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Topic: Antiemetic

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In the News (Tue 21 May 19)

  PREVENTION OF CHEMOTHERAPY-INDUCED NAUSEA AND VOMITING   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
The rationale for using combination regimens of antiemetics to prevent or treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting stems from the multiple neurotransmitters which influence the vomiting center of the medulla.
Tailoring the antiemetic regimen to the intrinsic emetogenicity of the chemotherapy regimen is considered a basic principle of preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Antiemetic therapy should be given on a scheduled basis, around the clock, throughout the period of anticipated emetic response.
daccx.bsd.uchicago.edu /drug/Bulletins/n0696.html   (3913 words)

  Advances in antiemetic pharmacology
We must consider the efficacy of traditional antiemetics, although they have a poor side-effect profile, and the cost of diferent 5-HT -antagonists (table 1) to decide which is the better and cheaper antiemetic in each situation.
We studied the antiemetic effect of dexamethasone in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study in females who underwent general anesthesia for major gynecological surgery and used a IV-PCA with morphine in the postoperative period.
Antiemetic activity of the NK1 receptor antagonist GR205171 in the treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynecological surgery.
www.euroanesthesia.org /education/rc_vienna/09rc4.HTM   (3163 words)

 Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannibinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate (Annals of Internal ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
It might be argued that the association of THC plasma concentrations to the incidence of nausea and vomiting is not causally related to an antiemetic effect of THC, but rather due to increased absorption of oral doses by the gastrointestinal tract in patients experiencing less nausea and vomiting from other causes.
Preliminary data indicate that the antiemetic effect of THC in patients receiving a combination of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide may be less effective.
The antiemetic action appears to be related to THC plasma concentrations as well as to the patient's psychological "high." A dose schedule of 10 mg/in2 every 3 h for a total of five doses was associated with substantial therapeutic benefit and minimal toxicity.
www.thecompassionclub.org /library/antiemetic7.html   (4048 words)

 UroToday - Aprepitant Regimen Sustains Antiemetic Effect Over Multiple Chemotherapy Cycles
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - The addition of the drug aprepitant to other antiemetic therapy is associated with less nausea and vomiting during an initial cycle of chemotherapy, and the response is maintained well during subsequent cycles, investigators report.
"The addition of aprepitant to standard antiemetic therapy represents an important advance in supportive care for patients receiving multiple cycles of highly emetogenic chemotherapy," Dr. de Wit's group concludes.
Republication or redistribution of Reuters Limited content, including by framing or similar means, is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of Reuters Limited.
www.urotoday.com /browse_categories/penis__urethra_cancer/aprepitant_regimen_sustains_antiemetic_effect_over_multiple_chemotherapy_cycles.html   (405 words)

 Antiemetic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Antiemetics are typically used to treat motion sickness and the side effects of opioid analgesics and chemotherapy directed against cancer.
This page was last modified 13:11, 15 January 2006.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Antiemetic   (71 words)

 Cannabis Research - Medical Uses - anti-emetic
Antiemetic effect of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis as compared to placebo and compazine.
While excellent antiemetic control was achieved at the dosage 15 mg/m2, dysphoria was encountered at this dose level and we recommend that an initial dose of 5 mg/m2 which, if necessary, can be carefully increased to achieve maximum antiemetic benefit.
Dronabinol was an effective antiemetic used in combination with prochlorperazine in nausea and vomiting unresponsive to conventional antiemetics.
www.ukcia.org /research/medline/5b.htm   (4500 words)

 Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: The Importance of Acute Antiemetic Control -- Schnell 8 (2): 187 -- The ...
Antiemetic activity of high doses of metoclopramide combined with methylprednisolone versus metoclopramide alone in cisplatin-treated cancer patients: a randomized double-blind trial of the Italian Oncology Group for Clinical Research.
Double-blind, randomized comparison of the antiemetic efficacy of intravenous dolasetron mesylate and intravenous ondansetron in the prevention of acute cisplatin-induced emesis in patients with cancer.
Antiemetic efficacy and pharmacokinetics of intravenous ondansetron infusion during chemotherapy conditioning for bone marrow transplant.
theoncologist.alphamedpress.org /cgi/content/full/8/2/187   (5687 words)

 Antiemetic Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Patients Receiving Cancer Chemotherapy (The New England Journal of ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
For all patients an antiemetic effect was observed in 14 of 20 tetrahydrocannabinol courses and in none of 22 placebo courses.
His response to placebo, therefore, is unevaluable because of the impossibility of differentiating an antiemetic effect of placebo from the emetic effect of chemotherapy.
Of the six, two voluntarily withdrew from the study because they did not want to risk another placebo course, one had chemotherapy discontinued, one died of disease, and two are still in the study.
www.thecompassionclub.org /library/antiemetic.html   (2136 words)

 The use of inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy (New York State Journal of Medicine, October ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Abstract: A prospective pilot study of the use of inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy was conducted.
antiemetic therapy may be necessary for continued control of symptoms.
The mechanism of the antiemetic action of cannabinoids is unknown.
www.thecompassionclub.org /library/antiemetic3.html   (1500 words)

 Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannibinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose Methotrexate
Conventional antiemetics, when tested, have been relatively ineffective in reducing these side effects.
In addition, it appears that the antiemetic effect of THC is associated with the THC plasma concentration after oral and smoked doses.
Sedation has been reported to be the commonest side effect of phenothiazine antiemetics as well (19).
www.ukcia.org /research/AntiemeticForMethotrexate.html   (4253 words)

 Drug Policy Alliance: Marijuana as Antiemetic Medicine: A Survey of Oncologists' Experiences and Attitudes
This report of oncologists experiences with and attitudes about marijuana as an antiemetic is based on a survey of these specialists conducted in the spring of 1990.
Respondents were asked how frequently they prescribed Marinol, whether any of their patients had used marijuana as an antiemetic, whether they had directly observed or discussed marijuana's medical use with patients, and whether they had ever recommended that a patient try marijuana.
Oncologists were also asked to estimate the proportion of their patients who reported effective emetic control or negative side effects from using marijuana or Marinol, to directly compare the safety and efficacy of marijuana and Marinol, and to estimate what proportion of their patients experienced net benefits from their use of marijuana.
www.drugpolicy.org /library/mmjdobl.cfm   (3104 words)

 Marijuana as Antiemetic Medicine: A Survey of Oncologists' Exper
Abstract: A random-sample anonymous survey of the members of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) was conducted in the spring of 1990 measuring the attitudes and experiences of American oncologists concerning the antiemetic use of marijuana in cancer chemotherapy patients.
The survey was mailed to about one-third (N = 2430) of all U.S.-based ASCO members and yielded a response rate of 43% (1035).
This survey demonstrates that oncologists' experience with the medical use of marijuana is more extensive, and their opinions of it more favorable, than the regulatory authorities appear to have believed.
www.druglibrary.org /schaffer/hemp/mariem1.htm   (236 words)

 Medical Marijuana: Nausea and Vomiting
None of these studies compared oral dronabinol or smoked marijuana with what are now considered the most effective antiemetic regimens, the combination of a specific serotonin antagonist (like ondansetron, granisetron, or dolasetron) plus dexamethasone, which were introduced in the early 1990s.
Without antiemetic protection, 98 percent of similar patients vomit a median of six times within the first 24 hours alone after cisplatin (Kris 1996).
Side effects of these newer antiemetic regimens are negligible and would permit a patient to drive or return to his or her job immediately after receiving chemotherapy.
www.hivpositive.com /f-Nutrition/MedicalMarijuana/MM-Nausea.html   (811 words)

 National Cancer Institute - Marijuana Use in Supportive Care for Cancer
Doctors must tailor antiemetic therapy to meet each individual's needs, taking into account the type of anticancer drugs being administered; the patient's general condition, age, and related factors; and, of course, the extent to which the antiemetic is helpful.
National Cancer Institute (NCI) scientists feel that other antiemetic drugs or combinations of antiemetic drugs have been shown to be more effective than synthetic THC as “first-line therapy” for nausea and vomiting caused by anticancer drugs.
However, any antiemetic effects of smoking marijuana may not be consistent because of varying potency, depending on the source of the marijuana contained in the cigarette.
www.cancer.gov /cancertopics/factsheet/support/marijuana   (915 words)

The initial dose of the oral antiemetic drug is administered within 2 hours of the administration of the chemotherapy drug.
More than one oral antiemetic drug may be covered for concurrent use if more than one oral drug is needed to fully replace the intravenous drugs that would otherwise have been given.
There must also be a statement on the order which indicates that the oral antiemetic drug is a full therapeutic replacement for an intravenous antiemetic drug and is used as part of a cancer chemotherapy regimen.
www.tricenturion.com /content/dmerc/rev17_ch19_misc-oral_antiemetic.cfm   (1530 words)

 A risk score-dependent antiemetic approach effectively reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting - a continuous quality ...
A risk score-dependent antiemetic approach effectively reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting - a continuous quality improvement initiative: [Un traitement antiemetique relie au score de risque reduit efficacement les nausees et les vomissements postoperatoires - une initiative d'amelioration continue de la qualite] -- Pierre et al.
Antiemetic prophylaxis does not improve outcomes after outpatient surgery when compared to symptomatic treatment.
Superior prolonged antiemetic prophylaxis with a four-drug multimodal regimen - comparison with propofol or placebo.
www.cja-jca.org /cgi/content/full/51/4/320   (2714 words)

 Antiemetic treatment in patients (pts) submitted to consecutive days of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) ± folinic acid (FA)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Introduction: The necessity of an antiemetic prophylaxis in pts treated with chemotherapy (CT) of low emetogenic potential, as 5-FU ± FA fractionated on several consecutive days, is still an unsolved problem due to the lack of controlled clinical trials.
Two hundred and nineteen pts (84.5%) received an antiemetic prophylaxis: 43.4% a 5-HT3 antagonist ± steroids, 37.5% an antidopaminergic drug (metoclopramide or alizapride), 10.9% a steroid ± antidopaminergic drug and 8.2% other drugs.
The complete protection from V/N during the five days in the 186 pts was not significantly different among patients receiving or not an antiemetic prophylaxis (88.1%/64.9% vs 88.9%/55.6%).
www.esmo.org /reference/abstracts/psc/680.htm   (402 words)

 Ondansetron Plus Metopimazine Compared With Ondansetron Plus Metopimazine Plus Prednisolone as Antiemetic Prophylaxis ...
Kaizer L, Warr D, Hoskins P, et al: Effect of schedule and maintenance on the antiemetic efficacy of ondansetron combined with dexamethasone in acute and delayed nausea and emesis in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: A phase III trial by the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group.
Italian Group for Antiemetic Research: Persistence of efficacy of three antiemetic regimens and prognostic factors in patients undergoing moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.
The Italian Group for Antiemetic Research: Dexamethasone, granisetron, or both for the prevention of nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy for cancer.
www.jco.org /cgi/content/full/19/7/2091   (3451 words)

 Cannabinoids for control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: quantitative systematic -- Tramèr et al. ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Niiranen A, Mattson K. Antiemetic efficacy of nabilone and dexamethasone: a randomized study of patients with lung cancer receiving chemotherapy.
Antiemetic therapy: a review of recent studies and a report of a random assignment trial comparing metoclopramide with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
Crossover comparison of the antiemetic efficacy of nabilone and alizapride in patients with nonseminomatous testicular cancer receiving cisplatin therapy.
bmj.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/323/7303/16   (4409 words)

 Peer Reviewed Results of New York State-sponsored Cancer/Marijuana Studies
A prospective pilot study of the use, of Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy was conducted.
Fifty-six patients who had no Improvement with standard antiemetic agents were treated and 78% demonstrated a positive response to marijuana.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of inhalation marijuana for patients refractory to standard agents, to identify patient characteristics to predict response, and to evaluate toxicity and patient acceptance of this form of treatment.
www.medmjscience.org /Pages/science/vinciguerra.html   (1946 words)

 An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology
In preclinical antiemetic studies in pigeons (to be reported separately), using the methodology previously described by us for delta-9-THC [7], we found that delta-8-THC is at least as potent as delta-9-THC.
Details of their antineoplastic treatment and side effects of the antiemetic therapy are presented in Table 1.
When the antiemetic protocol described in the "Methods, patients and clinical protocol" section was strictIy followed, no emesis was noted during the 24 hrs of treatment or over the next two days.
www.druglibrary.org /olsen/hemp/iha/iha02210.html   (1893 words)

 Cancer chemotherapy
Cannabis can be used as an antiemetic, a drug which relieves nausea and allows patients to eat and live normally.
Despite great advances in the last few years of antiemetic research, cannabis is safer, cheaper and often more effective than standard synthetic antiemetics.
Chang et al (1979) found that THC was an effective antiemetic to counteract the nauseous effects of the methotrexate medication used in chemotherapy, with 14 out of 15 patients reporting some relief of nausea and vomiting.
www.ukcia.org /medical/cancerchemotherapy.php   (1993 words)

 Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med -- Abstract: Antiemetic Use for Acute Gastroenteritis in Children, May 2003, Li et al. 157 ...
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med -- Abstract: Antiemetic Use for Acute Gastroenteritis in Children, May 2003, Li et al.
for an antiemetic is associated with a significant risk of adverse
Conclusion  Antiemetic use among children with acute gastroenteritis
archpedi.ama-assn.org /cgi/content/abstract/157/5/475   (313 words)

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