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Topic: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea


    Note: these results are not from the primary (high quality) database.


  
 Travelers' Diarrhea
In situations where the traveler cannot risk the chance of getting diarrhea, cannot control what they eat or drink, or when the immune response is depressed, an antibiotic (e.g., Noroxin® or Cipro®) may be prescribed at one half the usual daily dose to prevent travelers' diarrhea.
Severe travelers' diarrhea is defined as three or more loose stools in an 8-hour period and is associated with some combination of cramping, nausea and vomiting, bloody stools, or fever.
This degree of travelers' diarrhea should be treated with ORT and a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, (e.g., Noroxin® or Cipro®).
www.wellontheroad.com /illnesses/diarrhea.html   (900 words)

  
 CDC - Yellow Book: [4] Travelers' Diarrhea - CDC Travelers' Health
Travelers' diarrhea is characterized by the fairly abrupt onset of loose, watery or semi-formed stools associated with abdominal cramps and rectal urgency.
Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is a clinical syndrome resulting from microbial contamination of ingested food and water; it occurs during or shortly after travel, most commonly affecting persons traveling from an area of more highly developed hygiene and sanitation infrastructure to a less developed one.
The ideal antibiotic is one to which the pathogenic bacteria are sensitive, which has changed over the past few decades as resistance patterns have evolved.
www2.ncid.cdc.gov /travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=travelers_diarrhea.htm&cssNav=browseoyb   (2662 words)

  
 C. difficile colitis
According to a current American Family Medical Center project on pseudomembranous colitis, "Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is a self-limited condition that resolves with fluid and electrolyte support and cessation of the antibiotic therapy.
difficile associated colitis tends to affect debilitated patients, the elderly, persons with recent gastrointestinal procedures and/or surgery, and those who are immunosurpressed because of cancer treatment or AIDS, etc. (3,10) C. difficile should be suspected with anyone with serious diarrhea, especially if they fall into the risk-associated, debilitated population groups.
Does the increase of antibiotic associated colitis mean that patients should avoid antibiotics?
www.austin.cc.tx.us /microbio/2993a/colitis.html   (978 words)

  
 Medmicro Chapter 18
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen that causes a spectrum of intestinal disease from uncomplicated antibiotic-associated diarrhea to severe, possibly fatal, antibiotic-associated colitis.
Diarrhea has come to be accepted as a natural accompaniment of treatment with many antibiotics.
The location of C perfringens enterotoxin within the bacterial cell is controversial; some investigators claim that the enterotoxin is localized in the bacterial cytoplasm and others claim that it is associated with the spore coat.
gsbs.utmb.edu /microbook/ch018.htm   (9599 words)

  
 CPS: Position Statement: Inf.Dis.Imm.Comm.: Clostridium difficile - Pathogen or pest?
In the current climate of frequent injudicious use of oral antibiotics, adverse effects that outweigh treatment benefits may be encountered; antibiotic-associated diarrhea is one such common effect.
Several oral antibiotics are effective in treating C difficile-associated colitis, but metronidazole is the treatment of choice because of its excellent track record and low cost.
Whereas the incubation period for C difficile-associated disease is difficult to determine accurately, diarrhea associated with it may occur within days or up to eight weeks after therapy with medications that alter the gastrointestinal (GI) flora (1).
www.cps.ca /english/statements/ID/ID00-02.htm   (2227 words)

  
 eMedicine - Pseudomembranous Colitis : Article by Joseph Lee, MD
This condition may also be called antibiotic-associated colitis, C difficile colitis, or C difficile diarrhea, reflecting the range of severity of this disease from mild diarrhea to life-threatening colitis.
Evaluation of PMC or antibiotic-associated colitis primarily focuses on the detection of C difficile or its toxins in stool.
The criterion standard for diagnosing PMC in patients involves the visualization of pseudomembranes on bowel mucosa or on microscopic examination of a biopsy sample, which is accomplished through a lower GI endoscopy.
www.emedicine.com /med/topic1942.htm   (3254 words)

  
 Medmicro Chapter 18
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen that causes a spectrum of intestinal disease from uncomplicated antibiotic-associated diarrhea to severe, possibly fatal, antibiotic-associated colitis.
Diarrhea has come to be accepted as a natural accompaniment of treatment with many antibiotics.
Isolation of C tetani from the intestinal flora of horses, coupled with the high frequency of equine tetanus, led to the erroneous assumption that the horse was the animal reservoir of C tetani.
gsbs.utmb.edu /microbook/ch018.htm   (9599 words)

  
 Clostridium difficile Culture
Wexler H, "Diagnosis of Antibiotic-Associated Disease Caused by Clostridium difficile," Clin Microbiol Newslet, 1989, 11:25-32.
difficile includes patients with symptoms of acute abdomen with little or no diarrhea, as well as cases with fulminant life-threatening diarrhea.
Gerding DN, "Disease Associated With Clostridium difficile Infection,&; Ann Intern Med, 1989, 110(4):255-7.
www.labcorp.com /datasets/labcorp/html/chapter/mono/mb004700.htm   (502 words)

  
 Medmicro Chapter 18
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen that causes a spectrum of intestinal disease from uncomplicated antibiotic-associated diarrhea to severe, possibly fatal, antibiotic-associated colitis.
Oral antibiotic therapy is not indicated because it may unpredictably alter the intestinal microecology and allow accidental overgrowth of C botulinum.
Lyerly DM, Krivan HC, Wilkins TD: Clostridium difficile: Its disease and toxins.
gsbs.utmb.edu /microbook/ch018.htm   (9599 words)

  
 Emergency Medicine
The diarrhea is more profuse compared to patients without colitis, and it is associated with cramping abdominal pain in the lower quadrant that is temporarily relieved with passage of loose bowel movements.
Kleinfeld DI, et al.: Parenteral therapy for antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis.
Clostridium difficile colitis in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease may be missed because the symptoms of diarrhea, abdominal pain, and low-grade fever are attributed to a flare-up of the underlying disease process.
www.emedmag.com /html/pre/gic/consults/011505.asp   (3033 words)

  
 Genesis Health System - Alternative Medicine General Information - Saccharomyces Boulardii
Saccharomyces boulardii is a yeast used to prevent diarrhea (loose stools) associated with antibiotic use.
McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, Greenberg RN et al: Prevention of beta-lactam-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii compared with placebo.
Pletincx M, Legein J and Vandenplas Y: Fungemia with Saccharomyces boulardii in a 1-year-old girl with protracted diarrhea.
www.genesishealth.com /micromedex/altmedgen/ame0354.aspx   (458 words)

  
 enterobacteriaceae
In January 1993, a hamburger-borne outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis (bloody diarrhea) associated with ingestion of undercooked fast-food hamburgers occurred in the Seattle-Tacoma, Washington area.
Destruction of the normal intestinal flora by antibiotic therapy may allow resistant nosocomial strains to colonize or overgrow.
Host defenses against ETEC diarrhea: gastric acidity, small-intestinal motility, a large population of normal flora in the large intestine, breast-feeding of infants, and intestinal secretory IgA directed against the CFAs and the toxins.
www.channing.harvard.edu /6.htm   (458 words)

  
 Pseudomembranous Colitis
Clostridium difficile causes pseudomembranous colitis and antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
The major form of intestinal disorders is the pseudomembranous colitis associated with Clostridium difficile which occurs in 10-20% of all AAD.
Pseudomembranous colitis without diarrhea presenting clinically as acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction.
www.thedoctorsdoctor.com:16080 /diseases/pseudomembranous_colitis.htm   (7901 words)

  
 NEJM -- Antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis due to toxin-producing clostridia
A substance producing cytotoxicity in tissue culture was detected in stool specimens from all of four patients with pseudomembranous colitis due to antibiotics and in one of 54 with antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
These results suggest that toxin-producing clostridia are responsible for antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis.
The toxicity in both tissue cultures and hamsters could be reproduced with broth cultures of clostridia strains isolated from four of the five stools.
content.nejm.org /cgi/content/short/298/10/531   (788 words)

  
 eMedicine - Clostridium Difficile Colitis : Article by Craig A Gronczewski, MD
Background: Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus that is responsible for the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis.
Cleary RK: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
C difficile was first described in 1935 as a component of the fecal flora of healthy newborns and was initially not thought to be a pathogen.
www.emedicine.com /med/topic3412.htm   (3227 words)

  
 Inflammatory Bowel Questions and Answers
Very commonly, prolonged use of antibiotics is associated with diarrhea that may be a direct irritative effect of the drug itself (antibiotic-associated diarrhea).
Corticosteroid drugs are also known to decrease the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, increase urinary excretion of vitamin C, calcium, potassium, and zinc; increase levels of blood glucose, serum triglycerides, and serum cholesterol; increase the requirements for vitamin B6, C, folate, and vitamin D; decrease bone formation; and impair wound healing.
Corticosteroid drugs (e.g., prednisone) are most commonly used in "traditional medical" treatments, but these drugs stimulate and increase protein breakdown/loss, and depress protein synthesis; which means loss of lean tissue and additional complications for the liver to replace blood proteins.
www.healingwithnutrition.com /emailqa/inflambowel/inflambowelfaq.html   (3227 words)

  
 Medmicro Chapter 18
Patients can present with a spectrum of disease that varies from uncomplicated antibiotic-associated diarrhea to antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis that may be fatal.
Clostridia are strictly anaerobic to aerotolerant sporeforming bacilli found in soil as well as in normal intestinal flora of man and animals.
By the time the typical lesions of gas gangrene are evident, the disease usually is firmly established and the physician must treat the patient on a clinical basis without waiting for laboratory confirmation.
gsbs.utmb.edu /microbook/ch018.htm   (9599 words)

  
 May 1999 CDA Journal, Copyright 1999 Journal of the California Dental Association
Stergachis A, Perera DR, et al, Antibiotic-associated colitis.
George WL, Antimicrobial-agent-associated colitis and diarrhea: Historical background and clinical aspects.
The onset of Clostridium difficile-associated pseudomembranous colitis is heralded by high fever, marked abdominal tenderness, dehydration, and the initiation of 2 mm to 20 mm in diameter raised adherent yellow plaques interspersed between relatively normal, mildly inflammed colonic mucosa.
www.cda.org /cda_member/pubs/journal/jour599/diarrhea.html   (3948 words)

  
 American Family Physician: Diagnosis and treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis - Tips from Other Journals
Pseudomembranous colitis, associated with antibiotic use, is usually caused by an overgrowth of pathogenic Clostridium difficile bacteria.
The authors conclude that all patients on antibiotics with persistent diarrhea be evaluated for pseudomembranous colitis with tests for C. difficile or sigmoidoscopy.
Patients with pseudomembranous colitis who are mildly ill respond to discontinuation of the antibiotic and replacement of lost fluid and electrolytes.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m3225/is_n1_v48/ai_14076471   (447 words)

  
 EMR Textbook - Infectious Diarrhea
However, if the patient has a high fever, tenesmus, bloody diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, weight loss, day care center participation, rustic or foreign travel, seafood ingestion, or recent antibiotic use, a stool specimen should be examined for fecal leukocytes.
In addition, diarrhea may be associated with an increased urgency to defecate, tenesmus, and perianal discomfort.
Dysentery refers to diarrheal illness associated with abdominal pain, tenesmus, and stool containing blood or mucus.
www.asthma-consult.com /Secure/textbookarticles/Textbook/81_infecdiarr.htm   (447 words)

  
 CDC - Fluoroquinolone Use and Clostridium difficile–Associated Diarrhea
Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea (CDAD) is a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States (1-4).
Matched univariate analysis of risk factors for Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea
difficile throughout their hospitalizations and that antibiotic use promotes the acquisition of this organism (1).
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/EID/vol9no6/02-0385.htm   (2034 words)

  
 eMedicine - Colitis, Pseudomembranous : Article by Vinay K Gheyi, MD, MBBS
Cephalosporins and ampicillin may be the most common antibiotics associated with PMC on the basis of their widespread use (Ros, 1996).
Most cases of PMC are associated with oral rather than parenteral administration of antibiotics (Ros, 1996).
Clostridium difficile infection is responsible for virtually all cases of PMC and for as many as 20% of cases of antibiotic-induced diarrhea without colitis (Kelly, 1994).
www.emedicine.com /radio/topic181.htm   (2034 words)

  
 Nebraska HHS System:  Campylobacter Epidemiology Fact Sheet
In developing countries, Campylobacter infections are associated with illness more often in children than adults, suggesting immune response after repeated infections protects against development of symptoms, but not against colonization of the organism.
Campylobacter can be a cause of diarrhea in puppies and kittens.
Most people will recover on their own, without antibiotic therapy.
www.hhs.state.ne.us /epi/epicampy.htm   (553 words)

  
 Clostridium definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms
Clostridium Difficile Colitis (Antibiotic-Associated Colitis, C. difficile colitis) - Clostridium difficile, or C. difficile colitis symptoms include severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, and deydration.
Clostridium botulinum is the culprit responsible for the food poisoning and other problems associated with botulism.
Clostridium difficile is one of the most common causes of infection of the large bowel (the colon) in the US affecting millions of people yearly.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6539   (383 words)

  
 Naphazoline >>> Ephedrine
Naphazoline Naphazoline Extended use of this drug may decrease its antibiotic capabilities.Overdose symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Caution: Do Not Double the Dose.This drug is a Laxative, hyperosmotic used to treat mental changes associated with liver disease and in constipation relief.It is not uncommon for some to experience Naphazoline gaseousness, diarrhea, increased thirst, and cramps while taking this drug.
This drug should not be taken if you are allergic to any anticholinergic, have narrow-angle glaucoma, severe Naphazoline ulcerative colitis, trouble emptying your bladder, or have stomach bloating.
medicate.pisem.net /Naphazoline.htm   (383 words)

  
 PC
Antibiotic- associated colitis implies a clear history of antibiotic therapy and biopsy evidence of colitis with or without formation of pseudomembrane.
Leukocytosis as a harbinger and surrogate marker of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized patients with diarrhea.
Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) is an acute colitis characterized by the formation of an adherent inflammatory membrane (pseudomembrane) overlying sites of mucosal injury.
www.geocities.com /sampurnaroy2000/PC.html   (672 words)

  
 COLITIS - Pseudomembranous Colitis
in the treatment of antibiotic- associated pseudomembranous colitis.
Pseudomembranous colitis refers to the passage of pseudomembranous material and copious diarrhea caused by the necrolytic exotoxin of Clostridium
Fazio RA, Wickremesinghe PC: Pseudomembranous colitis following prophylactic antibiotic use in...
www.colitissite.com /directory/pseudomembranous-colitis.html   (209 words)

  
 Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea
Approach to patients with multiple relapses of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis.
In the 1970s, important clinical observations of clindamycin-associated pseudomembranous colitis and the demonstration of the potent cytopathic effects of C difficile -derived toxin in animal models established the etiology and pathogenesis of this condition.
The cornerstone of the diagnosis of C difficile colitis is identification of C difficile toxins in the stool.
www.clevelandclinicmeded.com /diseasemanagement/gastro/antibioticdiarrhea/antibioticdiarrhea.htm   (209 words)

  
 PC
Antibiotic- associated colitis implies a clear history of antibiotic therapy and biopsy evidence of colitis with or without formation of pseudomembrane.
Leukocytosis as a harbinger and surrogate marker of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized patients with diarrhea.
Surgical intervention is indicated in complicated cases of fulminant colitis.
www.geocities.com /sampurnaroy2000/PC.html   (209 words)

  
 Clostridium definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms
Clostridium Difficile Colitis (Antibiotic-Associated Colitis, C. difficile colitis) - Clostridium difficile, or C. difficile colitis symptoms include severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, and deydration.
Clostridium botulinum is the culprit responsible for the food poisoning and other problems associated with botulism.
Clostridium perfringens, also known as Clostridium welchii), this is the most common agent of gas gangrene and also causes food poisoning as well as a fulminant form of bowel disease called necrotizing colitis.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6539   (383 words)

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