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Topic: Antimicrobial

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In the News (Fri 24 May 19)

  Antimicrobial - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or slows the growth of microbes like bacteria (antibacterial activity), fungi (antifungal activity), viruses (antiviral activity), or parasites (antiparasitic activity).
Antibiotics are one class of antibacterial and antifungal antimicrobials that can potentially be used as medicinal drugs to treat infections because of their low toxicity for humans or animals.
Antimicrobials are among the most commonly used drugs.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Antimicrobial   (448 words)

 Clinical decision system helps reduce inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing
Antimicrobial resistance is a serious public threat that is exacerbated by the gradual withdrawal of the pharmaceutical industry from new antimicrobial agent development, according to background information in the article.
Approximately 50 percent of courses of ambulatory antimicrobial drugs are prescribed for patients with viral respiratory infections and therefore, are not clinically indicated.
The relative decrease in antimicrobial prescribing for visits in the antibiotics "never-indicated" category during the post-intervention period was 32 percent in CDSS communities and 5 percent in community intervention-alone communities.
www.medicalnewstoday.com /medicalnews.php?newsid=33377&nfid=rssfeeds   (920 words)

 Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Invertebrates -- Tincu and Taylor 48 (10): 3645 -- Antimicrobial Agents and ...
Halocidin: a new antimicrobial peptide from hemocytes of the solitary tunicate, Halocynthia aurantium.
Dicynthaurin: an antimicrobial peptide from hemocytes of the solitary tunicate, Halocynthia aurantium.
Antimicrobial peptides, isolated from horseshoe crab hemocytes, tachyplesin II, and polyphemusins I and II: chemical structures and biological activity.
aac.asm.org /cgi/content/full/48/10/3645   (5451 words)

 EPA: Pesticides - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products
Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.
Antimicrobial products contain about 275 different active ingredients and are marketed in several formulations: sprays, liquids, concentrated powders, and gases.
Some examples of antimicrobial pesticide chemicals can be found in the Antimicrobial Chemical Indexes, which are available on the EPA Pesticide Web site at http://www.epa.gov/oppad001/chemregindex.htm.
www.epa.gov /pesticides/factsheets/antimic.htm   (670 words)

 2001.05.21: (Fact Sheet) Antimicrobial Resistance: The Public Health Response   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
While antimicrobial drugs have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases caused by bacteria and other germs, their widespread use and misuse has reduced their effectiveness.
Antimicrobial resistance occurs when microbes adapt to survive the use of medications meant to kill or weaken them - making the infection more difficult or even impossible to treat.
NIH is leading a team of agencies to provide the research community with new information and technologies, including genetic blueprints for various microbes, to identify targets for desperately needed new diagnostics, treatments and vaccines to combat the emergence and spread of resistant pathogens.
www.hhs.gov /news/press/2001pres/01fsdrugresistance.html   (1334 words)

 Judicious and Prudent Antimicrobial Drug Use Principles for Food Fish Veterinarians   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
In spite of the difficulty in confining antimicrobial use to a narrow spectrum of activity, resistance to antimicrobials should be minimized by selecting an antimicrobial with a narrow spectrum of activity whenever possible.
Choose antimicrobial drugs of lesser importance in human medicine, if these receive future food fish use approval, and not choose an antimicrobial for which emergence of resistance is expected to be in an advanced stage.
New antimicrobials should be reserved for cases that can be predicted to be refractory to other therapies and should be used according to label directions or extralabel drug use regulations.
www.avma.org /scienact/jtua/fish/jtuafish.asp   (2131 words)

 EPA: Pesticides - What are Antimicrobial Pesticides?
Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms whether bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.
Some examples of antimicrobial pesticide chemicals can be found in the Antimicrobial Chemical Indexes.
Antimicrobial products are divided into two categories based on the type of microbial pest against which the product works.
www.epa.gov /oppad001/ad_info.htm   (640 words)

 AgION™ ANTIMICROBIAL   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Its antimicrobial effectiveness has been demonstrated in the laboratory against a wide range of bacteria, yeast, fungi and molds.
antimicrobial is acceptable for use in and around food processing areas (meat and poultry).
antimicrobial compound suppresses the growth of bacteria, algae, fungus, mold, and mildew.
www.agion-tech.com /applications.html   (293 words)

 Cleaning Up Antimicrobial Hand Soaps
In October, he served as a member on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Drug Evaluation and Research panel, which was convened to examine the benefits and hazards of antiseptic hand soaps and body washes marketed for consumer use.
Rolf Halden: One concern is that antimicrobial hand soaps may contribute to the rise of germs that are resistant to treatment with antibiotics.
The annual use of antimicrobials in health care settings is miniscule compared to the millions of pounds of persistent biocides contained in personal care products used and dispersed into the environment today.
www.jhsph.edu /publichealthnews/articles/2005/halden_soaps.html   (907 words)

 Antimicrobial resistance: reports prepared by the OIE Ad hoc Group of experts on antimicrobial resistance
This is the first time that an important amount of knowledge on antimicrobial resistance is gathered in a comprehensive manner, thanks to a group of internationally recognised experts.
Antimicrobial resistance: standardisation and harmonisation of laboratory methodologies for the detection and quantification of antimicrobial resistance
Antimicrobial resistance: harmonisation of national antimicrobial resistance monitoring and surveillance programmes in animals and in animal-derived food.
www.oie.int /eng/publicat/ouvrages/a_106.htm   (319 words)

 Antimicrobial Resistance, Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, NIAID   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Antimicrobials have transformed our ability to treat many infectious diseases that were killers only a few decades ago.
Antimicrobial Resistance: The NIH Response to a Growing Problem - Statement of Anthony S. Fauci, MD, Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Before the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, Subcommittee on Public Health and Safety.
Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphlococcus aureus (NARSA) is a resource for basic and clinical investigators.
www.niaid.nih.gov /dmid/antimicrob   (1291 words)

 RFA-CI-06-003: Antimicrobial Resistance
With the need for preventing antimicrobial resistance growing ever greater, the full spectrum of prevention measures must be utilized including not only reducing unnecessary antimicrobial use but also preventing the transmission of resistance.
New methods to prevent transmission of antimicrobial resistant pathogens, as well as greater understanding of the efficacy and relative effectiveness of existing transmission prevention methods, are needed.
The purpose of the R01 award is to develop novel method(s) for controlling transmission of antimicrobial resistant bacterial pathogens with the intent of interrupting transmission to such a degree that rates of infection due to antimicrobial resistant pathogens are favorably impacted, the overall health of the population is improved, and healthcare cost savings are realized.
grants.nih.gov /grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-CI-06-003.html   (6242 words)

 A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Antimicrobial Treatment for Children With Clinically Diagnosed Acute ...
Antimicrobial treatment resulted in a 14-day change in the S5 score of 1.48 (0.77) and a day 14 improvement rate of 80%.
Dowell SF, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, Gerber MA, Schwartz B Principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents for pediatric upper respiratory tract infections.
Thornsberry C, Ogilvie P, Kahn J, Mauriz Y Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in S pneumonia, H influenza, and M catarrhalis in the United States in 1996-1997 respiratory season.
pediatrics.aappublications.org /cgi/content/full/107/4/619   (3899 words)

 Antimicrobial peptides from hylid and ranin frogs originated from a 150-million-year-old ancestral precursor with a ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Antimicrobial peptides from hylid and ranin frogs originated from a 150-million-year-old ancestral precursor with a conserved signal peptide but a hypermutable antimicrobial domain -- Vanhoye et al.
Antimicrobial peptides from hylid and ranin frogs originated from a 150-million-year-old ancestral precursor with a conserved signal peptide but a hypermutable antimicrobial domain
The coding region, including the signal peptide, the acidic propiece and the antimicrobial progenitor sequence is drawn as a rectangle.
content.febsjournal.org /cgi/content/full/270/9/2068   (6697 words)

 Antimicrobial: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
An antimicrobial is a substance that that kills or slows the growth of microbe Microorganism quick summary:
A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye)....
In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, nasopharynx, or the eye....
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/a/an/antimicrobial.htm   (621 words)

 Immune system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In addition, anti-microbial proteins may be activated if a pathogen passes through the barrier offered by skin.
There are several classes of antimicrobial proteins, such as acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein, for example, enhances phagocytosis and activates complement when it binds itself to the C-protein of S.
The complement system is a very complex group of serum proteins, which is activated in a cascade fashion.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Immune_system   (2499 words)

 AntiMicrobial   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The antimicrobial additive is effective in both epoxy and urethane products.
When incorporated throughout the entire system, the biostatic effects last for the life of the floor or wall system, and will not wash out or become inactivated over time.
We offer a broad selection of floor and wall systems which are available with antimicrobial additive.
www.generalpolymers.com /products/antimicrobial.htm   (128 words)

 Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
An antimicrobial is any substance of natural, semisynthetic, or synthetic origin that kills or inhibits the growth of a microorganism, but causes little or no host damage.
MIC is the concentration of antimicrobial required to inhibit the growth of a particular bacterial isolate in vitro.
Most antimicrobials are safe enough that USUAL doses produce concentrations that exceed minimum targets and remain safe despite variable pharmacokinetics.
cpharm.vetmed.vt.edu /vm8784/ANTIMICROBIALS/Principles.htm   (2742 words)

 Antimicrobial resistance: a microbial risk assessment perspective -- Snary et al. 53 (6): 906 -- Journal of ...
Associations between the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium from broilers and pigs in Denmark, Finland and Norway.
Draft guidance for industry: evaluating the safety of antimicrobial new animal drugs with regard to their microbiological effects on bacteria of human health concern.
Antimicrobial resistance in enterococci isolated from turkey flocks fed virginiamycin.
jac.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/53/6/906   (6412 words)

 Great Grips Doorknob Covers - Antimicrobial Great Grips - Independent Living, Home Modification, Arthritis, ...
The AgION® Antimicrobial is a combination of silver ions bonded to a ceramic material called zeolite.
The antimicrobial is activated by moisture in the air.
AgION Antimicrobial is effective against a broad spectrum of bacteria and adds built-in protection to prevent the growth of bacteria, mold and mildew.
www.greatgrips.com /gg_antimicrobial.html   (162 words)

 AgION™ ANTIMICROBIAL   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
antimicrobial compound has been recognized by the FDA to be effective in all types of food contact polymers.
antimicrobial compound is completely inorganic, thus reducing the risk of developing antibiotic resistance.
antimicrobial compound symbol on cooking implements, toys, bandages, kitchen countertops, phones, bathroom fixtures, sneakers, towels and just about everything their families use.
www.agion-tech.com /corporate2.html   (364 words)

 NEJM -- Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides and Skin Infections in Atopic Dermatitis
Conclusions A deficiency in the expression of antimicrobial
Gombart, A. F., Borregaard, N., Koeffler, H. Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is a direct target of the vitamin D receptor and is strongly up-regulated in myeloid cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
Di Nardo, A., Vitiello, A., Gallo, R. Cutting Edge: Mast Cell Antimicrobial Activity Is Mediated by Expression of Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide.
content.nejm.org /cgi/content/abstract/347/15/1151   (1713 words)

 Home | CDC Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance
A national campaign to reduce antimicrobial resistance through promotion of more appropriate antibiotic use....
CDC does not recommend self-diagnosis or self-management of health problems that should be attended to by health care professionals.
Manual for the Laboratory Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacterial Pathogens of Public Health Importance in the Developing World
www.cdc.gov /drugresistance   (156 words)

 Towards targeted prescribing: will the cure for antimicrobial resistance be specific, directed therapy through improved ...
The discovery of antimicrobial agents was one of the major events
the infecting pathogen or the resident flora—to antimicrobial
Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and Infectious Diseases Society of America Joint Committee on the prevention of antimicrobial resistance: guidelines for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals.
jac.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/53/6/902   (2359 words)

 The Common Cold---Principles of Judicious Use of Antimicrobial Agents -- Rosenstein et al. 101 (1): 181 -- Pediatrics
Antimicrobial agents should not be given for the common cold.
Moraxella catarrhalis, or Haemophilus influenzae on a nasal swab.
antimicrobial agents are not indicated for treatment of viral
pediatrics.aappublications.org /cgi/content/full/101/1/S1/181?...   (2200 words)

 PhysOrgForum Science, Physics and Technology Discussion Forums -> Antimicrobial
There is a company in NJ, Component Hardware Group, that is already producing fixtures for kitchens and bathrooms with a permanent antimicrobial coating.
According to their web site, www.Saniguard.com, its effective against E-coli, Listeria and other bacteria, as well as tested against norovirus.Apparently, it doesn"t wash off and uses silver as its basic element.
Y'think they'd make antimicrobial surfaces a standard in kitchens...
forum.physorg.com /index.php?showtopic=3086   (336 words)

 CDER Antimicrobial Resistance
FDA, in cooperation with other Public Health Service Agencies, has embarked on several major initiatives to address what is considered to be a major threat to the Public Health in the new millennium: the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria.
This page is designed to permit ready access to FDA and CDER activities, initiatives, policies, and information regarding antimicrobial resistance (also known as drug resistance or antibiotic resistance), both for health professionals and consumers.
CDER, the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, is home to (among others) the Divisions of Anti-Infective Drug Products, Special Pathogen and Immunologic Drug Products, Antiviral Drug Products (all within the Office of Drug Evaluation IV), the Division of Over-the-Counter Drug Products (within the Office of Drug Evaluation V), and the Office of Generic Drugs.
www.fda.gov /cder/drug/antimicrobial   (427 words)

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