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Topic: Anthropogenic

In the News (Tue 25 Jun 19)

  Physics Today August 2002
The CO added to the atmosphere because of man's activities, and the way it is currently distributed within the land, air, and sea, is depicted in the carbon cycle diagram shown in figure 1.
The total capacity of the oceans for taking up anthropogenic CO is a function primarily of the solubility of CO and the chemical buffering capacity of seawater.
Different methods for estimating the uptake of anthropogenic CO agree reasonably well with each other and with observational constraints in most regions except the Southern Ocean, where the relatively small-scale processes that destabilize the water column and lead to vertical overturning and formation of deep water are poorly understood and particularly difficult to model.
www.aip.org /pt/vol-55/iss-8/p30.html   (3285 words)

  Sabine et al. - The Oceanic Sink for Anthropogenic CO2
The cumulative oceanic anthropogenic CO sink in 1994, for the ocean region shown in Fig.
The majority of the anthropogenic CO in the ocean is, therefore, confined to the thermocline, i.e., the region of the upper ocean where temperature changes rapidly with depth.
Moving southward away from the formation region, the concentration of anthropogenic CO in NADW decreases because the older waters were exposed to lower atmospheric CO perturbations, and because of mixing with adjacent bottom waters containing little or no anthropogenic CO In total, nearly 7 Pg of anthropogenic carbon is associated with NADW [3].
www.pmel.noaa.gov /pubs/outstand/sabi2683/sabi2683.shtml   (4175 words)

 Distribution of Anthropogenic and Natural Debris on the Mainland Shelf of the Southern California Bight Marine ...
The deeper distribution of anthropogenic debris relative to natural debris, as well as the types of debris, suggest that the primary source of anthropogenic debris is marine vessel and fishing activity.
Anthropogenic debris occurred on approximately 14% of the mainland shelf of the SCB (Fig.
The higher prevalence of anthropogenic debris on the outer shelf relative to the inner shelf-as well as the types of debris found on the outer shelf (fishing gear and plastic)-suggest that the source of this debris is the disposal of trash and incidental items from boats.
www.mindfully.org /Plastic/Anthropogenic-Natural-Moore.htm   (2466 words)

 ALN No. 54: Saha and Hiremath: Anthropogenic fires in India: A tale of two forests
Seed dispersal and germination are cued to rainfall, leaves are shed during the dry season, and percentage of biomass allocated to roots is greater than in less seasonal forests (Holbrook et al.1995; Reich 1995), presumably to maximize uptake of soil moisture.
In most such forests, anthropogenic fires were set to clear land for agriculture or silviculture and promote fodder for livestock grazing; however, systematic fires to facilitate collection of non-timber products are of relatively recent origin (Gadgil and Meher-Homji 1985; Bowman 1998).
The challenge is to distinguish the long-term adaptive signal from mostly anthropogenic noise.
ag.arizona.edu /OALS/ALN/aln54/saha.html   (3516 words)

 The Anthropogenic Era
Anthropogenic influences on climate and atmospheric chemistry have been preliminarily investigated in the GISP2 record.
Previously identified increases in sulfate and nitrate seen in south Greenland ice cores and attributed to anthropogenic activity [ Neftel et al., 1985; Mayewski et al., 1986] have been identified in the GISP2 core and contrasted to the pre-anthropogenic atmosphere [ Mayewski et al., 1990].
Additional confirmation of the role that anthropogenic pollutants may have on perturbing the chemistry of the atmosphere comes from the coincidence of increased sulfate levels and depression of North Atlantic temperatures between
www.agu.org /revgeophys/mayews01/node4.html   (344 words)

 Anthropogenic Modifications
Anthropogenic = of, relating to, or resulting from the influence of human beings on nature.
There are probably few places left on earth where Anthropogenic Impact has not affected the biotic and abiotic factors of the environment, and consequentially Biodiversity of species.
Discuss anthropogenic impact as an abiotic and biotic factor in the environment.
www.racerocks.com /racerock/education/curricula/projects/anthropogenic.htm   (893 words)

 Environmental impact in the sea and marine pollution
Underestimation of the striking complexity of anthropogenic impact on the water ecosystems and the use of a single-factorial approach to analyze their state, focusing on some single aspect of human activity, generally lead to a distorted picture of the consequences of such activity.
The concept of anthropogenic impact is extremely important for analyzing the ecology of coastal and shelf zone.
It is significant that at the regional and local levels, the intensity of anthropogenic press on the marine environment generally increases.
www.offshore-environment.com /anthropogenicimpact.html   (2325 words)

 How Much of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Accumulation Is Anthropogenic?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Climate-change skeptics have argued, however, that anthropogenic carbon emissions are not precipitating global warming.
Anthropogenic carbon emissions and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration from 1900 to present are shown in Figure 1.
The correlation coefficient between cumulative anthropogenic carbon emissions and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is r = 0.998 (e.g., r = 1.0 represents an absolutely perfect match).
members.aol.com /trajcom/private/carbon3.htm   (1469 words)

 Home Page
Similarly, contributions of external sources to anthropogenic mercury depositions to Europe and Asia were estimated to be about 20 percent and 15 percent, respectively.
Anthropogenic emissions from a number of major sources have decreased during the last decade in North America and Europe due to reduction efforts.
On average around the globe, there are indications that anthropogenic emissions of mercury have resulted in deposition rates today that are 1.5 to 3 times higher than those during pre-industrial times.
www.chem.unep.ch /mercury/report/chapter6.htm   (3757 words)

 Ecosystems: Coral Reefs Natural and Anthropogenic Influences
Distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic disturbance is not always simple because the impacts of human actions may not be seen until well after the action has occurred or may not be seen until it is coupled with a natural disturbance.
Anthropogenic influences and natural variability in coral reef ecosystems are discussed below with emphasis on changes or effects seen in the coral reefs of the National Marine Sanctuary System.
Anthropogenic threats to the reef ecosystem in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary stem primarily from coastal development, overfishing, and inappropriate small vessel use.
www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov /about/ecosystems/coralimpacts.html   (2376 words)

Examples are: excavation and deposition of soil and rock, contamination with pollutants, long term alteration of soil reaction by liming, artificial flooding, long term drainage alteration, long term protection from natural flooding, mechanical mixing and soil compaction, and accelerated erosion.
Anthropogenic soils may have physical evidence of their transportation or excavation, or they occur on artificial landforms.
Many Anthropogenic soils in urban environments contain artifacts, garbage, building debris, natural genetic soil fragments in unnatural arrangement, irregular Carbon distribution, buried genetic horizons, or lithologic discontinuities that mark the depth of their alteration or deposition.
clic.cses.vt.edu /icomanth/circ2.html   (1586 words)

 Anthropogenic methane output on rise again after falling - Eastern US Weather Forums
They find that a decrease in the growth rate of atmospheric methane during the 1990s was caused by a decrease in anthropogenic emissions, but that anthropogenic emissions have increased again since 1999.
The effect of this increase on the growth rate of atmospheric methane has been masked by a coincident decrease in wetland emissions, but atmospheric methane levels may increase in the near future if wetland emissions return to their mean 1990s levels.
This has concealed the fact that anthropogenic emissions have resumed their increase, an increase perhaps associated with the accelerating use of fossil fuels by booming Asian economies.
www.easternuswx.com /bb/index.php?showtopic=107618   (1571 words)

 Why does atmospheric CO2 rise
Yet, the seemingly small human-made or `anthropogenic' input is enough to disturb the delicate balance.
"Anthropogenic CO2 is a biogeochemical perturbation of truly geologic proportions" [Sundquist] and has caused a steep rise of atmospheric CO2.
For the ocean, a tentative estimate is that roughly 0.4 GtC/year of anthropogenic carbon stay in the surface layer, while (1-) 1.6 (-2) GtC/year go to the intermediate and deep ocean [Denman, p 495-496] [Schimel 95, p 77] [Siegenthaler].
www.radix.net /~bobg/faqs/scq.CO2rise.html   (2513 words)

 Anthropogenic Effects on Tropical Cyclone Activity
These records strongly suggest that the 0.5 degree centigrade (1 degree Fahrenheit) warming of the tropical oceans we have seen in the past 50 years is unprecedented for perhaps as long as a few thousand years.
Greenhouse gases reduce the amount of infrared radiation leaving the earth's surface, and unless there is a compensating decrease in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface by clouds (but this is complicated because clouds also trap outgoing infrared radiation), the ocean must lose the excess heat by increased evaporation of sea water.
Elementary considerations show that this limit increases with the amount of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, but the magnitude of the increase that would result from the present injection of anthropogenic greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is unknown, owing to large uncertainties about feedbacks in the climate system.
wind.mit.edu /~emanuel/anthro2.htm   (6534 words)

 Anthropogenic Summary
Anthropogenic effects or processes are those that are derived from human activities, as opposed to effects or processes that occur in the natural environment without human influences.
The term is often used in the context of environmental externalities in the form of chemical or biological wastes that are produced as by-products of otherwise purposeful human activities.
Anthropogenic sources include industry, agriculture, mining, transportation, construction, and habitations.
www.bookrags.com /Anthropogenic   (249 words)

 Global Anthropogenic Emissions of Mercury to the Atmosphere - Documentation
Population distribution is widely used as a surrogate parameter for the spatial distribution of emissions from anthropogenic sources when the exact location of the emissions is not known - based on the logic that emissions derived from human activities are co-located with areas of highest population density.
The total global anthropogenic emission inventory estimates for 1995 and 2000 from the data compiled by Pacyna et al (2005) are 2317 and 2188 metric tonnes, respectively.
The anthropogenic emission estimates can be compared with estimates of global mercury emissions to the air from natural sources which are of the order of 2000 metric tonnes per year.
amap.no /Resources/HgEmissions/HgInventoryDocs.html   (1790 words)

 Climate change - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Anthropogenic factors are acts by humans that change the environment and influence climate.
The biggest factor of present concern is the increase in CO levels due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion, followed by aerosols (particulate matter in the atmosphere) which exerts a cooling effect.
Anthropogenic aerosols, particularly sulphate aerosols from fossil fuel combustion, are believed to exert a cooling influence; see graph.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Anthropogenic_climate_change   (3125 words)

 Anthropogenic Heat
For instance, the anthropogenic heat release in central Tokyo exceeds 400Wm
The map of total anthropogenic heat is shown on the Figure 3.
The map does not differ much from the previous map, however, one can see the larger number of "heat islands" in Asia, especially in India, which is because of high population density.
www.iiasa.ac.at /Research/TNT/Draft/heat   (788 words)

 Anthropogenic Landscapes
Anthropogenic landscape transformation (land-use change) is one of the primary drivers of global changes in climate, biodiversity and biogeochemistry.
Ecological processes in anthropogenic landscapes differ profoundly from those of pristine and indirectly impacted ecosystems.
These processes include species introduction and domestication, population management and harvest, the tillage transport and cover of soils by impervious structures, fossil fuel combustion, irrigation and the fertilization of ecosystems with nitrogen, phosphorus and other limiting nutrients.
www.ecotope.org /about/anthropogenic.htm   (407 words)

The 1985 figure was extrapolated to 1860-1994 using estimates of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from terrestrial biota published by Houghton et al.
For livestock farming, estimated methane emissions rose from 25.6 million metric tons in 1860 to 113.1 million metric tons in 1994; this appears to now be the largest individual anthropogenic source of methane emissions, having overtaken rice farming in the early 1980s.
Total estimated anthropogenic methane emissions rose from 79.3 million metric tons in 1860 to 371.0 million metric tons in 1994.
cdiac.esd.ornl.gov /trends/meth/ch4.htm   (1439 words)

 Anthropogenic fire history and red oak forests in south-central Ontario
We hypothesized that the abundance of red oak in these stands was largely the result of anthropogenic burning and natural fires, which would favor the regeneration and recruitment of northern red oak over such shade-tolerant species as sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh).
Fire histories dating from the mid-1600s were constructed by dendrochronological methods from fire scars on stumps, trees, and natural remnants of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), white pine (Pinus strobus L.), and red oak at six sites in south-central Ontario.
The occurrence and abundance of red oak is linked to anthropogenic fire regimes.
www.ncrs.fs.fed.us /pubs/viewpub.asp?key=2174   (330 words)

 ARS | Publication request: Incorporating Anthropogenic Processes in Soil Classification
Although these approaches do not present a complete solution to the problem, they do provide a means of separating soils in which human influence is the primary process of formation, thereby enabling better groupings of these soils with respect to their response to use and management.
Additionally, wide ranges of properties within classes that include anthropogenic soils result in large numbers of series that are unwieldy when attempting to correlate series and interpret map units.
Three approaches to incorporating anthropogenic processes are proposed for use singularly or in combination to minimize impacts on Soil Taxonomy and like systems that rely on morphological criteria for defining classes.
www.ars.usda.gov /research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=139604   (462 words)

 EDGAR anthropogenic emissions
The anthropogenic hydrocarbon emission database used a compound classification into 25 types of compounds.
As a result, 78 percent of the anthropogenic emissions are represented as PAR, 13 percent as OLE and 9 percent as ETH, ALD2, MGLY and CH2O.
Here the units are 1000 tons/year or 1000 tons/month of dry biomass (CO2 or C ?) burned per 5 x 5 degree longitude x latitude box.
www.knmi.nl /~velthove/TM/input/node5.html   (868 words)

 Global Warming: A closer look at the numbers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Units are expressed to 3 significant digits in order to reduce rounding errors for those who wish to walk through the calculations, not to imply numerical precision as there is some variation among various researchers.
To finish with the math, by calculating the product of the adjusted CO2 contribution to greenhouse gases (3.618%) and % of CO2 concentration from anthropogenic (man-made) sources (3.225%), we see that only (0.03618 X 0.03225) or 0.117% of the greenhouse effect is due to atmospheric CO2 from human activity.
For clarity only the man-made (anthropogenic) contributions are labeled on the chart.
www.clearlight.com /~mhieb/WVFossils/greenhouse_data.html   (1931 words)

 Anthropogenic Acidification in Northern Wisconsin Lakes:
Following these comparisons is an attempt to realistically calculate a morphoedaphic index of the type of lake that may be anthropogenically acidified.
  The trend in predictions of regional sensitivity to anthropogenic acidification has been to envision a worst-case scenario in order to identify all areas that are even remotely susceptible.
This paper is not meant to be the definitive treatise on potentials for anthropogenic acidification of lakes in Wisconsin.
oregonstate.edu /~tripph/AcidRain.htm   (2800 words)

 anthropogenic | | Dictionary & Translation by Babylon
Der Begriff anthropogen (vom griechischen anthropos = Mensch und von genese = Erzeugung/Erschaffung) bezeichnet alles vom Menschen beeinflusste, verursachte oder hergestellte.
Kunststoffe anthropogen, weil sie nur vom Menschen und nicht in der Natur hergestellt werden.
Viele Einflüsse auf die Umwelt können sowohl anthropogen als auch natürlich bedingt sein, wobei eine eindeutige Abgrenzung nicht immer möglich ist.
www.babylon.com /definition/anthropogenic/All   (217 words)

 Anthropogenic Effects on Tropical Cyclone Activity
There are reasons to be concerned that the anthropogenic addition of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere might lead to an increase in the energy available to tropical cyclones and therefore to an increase in their limiting intensity; these are discussed in a previous paper by the author (Emanuel, 1987).
There must be considerable doubt, however, about the magnitude of the increase in potential intensity of hurricanes accompanying increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gases.
The main source of uncertainty plaguing calculations of the increase have to do with uncertainties in the principal feedback in the climate system: the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere.
wind.mit.edu /~emanuel/anthro.html   (4008 words)

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