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Topic: Antibody

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  HON Allergy Glossary Antibody
Immunoglobulins (antibodies) are proteins produced by plasma cells (or B-Cells, a type of lymphocyte), which are designed to control the immune response in extracellular fluids by binding to substances in the body that are recognized as foreign antigens (often proteins on the surface of bacteria and viruses).
Antibodies are diverse, with more than 1010 possible variations, yet each antibody is designed to recognize only a specfic antigen.
The new antibodies, which are all designed to recognize the infecting antigen, are released into the intercellular fluid where they bind to the infecting antigen, identifying it for destruction by phagocytes and the complement system.
www.hon.ch /Library/Theme/Allergy/Glossary/ig.html   (201 words)

  Antibody - MSN Encarta
Antibody, any of perhaps a million kinds of normally occurring protein molecules that are produced in the body of cells called lymphocytes and that act primarily as a defense against invasion by foreign substances.
Animals do not have antibodies to substances to which they have not been exposed, but one animal is able to produce enough different kinds of antibodies to fit the molecular arrangement of any foreign substance it is likely to encounter.
Monoclonal antibodies are used in medicine to detect pregnancy, diagnose disease, and treat conditions caused by toxins or poisonous substances, such as snake venom.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761571643/Antibody.html   (482 words)

  Antibody - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Antibodies exist in clonal lines that are specific to only one antigen, e.g., a virus hull protein.
It is important to note that antibodies cannot attack pathogens within cells, and certain viruses "hide" inside cells (as part of the lysogenic cycle) for long periods of time to avoid them.
In biochemistry, antibodies are used for immunological identification of proteins, using the Western blot method.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Antibody   (2378 words)

Antibody affinity generally increases with repeated exposure to antigen because B cells with higher affinity antigen receptors are selected to produce larger clones of antibody-secreting plasma cells.
Antibody is synthesized on membrane-bound polyribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum, RER) in the cytoplasm of the B cell or plasma cell.
Are all the molecules in the antiserum antibodies?
microvet.arizona.edu /Courses/MIC419/Tutorials/antibody.html   (2807 words)

 Antigen-antibody reactions
The ratio between the antigen and antibody influences the detection of antigen-antibody complexes because the size of the complexes formed is related to the concentration of the antigen and antibody.
Immunofluorescence is a technique whereby an antibody labeled with a fluorescent molecule (fluorescein or rhodamine or one of many other fluorescent dyes) is used to detect the presence of an antigen in or on a cell or tissue by the fluorescence emitted by the bound antibody.
In indirect immunofluorescence, the antibody specific for the antigen is unlabeled and a second anti-immunoglobulin antibody directed toward the first antibody is tagged with the fluorochrome (Figure 21).
pathmicro.med.sc.edu /mayer/ab-ag-rx.htm   (3067 words)

 CDC - Passive Antibody Administration (Immediate Immunity) as a Specific Defense Against Biological Weapons   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Two caveats in the use of passive antibody therapy with immune sera against hemorrhagic fevers that have emerged from studies in animal models are the existence of disease-enhancing antibodies (65) and the need for high-titer sera to achieve protection (66).
Antibody preparations continue to be used as antitoxins in the treatment of tetanus (69), diphtheria (69), botulism (18), and venomous bites (70).
In fact, antibody preparations in the form of serum therapy were used historically for the treatment of anthrax (13), tularemia (49), and plague (37), albeit in uncontrolled trials that do not meet modern standards for establishing efficacy.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/eid/vol8no8/01-0516.htm   (7005 words)

 Antibody - Medical Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Antibodies are glycoproteins that are called immunoglobulins that are found in the blood and tissue fluids produced by cells of the immune system that bind to substances in the body that are recognized as foreign antigens.
Antibodies stick to pathogens and work in a variety of ways to help eliminate the antigen that elicited their production.
Antibodies are less effective if they are in low concentrations meaning that it's sometimes less effective in taking care of an already established infection such as viral infections.
www.nursingstudy.com /encyclopedia/Antibody.html   (608 words)

 Genentech: Newsroom - Media Kits - Antibody Technology Glossary of Terms
A mouse antibody administered to a human is seen by the human immune system as a foreign protein (antigen).
Murine antibodies may also be ineffective as human therapeutics due to their rapid removal from human blood and their weak ability to recruit human immune system processes necessary to clear the targeted antigen (e.g.
HUMANIZED ANTIBODY: A genetically engineered antibody in which the minimum mouse part from a murine antibody is transplanted onto a human antibody; generally humanized antibodies are 5-10% mouse and 90-95% human.
www.gene.com /gene/news/kits/science/antibodyglossary.jsp   (1001 words)

 antibody. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The antibody molecule is composed of four polypeptide chains (see peptide)—two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains—joined by disulfide bridges.
The light chains have a variable portion that is different in each type of antibody and is the active portion of the molecule that binds with the specific antigen.
Antibodies combine with some antigens, such as bacterial toxins, and neutralize their effect; they remove other substances from circulation in body fluids; they bind certain antigens together, a process known as agglutination; and they activate complement, blood serum proteins that cause the destruction of invading cells.
www.bartleby.com /65/an/antibody.html   (264 words)

 antibody - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about antibody   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Protein molecule produced in the blood by lymphocytes in response to the presence of foreign or invading substances (antigens);; such substances include the proteins carried on the surface of infecting micro-organisms.
Antibody production is only one aspect of immunity in vertebrates.
Antibodies were discovered in 1890 by the German physician Emil von Behring and the Japanese bacteriologist Shibasaburo Kitasato.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /Antibody   (338 words)

 Antiphospholipid Syndrome   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, also known as Hughes Syndrome, is a disorder characterized by multiple different antibodies that are associated with both arterial and venous thrombosis (clots).
The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is an autoimmune phenomenon.
The role of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in both arterial and venous thrombotic disorders is an active area of clinical research.
www-admin.med.uiuc.edu /hematology/PtAPS.htm   (1308 words)

 Robert Cathcart MD at orthomed.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Antibodies are not "primed" to match antigens unless the antibodies wander into areas that have many free radicals or a relatively oxidized redox state.
Antibodies, formed by matching slightly altered self-molecules, slightly altered by the previous injury or infection, were at the time of the original insult suppressed as the original inflammation resolved.
Additionally, it may be that the B-cell receptors (being identical to the antibodies) on the surface of the B cells are also reduced in tissues with relatively reduced redox potential and the formation of antibodies lessened for that reason.
www.orthomed.com /unprimed.htm   (6504 words)

 Antibody Staining Tutorial
When using these labelled antibodies, it is often necessary to utilise a two step staining protocol, either due to lack of availability of a suitable, directly fluorescently labelled primary antibody, or for other reasons such as possible signal amplification.
Consider which antibody binds to the receptor on the cell surface and one can appreciate that the concentration of the primary antibody really is critical to successful labelling of the receptors.
The most likely cause of this problem, which occurs from time to time, is splashing of antibody from one well into the next and is one of the downsides of this method of cell staining, where cells are stained, washed and spun all in the 96 well tray.
jcsmr.anu.edu.au /facslab/antibody.html   (720 words)

 ACS :: Monoclonal Antibodies
Monoclonal antibody therapy is a passive immunotherapy because the antibodies are produced in large quantities outside the body (in the lab) rather than by your immune system...
Monoclonal antibody therapy is a form of passive immunotherapy because it uses antibodies made in large numbers outside the body (in the lab) rather than by a person's own immune system.
The first monoclonal antibodies were made in the lab by fusing a myeloma (a type of bone marrow cancer) cell from a mouse with a mouse B cell that makes a specific antibody.
www.cancer.org /docroot/ETO/content/ETO_1_4X_Monoclonal_Antibody_Therapy_Passive_Immunotherapy.asp?sitearea=ETO   (1603 words)

Clinically significant antibodies are those antibodies known to cause transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn.
Other the AB antibodies, which are saline agglutinins and IgM, the rest of clinically significant antibodies are IgG antibodies that are warm-acting and may only be demonstrated at the antiglobulin stage of testing.
Antibodies that show up at the immediate spin phase are most likely nuisance antibodies that won't cause transfusion reactions.
matcmadison.edu /is/hhps/mlt/mljensen/BloodBank/lectures/antibody_screening.htm   (977 words)

 Antibody Structure
Antibodies are divided into five major classes, IgM, IgG, Iga, IgD, and IgE, based on their constant region structure and immune function.
This ribbon structure shows the antibody's HV (purple) and FR (yellow) regions of the Fab, and their interaction with an epitope of the antigen.
Close-up of a hydrogen bond – The Tyr 101 of the antibody forms a hydrogen bond with the Gln 121 of the antigen.
www.biology.arizona.edu /immunology/tutorials/antibody/structure.html   (612 words)

 Monoclonal Antibody Technology - The Basics
Second, some antibodies, once activated by the occurrence of a disease, continue to confer resistance against that disease; classic examples are the antibodies to the childhood diseases chickenpox and measles.
Not only can antibodies be used therapeutically, to protect against disease; they can also help to diagnose a wide variety of illnesses, and can detect the presence of drugs, viral and bacterial products, and other unusual or abnormal substances in the blood.
These antibodies are called monoclonal because they come from only one type of cell, the hybridoma cell; antibodies produced by conventional methods, on the other hand, are derived from preparations containing many kinds of cells, and hence are called polyclonal.
www.accessexcellence.org /AB/IE/Monoclonal_Antibody.html   (586 words)

 antibody   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
An antibody is a protein produced by B-cell lymphocytes of the immune system.
One end of the antibody molecule is specifically shaped to bind tightly against the foreign substance.
Antibodies are fantastically specific, and are formed in great variety to attach only to unique sections of the antigen.
www.drhull.com /EncyMaster/A/antibody.html   (119 words)

 Acetylcholine receptor antibody Encyclopedia Search - Drug Price Search
Acetylcholine receptor antibody is an antibody found in the blood of people with myasthenia gravis.
The acetylcholine receptor antibody attacks receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which sends signals from nerves to muscles and from nerve to nerve in the brain.
Presence of acetylcholinesterase antibody in the blood of patients with symptoms of myasthenia gravis supports the diagnosis, but lack of these antibodies does not rule out this condition.
www.drug-price-search.com /encyclopedia/?encyclopedia_name_url=87&level=2   (435 words)

Each antibody molecule is essentially identical to the receptor molecule of the original B cell that produced it.
Antibodies are grouped into five classes according to these constant regions, each class being designated by a letter attached to an abbreviation of the word immunoglobulin: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, and IgE.
Preformed antibodies, which are derived from the blood serum of previously infected people or animals, are often administered in an antiserum to another person in order to provide him with an immediate, passive immunization against fast-acting toxins or microbes, such as those in snakebites or tetanus infections.
www.britannica.com /nobel/micro/26_45.html   (741 words)

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