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Topic: Anticholinesterase


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In the News (Mon 19 Aug 19)

  
  Tobacco Budworm Populations in Cotton: Heterogeniety of Response to Anticholinesterase Inhibitors
All anticholinesterase insecticides are foliar sprays and should be applied to 1- to 3-day-old larvae for maximum control.
Thus, response by this insect to anticholinesterase insecticides is not an all or none scenario.
Today, the anticholinesterase insecticides applied to control the tobacco budworm are effective but some applications are not as effective as they should be against some populations in some fields during some years.
www.msstate.edu /dept/entomology/v8n1/art18.html   (1183 words)

  
 Phospholine Iodide Solution Drug Information Phospholine Iodide Solution
Where there is a quiescent uveitis or a history of this condition, anticholinesterase therapy should be avoided or used cautiously because of the intense and persistent miosis and ciliary muscle contraction that may occur.
Anticholinesterase drugs should be used with extreme caution, if at all, in patients with marked vagotonia, bronchial asthma, spastic gastrointestinal disturbances, peptic ulcer, pronounced bradycardia and hypotension, recent myocardial infarction, epilepsy, parkinsonism, and other disorders that may respond adversely to vagotonic effects.
Anticholinesterase drugs should be employed prior to ophthalmic surgery only as a considered risk because of the possible occurrence of hyphema.
www.drugs.com /PDR/Phospholine_Iodide_Solution.html   (1877 words)

  
 THE MERCK MANUAL OF GERIATRICS, Ch. 54, Muscular Disorders
Edrophonium (a short-acting anticholinesterase) is given IV as a single initial dose of 2 mg and compared with placebo in a double-blind fashion while the patient is monitored by ECG; IV atropine and resuscitative equipment must be available because of the risk of cardiac rhythm disturbance, particularly in elderly persons.
First-line therapy is often an anticholinesterase drug, such as pyridostigmine bromide at an initial dose of 30 to 60 mg po tid or qid.
Concomitant use of ephedrine 25 mg bid or tid with pyridostigmine may have a synergistic effect (the exact mechanism by which ephedrine affects skeletal muscle contraction is unknown).
www.merck.com /mrkshared/mmg/sec7/ch54/ch54b.jsp   (741 words)

  
 Lincolnshire Post-Polio Library [Anticholinesterase-responsive neuromuscular junction transmission defects in ...
This was performed by administering pyridostigmine to all patients, blinded to the results of the edrophonium test, and rating their fatigue and functional level before and one month after initiation of low dose pyridostigmine.
Anticholinesterase agents, which inhibit the hydrolysis of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction and prolong its effect, can clearly be associated with acute and chronic toxicity (both pre- and post-synaptic) in normal experimental animals, and probably in human patients
In conclusion, our trial indicates that NMJ transmission defects can ameliorate with anticholinesterases in fatigued post-polio patients, and that these defects may be a cause of fatigue in a proportion of this patient population.
www.ott.zynet.co.uk /polio/lincolnshire/library/trojan/anticholinesterase_rnjtd.html   (5255 words)

  
 Myasthenia Gravis - Treatments for the myasthenic medical condition
It would be helpful if the neurologist has extensive knowledge and experience in the management of MG (with the incidence of MG in only 1 person for at least every 10,000 people, it is highly likely that a number of neurologists have had little experience with this condition).
Anticholinesterase Therapy - an attempt to strengthen neuromuscular transmission with the use of drugs such as pyridostigmine bromide (Mestinon, Mestinon extended-release) and neostigmine (Prostigmin).
The myasthenic who is prescribed large daily dosage of anticholinesterase and suffering severe side effects or a worsening of their condition should question their doctor about their therapy.
www.myasthenia.org.au /html/treatments.htm   (5505 words)

  
 Effects of the Anticholinesterase Edrophonium on Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability in ...
Anticholinesterase drugs are used clinically to facilitate cholinergic transmission.
Bachoo M and Polosa C (1992) An AF-DX 116 sensitive inhibitory mechanism modulates nicotinic and muscarinic transmission in cat superior cervical ganglion in the presence of anticholinesterase.
Backman SB, Bachoo M and Polosa C (1993a) Mechanisms of the bradycardia produced in the cat by the anticholinesterase neostigmine.
jpet.aspetjournals.org /cgi/content/full/300/1/112   (3922 words)

  
 IOM Long-Term Health Effects of Exposure to Sarin and Other Anticholinesterase Chemical Warfare Agents
This is the second survey done to examine the adverse long-term effects of known exposure in the volunteers from the Edgewood experiments.
Experimental exposure to anticholinesterase agents was associated with significantly greater sleep problems and significantly fewer attention problems, depending on the control group with which the comparison was made.
Statistically significant differences were not found in memory problems, peripheral neuropathy, vestibular dysfunction (i.e., dizziness), depression, generalized anxiety, somatization, or prevalence of birth defects.
www.iom.edu /report.asp?id=5842   (391 words)

  
 Data Sheet
The receptors antagonised by atropine in therapeutic doses are primarily the peripheral structures that are stimulated or inhibited by muscarine (ie.
The drug also prevents or abolishes bradycardia or asystole produced by injection of choline esters, anticholinesterase agents or other parasympathetic drugs, and cardiac arrest produced by stimulation of the vagus.
To reverse the effects of non depolarising muscle relaxants, 600 mcg-1.2 mg atropine sulfate may be given to adults as a slow IV injection in conjunction with the anticholinesterase agent (e.g.
www.medsafe.govt.nz /Profs/Datasheet/a/AtropineSulphateinj.htm   (1900 words)

  
 Environmental Health Perspectives 103, Number 6, June 1995: Focus
Anticholinesterase pesticides inhibit breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, a serine hydrolase enzyme.
Whole-animal studies of carbaryl and other anticholinesterase pesticides to determine whether natural killer cell inhibition occurs at low doses from repeated exposures, as would be the case in chronic household pesticide use, have yet to be concluded.
Chlorpyrifos, an anticholinesterase organophosphate that is among the 10 most commonly used household insecticides, has been in use since 1966.
www.herc.org /news/pesticides/focus.html   (4633 words)

  
 Troops Exposed to New Agents at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Follow-Up
In 1985, a report was issued on the current health status of the test subjects, including 1,581 men who had been exposed to anticholinesterase compounds such as GA (tabun), GN (sarin), GD (soman), GF, and VX.
Three groups were studied: those exposed to anticholinesterase agents, those exposed to other chemical agents, and those exposed to no agents.
The health of subjects in the anticholinesterase group was compared with the health of subjects in the other two comparison groups.
www.gulflink.osd.mil /medsearch/ChemicalWarfare/Chemical/DoD93.shtml   (422 words)

  
 Military Medicine: Long-term health effects of exposure to sarin and other anticholinesterase chemical warfare agents
There were only two statistically significant differences: volunteers in anticholinesterase agent tests reported fewer attention problems than those in other chemical tests and greater sleep disturbance than those in no chemical tests.
Other evidence suggests that persons exposed to low levels of these chemicals for prolonged periods might also be at risk for mild polyneuropathy.5 Based on these findings, the current follow-up study focused on self-reported neuropsychological impairment, including sleep disorders, anxiety, as well as depression and neurological deficits, including peripheral nerve disease and vestibular dysfunction.
The current study groups were identical in composition to those in the 1985 study, except that decedents were removed before undertaking the telephone survey and that the OCT subjects were limited to those exposed to two or more agents (thus eliminating those who were exposed to only one other chemical agent).
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3912/is_200303/ai_n9196140   (1031 words)

  
 Cholinesterases in Neural Development: New Findings and Toxicologic Implications
The toxicology of anticholinesterase agents in adults is relatively well understood, but less is known about their effects on the young.
If this suggestion is valid, then we must consider whether anticholinesterase pesticides might harm immature organisms by hindering the architectural development of their nervous systems.
That is, various anticholinesterases were examined in neuronal culture to determine whether enzyme inhibition led to abnormal differentiation and outgrowth of axons.
ehp.niehs.nih.gov /members/1999/Suppl-1/59-64brimijoin/brimijoin-full.html   (4608 words)

  
 [No title]
The anticholinesterase poisons prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine by deactivating cholinesterase.
Many of the organic phosphates widely used as insecticides are metabolized in the body to produce anticholinesterase poisons.
The "anticholinesterase" poisons inactivate cholinesterase and therefore prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine(2).
www.uky.edu /~holler/neurotox.html   (1416 words)

  
 NursingCenter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The anticholinesterase drugs enhance transmission of impulses across the neuromuscular junction and help prevent breakdown of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase.Because they're used to reduce symptoms of myasthenia gravis, these drugs must be taken on time.
If the patient delays, she'll develop muscle weakness and she won't be able to swallow the drug.The typical dosage for pyridostigmine is 30 to 120 mg every 3 hours to control weakness.
Because anticholinesterase drugs can cause abdominal cramps and diarrhea, advise the patient to take the medication with a small amount of food.
www.nursingcenter.com /prodev/cearticleprint.asp?CE_ID=447066   (2534 words)

  
 Nat' Academies Press, Gulf War and Health: Updated Literature Review of Sarin (2004)
The anticholinesterase-exposed group was exposed to at least one of 15 anticholinesterase agents, the most common being Agent VX (n = 740), sarin (n = 246), and eserine (physostigmine, n = 138).
Exact doses are not known, but in an appendix to the 2003 study, the authors note that their review of original records found 17 of 25 sarin-exposed servicemen to have experienced the acute cholinergic syndrome.
Only sleep disturbances were more prevalent in the anticholinesterase group than in the nonexposed group (sleep disturbances score, 0–9; mean difference, +0.28; 95% CI did not include 1).
www.nap.edu /books/0309092949/html/49.html   (606 words)

  
 [No title]
The organophosphorus anticholinesterase agents are hydrolyzed in the body by a group of enzymes known as A-esterases or paraoxonases.
The cardiovascular actions of anticholinesterase agents are complex, since they reflect both ganglionic and postganglionic effects of accumulated ACh on the heart and blood vessels.
The actions of anticholinesterase agents on autonomic effector cells, & to some extent those on CNS, are antagonized by atropine, an antidote of choice.
www.gulflink.osd.mil /pesto/pest_refs/n53en543/Malathion.html   (2927 words)

  
 Follow-Up Investigation of Troops Exposed to Nerve Agents at Aberdeen Proving Ground (Pilot Study) (See also VA-63A; ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
A three-volume report was issued, the last volume dealing with the current health status of test subjects, including 1,581 men exposed to anticholinesterase compounds such as GA (tabun), GB (sarin), GD (soman), GF, and VX.
Taking the suggestion of the NRC committee, we proposed to survey by telephone the Edgewood subjects who were exposed to anticholinesterase agents for the more common OP exposure-associated outcomes; neurological deficits, particularly perpheral never disease, and neuropsychological impairment, including sleep disorders, anxiety, and depression.
In particular, it was thought that healthier men were more likely to have been assigned to chemical exposure groups, thus a second control group consisting of men who were exposed to chemical agents other than anticholinesterases were also included in the follow-up.
deploymentlink.osd.mil /deploymed/projects/DoD116A.shtml   (375 words)

  
 bmj.com Rapid Responses for Kmietowicz, 330 (7490) 495
Anticholinesterase inhibitors would reduce the availability of acetylcholine in the brain by working against the inhibition of the enzyme which breaks acetylcholine down.
Dr. Jeffrey J. Clarke points out that the term "anticholinesterase inhibitors", is a non-pharmacologic neologism, used mistakenly in a BMJ news item.
Of course cholinesterase inhibitors (also known as anticholinesterases) are used to treat some patients with Alzheimer's disease.
bmj.bmjjournals.com /cgi/eletters/330/7490/495-a   (4774 words)

  
 SECONDARY POISONING OF EAGLES FOLLOWING INTENTIONAL POISONING OF COYOTES WITH ANTICHOLINESTERASE PESTICIDES IN WESTERN ...
Occurrence of incidents diagnosed as anticholinesterase poisoning of eagles between 1993 and 2002.
Seasonal distribution of anticholinesterase poisoning incidents involving eagles in western Canada between 1993 and 2002.
W. Anticholinesterase poisoning of birds: Field monitoring and diagnosis of acute poisoning.
www.jwildlifedis.org /cgi/content/full/40/2/163   (3704 words)

  
 IOM Long-term Follow-up of Experimental Exposures to Sarin and Other Anticholinesterase Compounds
This study is intended to determine whether the group of military personnel (now veterans) experimentally exposed to sarin and other anticholinesterase chemical warfare agents at the Edgewood Arsenal between 1955 and 1975 now suffer any long-term health effects attributable to that exposure.
The earlier study of long-term health effects was directed toward all experimental subjects, regardless of type of chemical exposure, and was, of necessity, quite general.
In particular, because it is thought that the actions of AC chemical warfare agents are similar to those of organophosphate pesticides, the study will concentrate on long-term neurologic and neuropsychologic health effects.
www.iom.edu /project.asp?id=4913   (226 words)

  
 Health Topics
In the Tensilon test, the drug Tensilon is administered, and muscle response is evaluated to help diagnose myasthenia gravis (a chronic, progressive disease characterized by weakness of the voluntary muscles).
The test helps diagnosis myasthenia gravis, may aid in telling the difference between myasthenic and other similar neurological conditions, and may be used to monitor oral anticholinesterase therapy.
In myasthenic crisis (worsening of the disease that requires anticholinesterase therapy), there is a brief improvement in the muscle strength.
www.netwellness.org /ency/article/003930.htm   (461 words)

  
 Toxicity of the Organophosphate Chemical Warfare Agents GA, GB, and VX: Implications for Public Protection   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The clinical significance of these effects is doubtful, however, because the concentrations of anticholinesterase needed to exert effects in ionic channels in vitro are many times the LD in vivo.
An analysis of the central and peripheral components of respiratory failure produced by anticholinesterase poisoning in the rabbit.
Observations on pharmacology of the anticholinesterases sarin and tabun.
ehp.niehs.nih.gov /members/1994/102-1/munro-full.html   (17024 words)

  
 Lincolnshire Post-Polio Library [Correlation of Electrophysiology with Pathology, Pathogenesis, and Anticholinesterase ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
PPS patients often provide a history consistent with NMJ dysfunction; muscle fatiguability is reported as a major symptom of the disorder (increased muscle weakness with exertion, resolving on rest) that is reminiscent of myasthenia gravis.
We initially began open trials of the anticholinesterase pyridostigmine in a group of PPS patients complaining of fatigue.
Recent data also suggest that anticholinesterases may increase strength in PPS patients, possibly due to repair of NMJ transmission at synapses that are so unstable that they are subject to blocking of transmission.
ott.zynet.co.uk /polio/lincolnshire/library/cashman/correlation.html   (4923 words)

  
 Presentation and outcome of severe anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning -- Verhulst et al. 86 (5): 352 -- Archives ...
Presentation and outcome of severe anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning -- Verhulst et al.
Presentation and outcome of severe anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning
Anticholinesterase poisoning was defined as the presence of
adc.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/86/5/352   (1681 words)

  
 Myasthenia Gravis and Insecticides
He said, "Organophosphorous pesticides have potent anticholinesterase properties and may produce a cholinergic crisis in anyone excessively exposed.
A cholinergic crisis is a chemically induced overdose of medication or overexposure to an anticholinesterase agent.
But in myasthenia gravis, a cholinesterase inhibitor, also known as an anticholinesterase agent, can be used to block the cholinesterase from working.
www.mgfa-mgnet.org /html/insecticide.htm   (1348 words)

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