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Topic: Antigen

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  Antigen Receptors
Both B cells and T cells have surface receptors for antigen.
The tertiary structure of antibodies brings the 3 hypervariable regions of both the L and the H chains together.
The antigen receptor on most T cells is made up of two transmembrane polypeptides designated alpha and beta (thus forming a heterodimer).
users.rcn.com /jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/AntigenReceptors.html   (846 words)

  Antigen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Exogenous antigens are antigens that have entered the body from the outside, for example by inhalation, ingestion, or injection.
Endogenous antigens are antigens that have been generated within the cell, as a result of normal cell metabolism, or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection.
Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by the MHC I molecules on the surface of tumor cells.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Antigen   (636 words)

Antigen dose and the route and timing of antigen contact, as well as immunogenicity, influence the magnitude and nature of the immune response.
Antigens encountered in body tissues through subcutaneous or intramuscular injection are carried by lymph and macrophages into the lymph nodes, where they usually elicit formation of serum IgG antibody.
Antigen in the tissues is carried by macrophages, PMNs, and dendritic cells to nearby secondary lymphoid organs where it stimulates lymphocytes to become immune effector cells.
microvet.arizona.edu /Courses/MIC419/Tutorials/antigen.html   (2324 words)

 Antigen-antibody reactions
Cross reactions arise because the cross reacting antigen shares an epitope in common with the immunizing antigen or because it has an epitope which is structurally similar to one on the immunizing antigen (multispecificity).
The ratio between the antigen and antibody influences the detection of antigen-antibody complexes because the size of the complexes formed is related to the concentration of the antigen and antibody.
Antigen is mixed with the test serum to be assayed for antibody and antigen/antibody complexes are allowed to form.
pathmicro.med.sc.edu /mayer/ab-ag-rx.htm   (3067 words)

 antigen - multiple sclerosis encyclopaedia
Antigens are molecules that evoke an immunological response from the body.
Because many proteins are unique to bacterial and virus species, antigens act like identification tags for unwanted or dangerous invaders and are the means by which the immune system identifies what it should destroy.
When an antibody binds to an antigen, it may either render it inactive just by being bound to it, or act as a signal to yet other types of immune system cells, called phagocytes, to engulf (phagocytose) it.
www.mult-sclerosis.org /antigen.html   (478 words)

 HIV Viral Antigen Assays
The specificity of the p24 antigen test in detecting HIV infection using PCR as the gold standard was calculated from data using test kits from 2 manufacturers to be 99.9%.(2) In the same study, the sensitivity following a procedure of neutralization to confirm the presence of p24 antigen (see below) was 100%.
The p24 antigen test is most useful in detecting antigen in supernatants from cultures that have been inoculated with cells from a patient suspected of being infected (viral culture and isolation).
At birth, the combined use of p24 antigen, viral culture, and DNA PCR allows a prediction of infection of only 50%, although the specificity is 100%.(24) A negative PCR result in the first month of life confirms noninfection with a probability of greater than 90%(25).
hivinsite.ucsf.edu /InSite.jsp?page=kb-02&doc=kb-02-02-02-02   (3844 words)

 Dorlands Medical Dictionary
Antigens may be soluble substances, such as toxins and foreign proteins, or particulate, such as bacteria and tissue cells; however, only the portion of the protein or polysaccharide molecule known as the antigenic determinant (q.v.) combines with antibody or a specific receptor on a lymphocyte.
Class I antigens are the classic histocompatibility antigens recognized during graft rejection and are also the antigens involved in MHC restriction (q.v.).
In the original and strict sense, the antigen is typified by that found in the guinea pig kidney and characterized by heat stability and solubility in alcohol; the antigenic determinant is polysaccharide in nature.
www.mercksource.com /pp/us/cns/cns_hl_dorlands.jspzQzpgzEzzSzppdocszSzuszSzcommonzSzdorlandszSzdorlandzSzdmd_a_47zPzhtm   (2866 words)

 Antigen Summary
Endogenous antigens are antigens that have been generated within the cell, as a result of normal cell metabolism, or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection.
These antigens should under normal conditions not be the target of the immune system, but due to mainly genetic and environmental factors the normal immunological tolerance for such an antigen has been lost in these patients.
Tumor antigens can also be on the surface of the tumor in the form of, for example, a mutated receptor, in which case they will be recognized by B cells.
www.bookrags.com /Antigen   (1678 words)

 Antibody, Antigen Information on Healthline
An antigen is a substance that is capable of inducing a specific immune response in the host into which it is introduced.
This may be an active process by a healthy host in response to the challenge of exposure to a foreign antigen transmitted via the placenta or in maternal milk from mother to offspring, or it may be artificially induced by immunization with live attenuated organisms, killed organisms, or a protein derivative.
Antigen drift and antigen shift account for recurrences of infection with viruses, such as those of the common cold and influenza.
www.healthline.com /galecontent/antibody-antigen   (287 words)

An antigen is any substance or organism foreign to the body that induces an immune response.
Antigens include infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and mycoplasma or chlamydia organisms, as well as chemicals, food proteins, pollen grains, dust particles - you name it.
If the specific type of immune response induced by the antigen involves the allergy-mediating part of the immune system, the antigen is referred to as an allergen.
www.drhull.com /EncyMaster/A/antigen.html   (147 words)

 Company - Antigen Express
Consequential, Antigen Express is building a deep pipeline of therapeutics aimed at a variety of major diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases and autoimmune-based syndromes.
Antigen Express therapies are based on highly selective modulation of the immune response, in contrast to most current immunomodulation strategies that are in general non-specific.
The therapies developed at Antigen Express intervene at the critical stage of antigen presentation to modulate the immune response.
www.antigenexpress.com /company.html   (191 words)

 Open Biosystems - Antigen Profiler
Open Biosystems has designed a set of powerful algorithms that enables researchers to have protein sequences analyzed to select the best peptides for antibody production.  Antigen Profiler is the the complete peptide antigen design tool.
In addition to our Antigen Profiler, dedicated project managers with experience in making over 16,000 polyclonal antibodies and 500 monoclonal antibodies work with you from the beginning to the end of your project and ensure the highest level of sevice.
Using powerful selective criteria, they help you design antigens that mimic the presentation of epitopes in native proteins and produce antibodies to meet your exacting criteria.
www.openbiosystems.com /antibodies/custom/AntigenProfiler   (317 words)

 PickCell Laboratories BV - Antigen retrieval on paraffin sections - Home - Tools for immunohistology on paraffin ...
The model has been designed to ensure identical processing of all the samples during a processing cycle, as well as the identical processing of the samples in individual sessions.
However, a pressure cooker specially designed to unmask the antigen on tissue sections.
Most of the routine pathology sections (hard tissues) may be processed in the same buffers you are using in microwave.
www.antigenretriever.com   (644 words)

 Skin Test Antigen Initiative
Once the quality control measures were deemed satisfactory, both antigens were evaluated in M. leprae sensitized guinea pigs to determine the sensitivity of the antigens.
To determine the stability of the antigens, several vials were stored at each of four temperatures (56°C, 37°C, 4°C and -70°C) and tested periodically over the course of one year.
The antigens went through extensive testing including evaluation for sterility (both bacterial and viral), absence of detergents and endotoxin, protien profile analysis by SDS-PAGE and Immunoblot, saftey in vivo studies using guinea pigs and mice and potency testing using guinea pigs.
www.cvmbs.colostate.edu /mip/leprosy/skintest.html   (1729 words)

Antigens are defined as substances recognized by the body as foreign, causing the body to produce an antibody to react specifically with it
The antigens are on the cells and the antibodies are in the serum
Those antigens, like the ABO antigens, are on the surface of the red cell while others may be hidden in the crypts of the cell membrane.
matcmadison.edu /is/hhps/mlt/mljensen/BloodBank/lectures/blood_bank_antigens_and_antibodi.htm   (1420 words)

 Sybari Antigen - Groupware Anti-Virus   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Sybari Antigen is a leader in groupware antivirus and security threat solutions with over 6 million groupware seats now secure and virus-free.
The unmatched technology within Antigen makes it one of the most reliable and best-performing solutions on the market for both Microsoft Exchange and Lotus Notes users.
As a result, Antigen knows how to complement the strengths of both groupware products as well as cover any security weaknesses.
www.messagingsolutions.com /Antigen.htm   (412 words)

 Sybari Antigen 7.0 for Lotus Domino   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Antigen is never off-line during product upgrades and virus signature updates.
Antigen NScan gives administrators on demand or scheduled scanning of all or individual databases and user mailboxes.
The Antigen Policy Manager provides centralized management and configuration of Antigen on all the Domino servers in the enterprise.
www.messagingsolutions.com /Antigen/antigen_for_lotus_domino.htm   (454 words)

 Human leukocyte antigen Summary
Because the HLA is a chemical tag that distinguishes "self" from "non-self," the antigen is important in the rejection of transplanted tissue and in the development of certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes).
The human leukocyte antigen system (sometimes human lymphocyte antigen) (HLA) is the general name of a group of genes in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on human chromosome 6 (mouse chromosome 17) that encodes the cell-surface antigen-presenting proteins.
Besides functional HLA antigens, there are two additional HLA antigens in humans, HLA-DM and HLA-DO, which are important in loading the antigenic peptides generated from pathogens onto the HLA molecules of antigen-presenting cell.
www.bookrags.com /Human_leukocyte_antigen   (1494 words)

 How Lymphocytes Produce Antibody
When the macrophage eats bacteria, proteins (antigens) from the bacteria are broken down into short peptide chains and those peptides are then "displayed" on the macrophage surface attached to special molecules called MHC II (for Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II).
Bacterial peptides are similarly processed and displayed on MHC II molecules on the surface of B lymphocytes.
through specific antigen recognition of the invader, clonal expansion and B cell differentiation you acquire an effective number of plasma cells all secreting the same needed antibody.
www.cellsalive.com /antibody.htm   (256 words)

 Escherichia coli Clone Sonnei (Shigella sonnei) Had a Chromosomal O-Antigen Gene Cluster Prior to Gaining Its Current ...
O antigen is part of the lipopolysaccharide present in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria.
The O antigen is an extremely variable surface polysaccharide.
Structure and sequence of the rfb (O antigen) gene cluster of Salmonella serovar typhimurium (strain LT2).
jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/180/11/2983   (2451 words)

 Human leukocyte antigen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The human leukocyte antigen system (sometimes human lymphocyte antigen) (HLA) is the general name of a group of genes in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on human chromosome 6 (mouse chromosome 17) that encodes the cell-surface antigen-presenting proteins.
Besides functional HLA antigens, there are two additional HLA antigens in humans, HLA-DM and HLA-DO, which are important in loading the antigenic peptides generated from pathogens onto the HLA molecules of antigen-presenting cell.
A broad antigen serotype is a crude measure of identity of cells.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Human_leukocyte_antigen   (2012 words)

 Immune System Receptors for Recognizing Antigen
In order to recognize and respond to the antigens that are their specific targets, both B cells and T cells carry special receptor molecules on their surface.
For the B cell, this receptor is a prototype of the antibody the B cell is prepared to manufacture, anchored in its surface.
The antigen-antibody complexes trigger the complement cascade or are removed from the circulation by clearing mechanisms in the liver and the spleen.
www.immunecentral.com /immune-system/iss15.cfm   (583 words)

 Antigen :: Antigen Removal Instructions
Antigen is a Trojan that acts invisibly to capture passwords saved in your computer.
Antigen accesses the password cache that's stored on your computer and saves this information to another file.
Your best defense to remove Antigen, or any other spyware, is to quickly detect and delete Antigen processes, registry keys, DLL files, and other hazardous Antigen files from your computer.
www.spywareremove.com /removeAntigen.html   (167 words)

 Antigen -
Antigen can be used to wrap your Ant script in two ways.
Antigen will run the targets in the order they are listed, and ant properties are inherited from one to the next.
Antigen has a number of options that can be specified on the commandline.
antigen.sourceforge.net /use.html   (1115 words)

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