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Topic: Antimatter catalyzed nuclear pulse propulsion


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  Spacecraft propulsion - ExampleProblems.com
Spacecraft propulsion is used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites, or in short, to provide delta-v.
The law of conservation of momentum means that in order for a propulsion method to change the momentum of a space craft it must change the momentum of something else as well.
For some missions, solar energy may be sufficient, but for others nuclear energy will be necessary; engines drawing their power from a nuclear source are called nuclear electric rockets.
www.exampleproblems.com /wiki/index.php?title=Spacecraft_propulsion&printable=yes   (3276 words)

  
  nuclear fusion - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com
In physics, nuclear fusion is a process in which two nuclei join, forming a larger nucleus and releasing energy.
Nuclear fusion is the energy source which causes stars to shine, and hydrogen bombs to explode.
The energy released in most nuclear reactions is much larger than that for chemical reactions, because the binding energy that glues a nucleus together is far greater than the energy that holds electrons to a nucleus.
www.onpedia.com /encyclopedia/nuclear-fusion   (2483 words)

  
 Nuclear pulse propulsion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nuclear pulse propulsion (or External Pulsed Plasma Propulsion, as it is termed in one recent NASA document) is a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion that uses nuclear explosions for thrust.
The "Medusa" design is a type of nuclear pulse propulsion which has more in common with solar sails than with conventional rockets.
In the mid-1990s research at the Pennsylvania State University led to the concept of using antimatter to catalyze nuclear reactions.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nuclear_pulse_propulsion   (1329 words)

  
 Antimatter catalyzed nuclear pulse propulsion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Antimatter catalysed nuclear pulse propulsion is a variation of nuclear pulse propulsion based upon the injection of antimatter into a mass of nuclear fuel which normally would not be useful in propulsion.
Traditional nuclear pulse propulsion has the downside that the minimum size of the engine is defined by the minimum size of the nuclear bombs used to create thrust.
Small nuclear explosives are believed to stop shrinking in overall size and required fissile nuclear materials at around 25 kilograms weight, so smaller pulse units are much more expensive per delivered unit energy, and much less mass efficient than larger ones.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Antimatter_catalyzed_nuclear_pulse_propulsion   (762 words)

  
 Antimatter catalyzed nuclear pulse propulsion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Nuclear pulse propulsion has the downside that the minimum size of the engine is defined by the minimum size of the nuclear bombs used to create thrust.
There are real-world issues relating to the lifetime of the anti-protons and their chance of reacting with the fuel that impose a lower limit on the amount of anitmatter needed per reaction, and the geometry of the fission reaction imposes a lower limit on the size of the fuel as well.
Several groups are actively studying such antimatter catalyzed micro fission/fusion engines in the lab (sometimes antiproton as opposed to antimatter), after its invention at Pennsylvania State University in 1992.
www.wapipedia.org /wikipedia/mobiletopic.aspx?cur_title=Antimatter_catalyzed_nuclear_pulse_propulsion   (548 words)

  
 Antimatter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Counterbalancing this, when antimatter annihilates with ordinary matter energy equal to twice the mass of the antimatter is liberated—so energy storage in the form of antimatter could (in theory) be 100% efficient.
Antimatter production is currently very limited, but has been growing at a nearly geometric rate since the discovery of the first antiproton in 1955[1].
Antimatter production costs, in mass production, are almost linearly tied in with electricity costs, so economical pure-antimatter thrust applications are unlikely to come online without the advent of such technologies as deuterium-deuterium fusion power.
www.gogoglo.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/a/an/antimatter.html   (1017 words)

  
 Nuclear fusion - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
In physics, nuclear fusion is a process in which two nuclei join, forming a larger nucleus and releasing or absorbing energy.
Nuclear fusion of light elements is the energy source which causes stars to shine and hydrogen bombs to explode.
Nuclear fusion of heavy elements is part of the process that triggers supernovae.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Nuclear_fusion   (3241 words)

  
 Antimatter - QuickSeek Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Antimatter or contra-terrene matter is matter that is composed of the antiparticles of those that constitute normal matter.
The scarcity of antimatter means that it is not readily available to be used as fuel, although it could be used in antimatter catalyzed nuclear pulse propulsion.
A famous fictional example of antimatter in action is in the science fiction franchise Star Trek, where it is a common energy source for starships; large reactors generate power by mixing supercooled deuterium and antideuterium, with the annihilation reaction regulated by dilithium crystals.
antimatter.quickseek.com   (2244 words)

  
 ipedia.com: Nuclear fusion Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Nuclear fusion is the energy source which causes stars to "shine", and hydrogen bo...
In physics, nuclear fusion (a thermonuclear reaction) is a process in which two nuclei join to form a larger nucleus, thereby giving off energy.
Nuclear fusion is the energy source which causes stars to "shine", and hydrogen bombss to explode.
www.ipedia.com /nuclear_fusion.html   (2051 words)

  
 Antimatter catalyzed nuclear pulse propulsion: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Antimatter catalysed nuclear pulse propulsion is a variation of nuclear pulse propulsion Nuclear pulse propulsion (or external pulsed plasma propulsion, as it is termed in one recent nasa document) is a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion that uses nuclear explosions for thrust....
Traditional nuclear pulse propulsion has the downside that the minimum size of the engine is defined by the minimum size of the nuclear bomb A nuclear weapon is a weapon that derives its energy from the nuclear reactions of fission and/or fusion....
Nuclear pulse propulsion Nuclear pulse propulsion (or external pulsed plasma propulsion, as it is termed in one recent nasa document) is a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion that uses nuclear explosions for thrust....
www.absoluteastronomy.com /a/antimatter_catalyzed_nuclear_pulse_propulsion   (1438 words)

  
 Antimatter is matter matter that is composed of the antiparticle...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
"Antimatter" is matter matter that is composed of the antiparticle antiparticles of those that constitute normal matter.
With current technology, it is considered possible to attain antimatter for 25 billion dollars per gram (roughly 1,000 times the equivalent cost of the equivalent amount of energy in space shuttle space shuttle propellants) by optimizing the collision and collection parameters, given current electricity generation costs.
It is hoped that antimatter could be used as fuel fuel for interplanetary travel interplanetary travel or possibly interstellar travel interstellar travel, but it is also feared that if humanity ever gets the capabilities to do so, there could be the construction of antimatter weapon weapons.
www.biodatabase.de /antimatter   (723 words)

  
 Antimatter catalyzed nuclear pulse propulsion - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
There are real-world issues relating to the lifetime of the anti-protons and their chance of reacting with the fuel that impose a lower limit on the amount of antimatter needed per reaction, and the geometry of the fission reaction imposes a lower limit on the size of the fuel as well.
Catalyzed is a mis-nomer for this process because the anti-protons used to start the reaction aren't recovered.
For missions with longer periods of lower thrust, such as outer-planet probes, a combination of microfission and fusion might be preferred because it reduces the total fuel mass.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Antimatter_catalyzed_nuclear_pulse_propulsion   (624 words)

  
 Antimatter Definition / Antimatter Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Antimatter is matter that is composed of the antiparticlesFor each kind of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass but opposite electromagnetic, weak, and strong charges, as well as spin.
It is antimatter, has an electric charge of +1, a spin of 1/2, and the same mass as an electron.
Antimatter is a mirror energy of matter and can be a solid, liquid, gas, or plasma.
www.elresearch.com /Antimatter   (564 words)

  
 Antimatter and Fusion for rocket propulsion
Antimatter and more "conventional" nuclear fusion occupied the final day of the 10th annual Advanced Propulsion Research Workshop held Tuesday-Thursday at the University of Alabama in Huntsville by NASA, Marshall, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
While true antimatter and true fusion propulsion will remain the "rockets of the future" for some time, a hybrid of the two might work in the near term.
Like all other forms of rocket propulsion, it's a sort of battery in which energy is expended to provide a large quantity in a tiny space, available on demand.
science.nasa.gov /newhome/headlines/prop12apr99_1.htm   (2162 words)

  
 Help.com - nuclear marine propulsion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Nuclear marine propulsion is propulsion of a Merchant ship powered by a nuclear reactor.
It is known that during use the properties of nuclear fuel change; it is quite possible for fuel to crack and for fission gas bubbles to form.
In contrast, nuclear propulsion has proven both technically and economically feasible for nuclear powered icebreakers in the Soviet Arctic.
help.com /wiki/Nuclear_marine_propulsion   (1087 words)

  
 Spacecraft propulsion - QuickSeek Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
For some missions, solar energy may be sufficient, and has very often been used, but for others nuclear energy will be necessary; engines drawing their power from a nuclear source are called nuclear electric rockets.
With any current source of power, chemical, nuclear or solar, the maximum amount of power that can be generated greatly limits the maximum amount of thrust that can be produced to a small value.
Current nuclear power generators are approximately half the weight of solar panels per watt of energy supplied, at terrestial distances from the Sun.
spacecraftpropulsion.quickseek.com   (3392 words)

  
 Everything about Explosive   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
For example, nuclear pulse propulsion is a form of spacecraft propulsion that would use nuclear bombs to provide impulse to a spacecraft.
A nuclear explosion could be used to create a harbor, or a mountain pass, or possibly large underground cavities for use as storage space.
As controlled nuclear fusion has proven difficult to use as an energy source, an alternate proposal for producing fusion power has been to detonate fusion bombs inside very large underground chambers and then using the heat produced, which would be absorbed by a molten salt coolant which would also absorb neutrons.
2094.he.wikimiki.org /en/explosive   (13158 words)

  
 Facts about nuclear pulse propulsion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Most of the three thousand tons of each of the "super" Orion's propulsion units would be inert material such as polyethylene, or boron salts, used to transmit the force of the propulsion unit's detonation to the Orion's pusher plate, and absorb neutrons to minimize fallout.
From 1957 through 1964 this information was used to design a spacecraft propulsion system called "Orion" in which nuclear explosives would be thrown through a pusher-plate mounted on the bottom of a spacecraft and exploded underneath.
The shock wave and radiation from the detonation would impact against the underside of the pusher plate, giving it a powerful "kick," and the pusher plate would be mounted on large two-stage shock absorbers which would transmit the acceleration to the rest of the spacecraft in a smoother manner.
www.supercrawler.com /Facts/nuclear_pulse_propulsion.html   (2166 words)

  
 Nuclear pulse propulsion - TheBestLinks.com - Antimatter, Alpha Centauri, Chain reaction, DARPA, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Nuclear pulse propulsion, Antimatter, Alpha Centauri, Chain reaction, DARPA...
The "Medusa" design is a type of nuclear pulse propulsion which shares more in common with solar sails than with conventional rockets.
Whereas the "normal" critical mass for plutonium is about 26 pounds, with antimatter catalyzed reactions this could be well under a gram.
www.thebestlinks.com /Nuclear_pulse_propulsion.html   (934 words)

  
 Nuclear pulse propulsion: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Nuclear pulse propulsion (or External Pulsed Plasma Propulsion, as it is termed in one recent NASA An independent agency of the United States government responsible for aviation and spaceflight
The first serious attempt to design a nuclear pulse rocket was Project Orion Project orion was the first engineering design for a spacecraft powered by nuclear pulse propulsion, led by a team at general atomics in the 1950s....
The "Medusa" design is a type of nuclear pulse propulsion which shares more in common with solar sail[Follow this hyperlink for a summary of this subject]s than with conventional rockets.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /n/nuclear_pulse_propulsion   (2304 words)

  
 More on Antimatter
The reaction of 1 kg of antimatter with 1 kg of matter would produce 1.8×1017 J of energy (by the equation E=mc²).
Antimatter production is currently very limited, but has been growing at a nearly geometric rate since the discovery of the first antiproton in 1955[4] (http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/212_fall2003.web.dir/tyler_freeman/history.htm).
With current technology, it is considered possible to attain antimatter for $25 billion per gram (roughly 1,000 times more costly than current space shuttle propellants) by optimizing the collision and collection parameters, given current electricity generation costs.
www.artilifes.com /antimatter.htm   (1269 words)

  
 Nuclear fusion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
In physics nuclear fusion (a thermonuclear reaction) is a process in which two nuclei join to form a larger nucleus giving off energy.
Nuclear fusion is the energy source causes stars to "shine" and hydrogen bombs to explode.
This is the process used the hydrogen bomb where a huge explosion by a nuclear fission bomb compresses a small cylinder of fuel.
www.freeglossary.com /Nuclear_fusion   (2106 words)

  
 Anti Matter Propulsion Text - Physics Forums Library   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Counterbalancing this, when antimatter annihilates with ordinary matter energy equal to twice the mass of the antimatter is relesed, so energy storage in the form of antimatter is in theory be up to 100% efficient.
Antimatter production is currently very limited, but has been growing at a nearly geometric rate since the discovery of the first antiproton in 1955 (http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/212_fall2003.web.dir/tyler_freeman/history.htm).
Antimatter catalysed thermonuclear fusion/fission pulse propulsion is done by injecting a small amount of antimatter into a subcritical radioactive mass, typically plutonium or uranium, the stuff goes boom and the spaceship is pushed away.
www.physicsforums.com /archive/index.php/t-61214.html   (1661 words)

  
 Rocket engine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A rocket engine is a heat engine that can be used for spacecraft propulsion as well as terrestrial uses, such as missiles.
Rocket engines take their reaction mass from one or more tanks and form it into a hypersonic jet, obtaining thrust in accordance with Newton's third law.
Of course, the machinery to do this is complex, but research into nuclear fusion has developed methods, some of which have been proposed to be used in speculative propulsion systems.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Rocket_engine   (1032 words)

  
 Nuclear Pulse Propulsion Encyclopedia @ LaunchBase.org (Launch Base)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Project Longshot was a NASA-sponsored research project carried out in conjuction with the the US Naval Academy in the early 1990s.
Nuclear marine propulsionNuclear thermal rocket • Nuclear electric rocket • Gas core reactor rocket •
Nuclear pulse propulsionAntimatter catalyzed nuclear pulse propulsionNuclear salt-water rocket • Nuclear photonic rocket • Fusion rocket Bussard ramjet Fission sail Fission-fragment rocket Nuclear photonic rocket
www.launchbase.org /encyclopedia/Nuclear_pulse_propulsion   (1016 words)

  
 Antimatter
Quantities measured in grams or even kilograms would be required to achieve destructive effect comparable with conventional nuclear weapons; one gram of antimatter annihilating with one gram of matter produces 180 terajoules, the equivalent of 43 kilotons of TNT.
Antimatter violates this assumption, and does so in a way that implicates a culprit that science has never really understood: time.
Antimatter chemistry takes place inside a Penning trap, an electrostatic trap whose electrodes (pink cylinders) hold charged particles nearly in place.
www.lycos.com /info/antimatter--spacecraft.html   (521 words)

  
 Spacecraft propulsion
This is the most important characteristic of the propulsion method as it determines the top speed available for the propulsion method.
One interesting and somewhat counterinituitive physics result is that outside a gravity well, the total energy provided by a propulsion mechanism is equal to the thrust times the time the thrust is applied.
Generally speaking high thrust is of vital importance for launch, and many of the propulsion methods above do not provide sufficient thrust to be used in this capacity.
www.guajara.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/s/sp/spacecraft_propulsion_1.html   (296 words)

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