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Topic: Antimatter rocket

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In the News (Fri 19 Apr 19)

  Antimatter rocket - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An antimatter rocket is a proposed type of rocket that uses antimatter as its power source.
A more conventional approach would be to inject the antimatter into a tungsten block, producing heat, which could then be used to either directly heat a propellant (similar to how a nuclear thermal rocket operates), or generate electricity to run some other propulsion mechanism.
For example, an antimatter rocket could take one ton of cargo to the interplanetary space using about 400 micrograms of antimatter, or to the low earth orbit using half of that amount.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Antimatter_rocket   (332 words)

 More on Antimatter
The scarcity of antimatter means that it is not readily available to be used as fuel, although it could be used in antimatter catalyzed nuclear pulse propulsion.
Counterbalancing this, when antimatter annihilates with ordinary matter energy equal to twice the mass of the antimatter is liberated—so energy storage in the form of antimatter could (in theory) be 100% efficient.
Antimatter production is currently very limited, but has been growing at a nearly geometric rate since the discovery of the first antiproton in 1955[4] (http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/212_fall2003.web.dir/tyler_freeman/history.htm).
www.artilifes.com /antimatter.htm   (1269 words)

 SPACE.com -- The Reality of Antimatter
Antimatter particles are created in ultra high-speed collisions.
Antimatter was first theorized based on work done in 1928 by the physicist Paul Dirac.
Antimatter has tremendous energy potential, if it could ever be harnessed.
www.space.com /scienceastronomy/antimatter_sun_030929.html   (1073 words)

 Final Gallery
Rockets which will be hybrids of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion rockets, with antimatter particles playing a crucial role in the operation of the rockets, may turn out to be the propellants of tomorrow.
Antimatter is the same as matter, except the particles which it consists of have opposite charges to those which are on Earth now.
Antimatter is and will be one of the most difficult and interesting concepts scientists of all sorts will research throughout the next few decades.
aerospacescholars.jsc.nasa.gov /has/Students/finalGall.cfm?id=4832   (1161 words)

 Article: The Nuclear Space Age (part 2 of 2), by Paul Lucas
One of the main drawbacks of fusion rockets is that the fusion reaction always produces radiation (in addition to the stray neutrons in DT fusion), requiring heavy shielding for the crew.
Plasma rockets are thought to be able to eventually produce specific impulses in excess of 100,000 seconds, compared to a modern chemical rocket's specific impulse of 450 seconds.
Gas core antimatter rockets are less efficient than solid core models, but because they are less constrained by the melting points of their material components, they can achieve specific impulses of up to 2500 seconds.
www.strangehorizons.com /2004/20040119/nuclear.shtml   (3608 words)

 Antimatter Energy
The energy in five grams of antimatter (the mass of a nickel) is equivalent to five Saturn V rocket.
The initial cost of antimatter will be approximately $1 billion per gram; but as technology advances, the antimatter costs will come down to about $1 million per gram within twenty years as metric tons of antimatter become available.
Antimatter will be provide power for spacecraft, space stations, space facilities, and colonies on the moon, planets, and stars.
www.matter-antimatter.com /antimatter_energy.htm   (347 words)

 - Chapter 3
Antimatter augmentation on." The muffled roar of the engines increased as milligrams of antimatter were added to double, then triple the thrust from the rockets.
The antimatter pellets are injected into the center of the reaction chamber of the engine where the antihydrogen annihilates with the hydrogen and carbon molecules in the methane.
Since they are antimatter rockets, the mass ratio will be the same for the interstellar rocket as for the overnight express, four tons of propellant for a one ton vehicle.
www.baen.com /chapters/W200602/0671876864___3.htm   (9045 words)

 Reaching For The Stars: Scientists Examine Using Antimatter And Fusion To Propel Future Spacecraft
Antimatter and more "conventional" nuclear fusion occupied the final day of the 10th annual Advanced Propulsion Research Workshop held Tuesday-Thursday at the University of Alabama in Huntsville by NASA, Marshall, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
A schematic of the heart of a Penning trap where a cloud of antiprotons (the fuzzy bluish spot) is kept cold and quiet by liquid nitrogen and helium and a stable magnetic field.
Like all other forms of rocket propulsion, it's a sort of battery in which energy is expended to provide a large quantity in a tiny space, available on demand.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/1999-04/NSFC-RFTS-120499.php   (1887 words)

 - Chapter 2
Soon, bottles filled with antimatter will be transported around the world to be used by physicists for basic research into the fundamental mysteries of nature, by doctors for finding and treating cancer tumors, and by engineers for a multitude of practical applications, such as isotopic imaging, nuclear transmutation, and, one of these days, space propulsion.
Since a milligram of antimatter produces the same amount of energy as twenty tons of the most energetic chemical fuel available, then a milligram of antimatter costing ten million dollars would be a more cost effective fuel in space than twenty tons of chemical fuel costing ten times as much.
Antimatter at a hundred million dollars per milligram would definitely be cost effective for unmanned probe missions to the rings of Saturn and manned missions to Mars.
www.baen.com /chapters/W200602/0671876864___2.htm   (5944 words)

 Howstuffworks "How Antimatter Spacecraft Will Work"
NASA is possibly only a few decades away from developing an antimatter spacecraft that would cut fuel costs to a fraction of what they are today.
The amount of antimatter needed to supply the engine for a one-year trip to Mars could be as little as a millionth of a gram, according to a report in that month's issue of Journal of Propulsion and Power.
When matter and antimatter collide, the energy released by their annihilation releases about 10 billion times the energy that chemical energy such as hydrogen and oxygen combustion, the kind used by the space shuttle, releases.
science.howstuffworks.com /antimatter2.htm   (526 words)

 A Small Problem of Propulsion - - science news articles online technology magazine articles A Small Problem of ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Antimatter particles such as antiprotons and antielectrons, which are also called positrons, are, theoretically, almost identical to their ordinary, matter counterparts, except they have an opposite electric charge.
That means, according to one proposal, an antimatter rocket should be able to accelerate a one-ton payload to one-tenth the speed of light with a mere nine kilograms of antimatter fuel.
Amassing even a gram of antimatter would take, for all practical purposes, forever--even with the improvements Smith envisions to make his process more efficient, and even with an investment of hundreds of millions of dollars in what would essentially be antimatter factories.
www.discover.com /issues/oct-95/features/asmallproblemofp575   (4887 words)

 SPACE.com -- Antimatter Makers Chase Ultimate Energy Source
With antimatter in the tank, taking the family rocket out for a spin to the nearest M-class planet would be a relative breeze.
Miniaturized antimatter fuel might consist of a thumb-sized canister with an energy source no bigger than an aspirin and no need of replenishment for hundreds of light-years -- or, locally, tens of millions of intra-solar-system miles.
Antimatters most likely future is as a subject for scientific investigation, not as fuel for futuristic space vehicles.
www.space.com /news/antimatter_fuel_0010111.html   (841 words)

 Antimatter Propulsion - Future Space Propulsion Systems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
It may surprise you to learn that the reality of antimatter is hardly a modern discovery, its existence was predicted back in 1929 and by 1953 Eugen Sanger (a German rocket scientist) had proposed its use for spacecraft propulsion.
At the most basic level the antimatter rocket is still a Newtonian rocket, governed by the three laws of motion and it still conforms to Einstein's theory of special relativity, in other words it can not exceed the speed of light.
Antimatter consists of exactly the same elementary particles as matter, but the electric charge, along with all other quantum numbers, is reversed.
www.thespacesite.com /space_antimatter_propulsion.html   (1194 words)

 GURPS Vehicles Excerpts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Such rockets have no need for fuel tanks or moving parts because the casing that holds the fuel is also the combustion chamber; a solid fuel rocket can be stored with fuel, and launched on a moment's notice.
The antimatter drive's main advantage is that it requires very little fuel and as such can accelerate for a long time, gradually building up to a very high velocity.
Antimatter pion rockets usually have some form of secondary drive for use when maneuvering in close proximity to other ships or space stations.
www.sjgames.com /gurps/books/Vehicles/excerpts.html   (2123 words)

 History and Development of the Rocket Engine
Since a rocket must carry all its reaction mass with it, most of the first reaction mass goes towards accelerating reaction mass rather than payload.
The speed ratio of a rocket nozzle is mostly determined by it's area expansion ratio- this is the ratio of the area of the throat to the area at the exit.
Rockets can use ablative materials that erode in a controlled fashion, or very high temperature materials, such as graphite, ceramics or certain exotic metals.
www.edinformatics.com /inventions_inventors/rocket_engine.htm   (3031 words)

 Rocket Fuel
Using it in the upper stage(s) of a multi-stage rocket would make the lower stage(s) impractically large, because the lower performance there would mean needing more of both kerosene and oxygen to get the same total impulse.
Antimatter, ironically, would be easier to develop into a practical rocket...
With an antimatter rocket there are ways to use the released energy to heat a working medium and use it to produce thrust.
www.dcr.net /~stickmak/JOHT/joht13rocketprop.htm   (2533 words)

 MoS | Star Wars Bookmarks - Antimatter starship   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Antimatter rocket ships, like time travel and teleportation, are perennial science fiction themes.
Although its fuel is different, in principle, an antimatter rocket would operate similarly to traditional-fuel rockets.
Nevertheless, researchers are actively engaged in developing new methods of "harvesting" antimatter and are optimistic that an antimatter spacecraft is not just a fantasy of science fiction.
www.mos.org /doc/1838?/1CE094/16/3fffff   (492 words)

 New and Improved Antimatter Spaceship for Mars Missions
The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) is funding a team of researchers working on a new design for an antimatter-powered spaceship that avoids this nasty side effect by producing gamma rays with much lower energy.
Antimatter is sometimes called the mirror image of normal matter because while it looks just like ordinary matter, some properties are reversed.
This cost might seem high, but it has to be considered against the extra cost to launch a heavier chemical rocket (current launch costs are about $10,000 per pound) or the cost to fuel and make safe a nuclear reactor.
www.physorg.com /news64499584.html   (1663 words)

 What's the Matter with Antimatter?
In 1955 the antiproton was produced at the Berkeley Bevatron, and in 1995 scientists created the first anti-hydrogen atom at the CERN research facility in Europe by combining the anti-proton with a positron (the normal hydrogen atom consists of one proton and one electron).
High-energy antimatter particles are only produced in relatively large numbers at a few of the world's largest particle accelerators.
The current worldwide production rate of antimatter is on the order of 1 to 10 nanograms (billionths of a gram!) per year.
science.nasa.gov /headlines/y2000/ast29may_1m.htm   (1594 words)

 [No title]
We are interested in an equation that gives the velocity incre- ment, "delta-V," of the rocket stage in terms of the ratio of the initial mass of the stage to the final mass, the "mass ratio".
For a fusion/antimatter rocket, however, the mass depletion is the sum of the propellant mass (out of the "nozzle," or accelerator) and the mass converted to energy in the fusion or matter/antimatter- annihilation reaction.
The rocket equation (as cut from one of Rex's lates E-mails) is: Vend = the velocitie at the end of the acceleration burn or the Delta V in our case.
www.ibiblio.org /lunar/school/InterStellar/newslets/SSD_NLet_5_13_96   (2051 words)

 Interstellar Transport
The existence of antimatter was predicted by physicist Paul A.M. Dirac in 1929.
However, small amounts of antimatter would be useful for initiating and maintaining fission or fusion reactions in hybrid rockets.
Storing antimatter is a technical challenge that engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the Laboratory for Elementary Particle Science at Pennsylvania State University are working on through new designs for penning traps, sophisticated magnetic bottles that "pen" or suspend chilled antimatter and keep it from touching the walls of its container.
chview.nova.org /station/interste.htm   (575 words)

 Starship Drives
Antimatter power plants are feasible using known physics, but will require enormous amounts of energy to generate the antimatter fuel, making it comparitively very expensive.
The only difference is the antimatter fuel is mixed with the reaction mass, rather than used to generate huge quantities of intermediate electric power.
Antimatter pion engines also require an equal amount of normal matter for the annihilation reaction, but no reaction mass, since the pions generated in the annihilation provide reaction material.
www.dangermouse.net /gurps/science/stardrives.html   (1372 words)

 Interstellar Flight
Antimatter is nuclear particles with an opposite charge than normal mater.
Antimatter, in the form of anti-protons, does exist and is being created in labs for research.
A matter-antimatter powered rocket (such as the one sketched above, made by Robert Frisbee of JPL) works by keeping the charged antimatter in an electronic bottle and in a slow controlled fashion releasing them to hit ordinary mater.
www.zamandayolculuk.com /cetinbal/antimatterroc.htm   (315 words)

 Centauri Dreams » Blog Archive » Antimatter’s Advantages (and the Catch)
Put a gram of matter together with a gram of antimatter and you release the equivalent of a 20 kiloton bomb, about the size of the one that destroyed Hiroshima.
The Ion Compressed Antimatter Nuclear Rocket (ICAN-II) would use pellets of uranium and liquid hydrogen, with antiprotons to trigger the resulting nuclear reaction.
We won’t have Forward-style factories to rely on for the conceivable future, but designs that maximize the antimatter we can produce — and Steve Howe’s antimatter sail is certainly high on that list — will help us get antimatter into the rocket business.
www.centauri-dreams.org /?p=629   (1053 words)

 Star Trek - - science news articles online technology magazine articles Star Trek   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
In an antimatter rocket, a dose of antihydrogen would mix with an equal amount of hydrogen in a combustion chamber.
A two-stage antimatter rocket to Alpha Centauri would need some 900,000 tons of fuel and would arrive in about 41 years.
The trouble with conventional rocketry, even antimatter rocketry, has been on display at every Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and space-shuttle launch: The spacecraft is dwarfed by its supply of propellant, so most of the rocket's thrust is used simply to move its own fuel.
www.discover.com /issues/aug-03/cover   (4361 words)

 Uses of Antimatter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
And back in a total of four months That's the prediction of a design team working on antimatter rocket concepts at Pennsylvania State University.
-The popular belief is that an antimatter particle coming in contact with its matter counterpart yields energy, gamma rays up to 511,000 electron volts.
Something to keep in mind, too, is that antimatter reactions - where antimatter and normal matter collide and release energy, require the same safety precautions as needed with nuclear reactions.
library.thinkquest.org /26995/antiuses.html   (437 words)

 » An antimatter spaceship for Mars? | Emerging Technology Trends | ZDNet.com
Now NASA is working on such a spaceship to go to Mars in 45 days using only 10 milligrams of anti-electrons — or positrons — for the round trip mission.
Such a rocket would be much safer because it would reduce the time to travel to Mars and because there should be no leftover radiation after the fuel is used.
There are still some remaining issues, such as the cost — $250 million for 10 milligrams — and the storage of antimatter which would have to be contained with electric and magnetic fields.
blogs.zdnet.com /emergingtech/?p=217   (915 words)

 NASA Working on Antimatter Rocket for Missions to Mars | Really Rocket Science
While tons of chemical fuel are needed to propel a human mission to Mars, just tens of milligrams of antimatter will do (a milligram is about one-thousandth the weight of a piece of the original MandM candy)....
Antimatter rockets have significant advantages over nuclear-powered spacecraft, including improved safety, efficiency and speed:
Although one of the drawbacks to antimatter rockets is its high cost of development, we wonder if that can't be mitigated by passing the hat around to the millions of science-fiction fans around the world, who have dreamed of anti-matter-powered rockers for years.
blog.reallyrocketscience.com /node/127   (466 words)

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