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Topic: Antiquarks

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The composite particles made of quarks and antiquarks are the hadrons.
The masses of the heavy charm and bottom quarks are obtained from the masses of hadrons containing a single heavy quark (and one light antiquark or two light quarks) and from the analysis of quarkonia.
The existence of a third generation of quarks was predicted by Kobayashi and Maskawa who realized that the observed violation of CP symmetry by neutral kaons could not be accommodated into the Standard Model with two generations of quarks.
www.oobdoo.com /wikipedia/?title=Quark   (2085 words)

 Quark - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta
Antiquarks have many of the same properties as their corresponding quarks, but some of their properties are opposite to that of their counterparts.
Pions may consist of an up quark and a down antiquark (with an electric charge of 1), a down quark and an up antiquark (with a charge of –1), or an up quark and an up antiquark (with a charge of 0).
The color charges of the quarks in a baryon are all different and add up to 0, or white, making the baryon “colorless.” The color charges of the quark and antiquark in a meson are complementary and also add up to 0 (white), making the meson colorless.
encarta.msn.com /text_761576347___0/Quark.html   (1524 words)

 Theory: Antiparticles (SLAC VVC) (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab-3.cs.princeton.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
For charge zero mesons with different types of quark and antiquark, there is an antiparticle partner of that reverses the role of quark and antiquark.
For charge zero mesons with the same type of quark and antiquark, and for the charge zero force carriers (photon and Z), the particle and the antiparticle are identical.
In weak interaction processes, a quark and antiquark of different flavors can annihilate into, or be produced by decay of a W boson.
www2.slac.stanford.edu.cob-web.org:8888 /vvc/theory/antiquarks.html   (625 words)

 Quantum Chromodynamics
Antiquarks of a particular type have strong and electromagnetic charges of the sign opposite to the corresponding quarks.
The combination of a quark and its corresponding antiquark is colorless or white, as is the combination of three quarks (or antiquarks) of three different colors.
Antiquarks can be thought of as having the colors antired, antigreen, and antiblue, also known as cyan, magenta, and yellow.
www.physics.nmt.edu /~raymond/classes/ph13xbook/node210.html   (1192 words)

 Quark Resources & Information - quark express
Quarks and free quark download antiquarks are the only fundamental particles which interact through all four of the fundamental forces.
The composite quark express tips particles made of quarks and antiquarks are the hadrons.
These include the mesons quark theory which get their quantum numbers from a quark and an antiquark, and the baryons, which quark express viewer get theirs from three quarks.
www.bizhisto.com /Biz-Retail-Companies-P---Q/Quark.html   (2030 words)

 Theory: Color Charge (SLAC VVC)
If we could examine the color of the quark and antiquark in a meson, there would be equal probability of finding each color quark together with its matching (anti-color) antiquark.
If either the quark or the antiquark radiate a high energy gluon at a significant angle to their initial direction of travel, we see three jets or clusters of particles, lying in a single plane.
Similarly, a state with a quark and an antiquark a meter apart and strong force field between them, but no additional quarks or antiquarks is a possible but highly improbable state.
www2.slac.stanford.edu /vvc/theory/colorchrg.html   (970 words)

 Peter Kim - Title
The antiquarks are formed by reversing the signs of the three charges.
The antiquarks become polarlized such that the antiquarks cluster nearer to the true quark than the virtual quarks.
Since there are far more virtual gluons than virtual antiquarks, the net result is that the apparent charge of the quark is spread out over the area around it.
www.phy.duke.edu /~kolena/modern/quark.html   (885 words)

 parton concept from the Astronomy knowledge base   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
antiquark (5 facts) - The antiparticle of the quark.
Quarks interact mainly via the strong nuclear force and the electromagnetic force., Fundamental particles from which all hadrons are made.
According to the theory of quantum chromodynamics, protons, neutrons, and their higher-energy cousins are composed of trios of quarks, while the mesons are each made of one quark and one antiquark.
www.site.uottawa.ca:4321 /astronomy/parton.html   (455 words)

 Explanation of Quarks in Baryons   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Physicist believe there are six quarks - up (u), down (d), charm (c), strange (s), top (t), and bottom (b) and their antiquarks - antiup, antidown, anticharm, antistrange, antibottom, and antitop.
Antiquarks are labeled with a letter with a bar over it.
A baryon cannot be made of a mixture of quarks and antiquarks.
www-ed.fnal.gov /projects/labyrinth/games/lawnorder/particle_families/baryons_qu_explain.html   (127 words)

 More on Elementary Particle
The antiquarks are: up antiquark \bar{u}, down antiquark \bar{d}, charm antiquark \bar{c}, strange antiquark \bar{s}, top antiquark \bar{t}, and bottom antiquark \bar{b}.
Quarks and antiquarks have never been detected to be isolated.
A quark can exist paired up to an antiquark, forming a meson: the quark has a "color" (see color charge) and the antiquark a corresponding "anticolor".
www.artilifes.com /elementary-particle.htm   (1074 words)

 Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions - introduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
A hierarchy of constituents of matter has been observed: macroscopic matter consists of molecules and atoms, the atoms consist of nucleons which in turn are formed of quarks, antiquarks and gluons (partons).
The strong (colour) force field between the quarks is intermediated by gluons, and inside the hadrons quark-antiquark pairs form as quantum fluctuations.
The fundamental theory describing the mutual strong interactions of quarks, gluons and antiquarks is Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD).
www.phys.jyu.fi /homepages/kjeskola/HIP/intro_urhic.html   (1378 words)

 Quarks outnumber antiquarks
There was an equal number of quarks and antiquarks on the average at any one moment.
As quarks and antiquarks "froze" out of the radiation background, a greater number of quarks than antiquarks was left over.
Therefore the domination of quarks over antiquarks is an area where studies of the early Universe could shed light on particle physics we haven't yet been able to study by direct particle scattering in an accelerator.
superstringtheory.com /cosmo/bang02.html   (264 words)

 Untitled Document
As a result, a balance between antimatter and matter is maintained, and there are almost equal numbers of quarks and antiquarks in the plasma.
A positive baryon number is assigned to quarks and a negative baryon number is assigned to antiquarks.
After pair production, the baryon numbers of the quark and antiquark cancel so the net baryon number is conserved...it is zero both before and after pair production.
www.nd.edu /~jkolata/phys171/Review/FinalReview.html   (6367 words)

 Quarks in transition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The probabilities of quarks turning into different quarks and antiquarks, the so-called quark and antiquark transition probabilities, are the key to understanding CP-violation.
The quark and antiquark in the meson are shown as lines, with the meson travelling from left to right.
It is the complex decay routes which will allow LHCb to measure transition probabilities by studying the decays of B mesons, particles which contain a quark and an antiquark, one of which is a b.
lhcb-public.web.cern.ch /lhcb-public/html/quarks.htm   (474 words)

 Elementary Particles
In 1964 Gell-Mann introduced the concept of quarks as a physical basis for the scheme, adopting the fanciful term from a passage in James Joyce's novel Finnegans Wake.
The colors red, green, and blue are ascribed to quarks, and their opposites, minus-red, minus-green, and minus-blue, to antiquarks.
All quarks must be bound to another quark or antiquark by the exchange of gluons.
zebu.uoregon.edu /~js/21st_century_science/lectures/lec16.html   (2316 words)

 15 March 2004 - DESY: Charmed Pentaquark at HERA?
For decades, particles made up of quarks were thought to contain either three quarks ("baryons" such as the proton and the neutron) or a quark and an antiquark ("mesons").
Although theory predicts more exotic combinations of quarks and antiquarks, such particles were not observed--until the year 2003, when several research teams succeeded in detecting a first pentaquark, among them the HERMES and ZEUS experiments at DESY.
The H1 data point to a particle containing two up quarks, two down quarks and a charm antiquark (and the corresponding antiparticle, a combination of two up antiquarks, two down antiquarks and a charm quark).
www.interactions.org /cms/?pid=1010671   (715 words)

 [No title]
Antiquarks always have the same symbol as their corresponding quark, except that it is underlined.
Rather, quarks are bound into triplets of quarks or antiquarks (baryons) or quark and antiquark pairs (mesons).
In triplets, there cannot be a mixture of quark/antiquark - they are either all quarks (qqq) or all antiquarks (qqq).
members.lycos.co.uk /asphysics2001/Module1/quarks_and_antiquarks.htm   (282 words)

 Antimatter Questions and Answers
Neutrons are made of quarks, and antineutrons are made of antiquarks.
Quarks and antiquarks have opposite charges, even though they sum up to zero in both cases.
And a very good way to recognize them is to put a neutron close to an antineutron and see how they immediately annihilate.
livefromcern.web.cern.ch /livefromcern/antimatter/FAQ1.html   (488 words)

 2 - The new view of the proton as seen by HERA
The proton, according to HERA measurements: It is densly filled with quarks, antiquarks and gluons.
Number of quarks and antiquarks in the proton, as a function of x, the fractional quark energy inside the proton.
The discovery that there is a dense mass of quarks, antiquarks and gluons inside the proton, and the precise measurements of HERA, have met with great interest and triggered a large number of theoretical investigations.
www.desy.de /f/hera/engl/chap2.html   (722 words)

 Quarks and Antiquarks
Antiquarks have the same symbol as the quark but with an underline i.e.
In a triplet there will be three quarks (q q q) or three antiquarks (qqq) but never a mixture, for example a proton consists of two up quarks and a down quark, these are called Baryons.
In a pair there will always be one quark and one antiquark (q q)but never two quarks or two antiquarks, an example of this is the Pion, these are caled Mesons.
www.egglescliffe.org.uk /physics/particles/mkquark/quarks.html   (637 words)

 ScienceWeek   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Protons, neutrons, pions, and the elaborate array of other hadrons discovered in the last half-century are thought to be understood in terms of their constituent quarks and gluons.
A quark is a hypothetical fundamental particle, having charges whose magnitudes are one-third or two-thirds of the electron charge, and from which the elementary particles may in theory be constructed.
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is a theory that describes the strong interaction in terms of quarks and antiquarks and the exchange of massless "gluons" between them.
scienceweek.com /2004/sa040319-2.htm   (1578 words)

 CERN Courier - LEP helps fill CKM matrix - IOP Publishing - article
Its individual elements ­ the probabilities that a quark or antiquark will turn into a different kind of quark or antiquark in a weak interaction ­ are not predicted by theory, and measuring them has been a major preoccupation of physicists in recent years.
To a good approximation, the CKM elements on the diagonal, which relate quarks of the same family, up and down, charm and strange, and top and bottom, are expected to be close to one.
Up to now, most CKM measurements have been made by studying the weak decays of quarks, but many have been hampered by the fact that it is generally not a quark which is observed to decay but a hadron.
www.cerncourier.com /main/article/38/7/15   (744 words)

 Physics Today February 2004 - Article: Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Comes of Age
In 1974, Kenneth Wilson at Cornell University formulated a version of QCD on a discrete spacetime lattice (see the left panel of figure 1) and, with pencil and paper, used it to provide a plausible, but not rigorous, argument for color confinement.
Wilson argued that, on a coarse spacetime lattice, the potential energy of separation of a quark and an antiquark must rise linearly with distance.
The inflection point near 180 MeV in the figure is taken to indicate the transition to the QGP from a lower-temperature phase of quarks and antiquarks confined in hadrons.
www.aip.org /pt/vol-57/iss-2/p45.html   (3217 words)

 Starting from Square One: Science News Online, Aug. 7, 2004   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
These arrangements of quarks and antiquarks, both of which scientists lump into the category of quarks, are held together by gluons that they exchange.
Furthermore, pairs of quarks and antiquarks randomly materialize out of the seeming emptiness of space, forming a sea of short-lived particles that interact with the other quarks and gluons already present in baryons and mesons.
So, physicists must turn to theory to distinguish those features due exclusively to the decay of the b quark from the elaborate dance of quarks, antiquarks, and gluons inside a decaying B meson.
www.sciencenews.org /articles/20040807/bob9.asp   (2600 words)

 Inflationary Big Bang Model
The quarks and antiquarks combine and annihilate each other.
Quarks are in excess of antiquarks by a ratio of 1,000,000,001 to 1,000,000,000.
Electromagnetic energy, produced during the annihilation of quarks and antiquarks, dominates the forces of gravity.
www.godandscience.org /apologetics/bigbang.html   (358 words)

 QUARK REFERENCE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Mesons consist of one quark combined with one antiquark, and they may carry a charge of +1 or -1 or 0, depending on the quarks involved.
Not every scientific discovery is heralded by a clear cry of "Eureka!" A case in point is the study of an exotic state of matter known as a quark-gluon plasma (QGP), in which hundreds of ordinary protons and neutrons melt together and form a fiery soup of free-roaming quarks and gluons.
Gell-Mann's model provided a simple picture in which all mesons are shown as consisting of a quark and an antiquark and all baryons as composed of three quarks.
zyx.org /QUARKREF.htm   (4644 words)

 Quarks, A few years ago scientists discovered that these elementary particles are again made up of extremely small ...
There are four different kinds of quarks, each having antiparticle called Antiquark.
All quarks and antiquarks have equal spins which is ½.
Each meson can be conceived as the union of a quark and an antiquark.
www.4to40.com /earth/science/print.asp?article=earth_science_quark   (259 words)

 Quark Page - quark viewer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Quarks and antiquarks are the only fundamental particles which interact through all four of the fundamental forces.
Each quark is assigned a baryon number, B = 1/3, and a vanishing lepton number L = 0.
The quantum numbers of the top and bottom quarks are sometimes known as truth and beauty respectively.
www.patpress.com /K---Z/Quark.php   (1985 words)

 Heavy-Light Mesons, A New Type of Subatomic Particle Observed for The First Time - News Item   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The new meson, a combination of a strange quark and a charm antiquark, is the heaviest ever observed in this family, and it behaves in surprising ways -- it apparently breaks the rules on decaying into other particles.
A meson is made up of a quark and an antiquark, bound together by the strong force.
The combination of a massive quark, like the charm quark, with a light quark (in this case, a strange quark) presents an especially interesting laboratory in which to study the strong force.
www.azom.com /details.asp?ArticleID=2577   (1001 words)

 Charmed pentaquark appears at DESY (March 2004) - News - PhysicsWeb
Quarks and antiquarks come in six different flavours – up, down, strange, charm, bottom and top - and normally combine in twos and threes to form other particles.
Mesons contain a quark and an antiquark, while baryons contain three quarks or three antiquarks.
When the number of such events is plotted as a function of the collision energy, there is a narrow peak at 3099 MeV.
www.physicsweb.org /article/news/8/3/9   (345 words)

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