "in the absence of any plausible alternative." Unfortunately, there is no observational or experimental ("scientific") evidence whatsoever for any universe besides the one we inhabit.
www.bluffton.edu /~bergerd/essays/impert.html   (1662 words)

 Anthropic principle - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Anthropic principle in its most simple form simply states that, because humans exist, the universe must have the properties that humans can exist.
Leibniz, Fred Hoyle) the first use of term "anthropic principle" was by Brandon Carter in 1973.
Although creationists sometimes try to base their arguments on anthropic principles, the weak anthropic principle, anthropic bias and an infinite universe (or many-world theories) in fact can be used to refute creationists arguments.
wiki.cotch.net /index.php/Anthropic_principle   (215 words)

 Anthropic Principle
These Principles invariably make statements about regions of the Universe which are unobservable not only in practice but also in principle (because of the finite speed of light).
In my opinion, the strong anthropic principle has a somewhat dubious character, and it tends to be invoked by theorists whenever they do not have a good enough theory to explain the observed facts (i.e.
The weak anthropic principle, on the other hand, seems to me to be unexceptionable, provided that one is very careful about how it is used.
www.dhushara.com /book/quantcos/anth/anth.htm   (3721 words)

 Some Comments on the Anthropic Principle
This principle, hotly contested, states that the universe must be in such a state that it at least in some of its history can allow life to develop.
It is a fundamental principle of science that a theory that describes a phenomenon must be falsifiable, that is, there must be (theoretical) observations that would disprove the theory if it is wrong.
Actually, the anthropic principle seems to be a better argument against theism than for it.
blogs.salon.com /0001561/stories/2002/10/25/someCommentsOnTheAnthropicPrinciple.html   (1396 words)

 CI301: The Anthropic Principle
The fine-tuning claim is weakened by the fact that some physical constants are dependent on others, so the anthropic principle may rest on only a very few initial conditions that are really fundamental (Kane et al.
It is further weakened by the fact that different initial conditions sometimes lead to essentially the same outcomes, as with the initial mass of stars and their formation of heavy metals (Nakamura et al.
In fact, the anthropic principle is an argument against an omnipotent creator.
www.talkorigins.org /indexcc/CI/CI301.html   (590 words)

 JCA: Education: Anthropic Cosmological Principle
The Strong Anthropic Principle takes this one step further to state that there could be many different universes (or regions in a single universe) where the laws of physics are different.
As for the the Copernican Cosmological Principle, the Anthropic Cosmological Principle is essentially a metaphysical statement and, it is still unclear (perhaps never knowable) whether it is true
However, as an extension to the Copernican Cosmological Principle, the sentient being reasons that out of all the possible loaves (ingredients, proportions, open temperatures, baking times etc), they exist in the loaf they do since the conditions were just right, to bake such a loaf.
jca.umbc.edu /~george/html/courses/glossary/cosmo_principle_anthro.html   (782 words)

 General Term: Anthropic Principle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A controversial cosmological principle that the observable universe, as it is, must be compatible with our powers of observation, or else we would not be able to observe it.
Exponents of the principle will often point out that the universe appears to be “fine tuned,”or delicately balanced in its basic physical processes, to allow for the existence of carbon-based life.
the Strong Anthropic Principle, which is concerned with the possibility of alternative universes, yet goes on to state metaphysically that our observable universe must be the only kind of universe capable of evolving human-like creatures as observers.
www.meta-library.net /physgloss/anprin-body.html   (212 words)

His contributions to physics include the discovery of string theory, the string theory of fl hole entropy, the principle of "fl hole complementarity", the holographic principle, the matrix description of M-theory, the introduction of holographic entropy bounds in cosmology, the idea of an anthropic string theory "landscape".
A is any form of the Anthropic Principle of Principle of Mediocrity, together with assumptions about priors, proabability distrbutions on universes etc, plus our own existence, that leads to the conclusion that we should observe B. B is that galaxies have formed.
In the paper I show that every use of the anthropic principle claimed in physics and cosmology is either an example of this fallacy, or is so vague that one can get any conclusion one wants, and match any observation, by manipulating the assumptions made.
www.edge.org /3rd_culture/smolin_susskind04/smolin_susskind.html   (12074 words)

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