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Topic: Apabhramsa language

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In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

 Peoples and languages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The language of the first wave, which remained confined to the Pamir mountains of Pakistan, is identified as Dardic while the second one may be called Indic.
This language, opines Gankovsky, was probably made up of elements from the languages of the 'local pre-Indo-European population and Indo-Aryan tribes, as well as the Dardic and East-Iranian ethnic elements'.
These languages have not generally been used in the domains of power because the rulers of this region were generally foreigners.
asnic.utexas.edu /asnic/subject/peoplesandlanguages.html   (6627 words)

 Assamese Information Center - assamese language
Assamese language features have been discovered in the 9th worker feeds baby assamese macaque century Charyapada, which are Buddhist verses discovered in 1911 in Nepal, and which came from the end of the Apabhramsa period.
Earliest examples of the language appeared in the early 14th century, composed during the reign of the Kamata king Durlabhnarayana.
Assamese phonetics has two distinguishing features vis-à-vis the other Indic languages of the Indo-European family: the complete absence of the retroflex sound which is particularly strong in Dravidian languages, and strong in Sanskrit; assamese and the presence of the voiceless velar fricative [2] which is completely absent in the present forms of other Indian languages.
www.scipeeps.com /Sci-Official_Languages_A_-_C/Assamese.html   (1326 words)

 Middle Indo-Aryan languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Middle Indo-Aryan (Middle Indic) languages are the medieval dialects of the Indo-Aryan languages, the descendants of the Old Indo-Aryan dialects such as Sanskrit, and the predecessors of the medieval languages such as Apabhramsha or Abahatta, which eventually evolved into the contemporary Indo-Aryan languages, including Hindustani, Oriya, Bengali, and Punjabi.
The term Prakrit is also often applied to these languages (prakrita literally means "natural" as opposed to sanskrita, which literally means "constructed" or "refined").
Subsequently the second verb was grammaticalised further into what is known as a light verb, mainly used to convey lexical aspect distinctions for the main verb.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Apabhramsa_language   (361 words)

 Language in India
Braj is spoken in Faridabad, Mewati is spoken in Gurgaon, Bagri is spoken in Hissar and Sirsa, Bangru is spoken in Rohtak, Bhiwani, and Jind, and Khari Boli is spoken in Ambala and Yamuna Nagar.
Presently, the trend is not to impose a specific language requirement as a pre-requisite for employment, but to train the officials compulsorily in the official language of the state once the candidates are recruited to the jobs under the government.
It appears that the speakers of minority languages seem to have arrived at the conclusion that for maintaining their language, and their language and ethnic identity, it is not necessary for them to use their as the medium of instruction or to learn it as first language in the school system.
www.languageinindia.com /dec2001/jcsharma2.html   (2976 words)

 Virtual Bangladesh : Bengali
Bengali is an Indo-Aryan language and evolved from Sanskrit.
Sanskrit was the spoken as well as the literary language of Aryandom until circa 500 B.C., after which it remained for nearly two thousand years the dominant literary languages as well as the lingua franca among the cultured and the erudite throughout the subcontinent.
Like Sanskrit, Apabhramsa-Avahattha was a literary language, and in the available records it shows remarkably little local variation; practically the same form of the language appears in the poems written in Gujrat and in Bengal.
www.virtualbangladesh.com /bd_bangla.html   (638 words)

 Final project
It developed as a variation (apabhramsa) of the classical language Sanskrit around the 7th century A.D. from a group of dialects known as the khari-boli.
Initially only a colloquial, (a mixed language that soldiers of the Moslem invaders used to communicate with the local people) the language established itself as a key language for a large part of Northern India and ultimately became a literary language between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries.
Hindi became the official language of the Republic of India in 1947 and it is mandatory to use this language for all official documents in Central Government offices.
www.eden.rutgers.edu /~shuktara/555/final/content/history.htm   (226 words)

 Language in Ancient India
Scholars who study language policy in Europe and correlate it with the renaissance and the rise of nation-states expect South Asian language policy to have its roots in the same phenomena.
Here we find an attempt to capture and define various aspects of the Aryan language as it had been orally preserved in the ancient texts, and also an attempt to describe the Aryan upper-class language as it was currently spoken.
The origin of the Mimamsa conception that language is eternal lies in the Brahmanical concern for preservation of the Vedas which the Mimamsakas shared with the Sanskrit grammarians.
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /~haroldfs/540/handouts/indiapol/node5.html   (1529 words)

 Moen jo Daro travel & tours information
The language of the first wave, which remained confined to the Pamir mountains of Pakistan, is identified as Dardic while the second one may be called Indic.31 The chart given in Figure -1, based on George Grierson's classification, may be useful in illustrating the hypothesized relationship.
Similarly, the local languages continued to be used.62 However, Greek too found a place of prominence and came to be used at least in the elitist domains.
It was the spoken language, or Apabhramsa, 'of the country round the lower Indus.'91 It was also the mother of what Grierson calls Lahnda and what are now known as Siraiki and Hind Ko.92 According to the same author 'India had left the Prakrit stage, and had reached the stage of the tertiary Prakrits, i.e.
www.travel-culture.com /pakistan/indus_civilization.shtml   (5488 words)

However, some Prakrits developed literary languages of their own and developed unique strains, a few of which are Sauraseni, Magadhi and Maharastri.
One notable Prakrit, is Pali, the language of the Tipitaka, often referred to in English as the "Pali Canon." This is the version of the Tripitaka (which historically occurred in several languages, including Sanskrit) that was compiled by the Theravada school of Buddhism.
As a literary language of Buddhism, it has had some influence on both Sanskrit and a few modern Southeast Asian languages, such as Khmer and Thai.
www.knowledgefun.com /book/p/pr/prakrit.html   (379 words)

 arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh/India
It is important to note that the languages spoken by all these ethnic groups and tribes contributed to the language that the language that is now Bengali.
The Apabhramsa popular dialects were the medium of composition for songs and couplets.
Sauraseni was possibly the polite language and was used for literary purposes.
www.sos-arsenic.net /english/intro/bangla.html   (1067 words)

 Iranica.com - GUJARATI
As a conversational language, it is concise, simple, and well adapted for social and domestic dealings.
The origin of the language is traced to later or Puranic Sanskrit, as distinguished from the language of the Vedas, which is called Maha Sanskrit.
The history of Gujarati language can be divided into three periods: 1) the old (Apabhramsa) period (10th-14th cent.): During this period Parsis learned Sanskrit, and many of their religious texts were translated into Sanskrit from the Middle Persian versions.
www.iranica.com /articles/v11f4/v11f4020.html   (1302 words)

 Assamese language Summary
Assamese is similar to the Bengali language and is one of the state languages of India.
Assamese (অসমীয়া) or Ôxômiya (IPA [ɔxɔmija]) is the language spoken by some of the natives of the state of Assam in northeast India.
The sound is variously transcribed in the IPA as a voicelss velar fricative [x], a voiceless uvular fricative [χ], and a voiceless velar approximant [ɰ] by leading phonologists and phoneticians.
www.bookrags.com /Assamese_language   (3131 words)

 Prakrit - Article from FactBug.org - the fast Wikipedia mirror site
The Prakrits were literary languages, generally patronized by kings identified with the ksatriya caste, and regarded as illegitimate by the Brahmin orthodoxy.
Some scholars include all Middle Indo-Aryan languages ultimately derived from Sanskrit under the rubric of "Prakrits"; others emphasise the independent development of these languages, often separated from the history of Sanskrit by wide divisions of caste, religion, and geography.
Pali (the language of Theravada orthodoxy) tends to be treated as a special exception, as classical (Sanskrit) gramamrs do not consider it as a Prakrit per se, presumably for sectarian rather than linguistic reasons.
www.factbug.org /cgi-bin/a.cgi?a=24497   (391 words)

 Garden of Guti
Moreover, as the Lithuanian language today is said to be one of the closest to the ancient Aryan, note that "udra" in Lithuanian is an otter (i.e.
Udra was also an Aryan-family language called "Prakrit," and it just so happens that the language of "Apabhramsa" (can we see an "Abraham" in that?) grew out of Prakrit (in Christian centuries) in northern India.
"The language and manuscript of this rare and eternal monument of light, and of a higher wisdom, are borrowed from the Cuthans, a tribe of the Samaritans, who were called Cuthim in the Chaldee dialect according to the Talmud, and they were so called in a spirit of derision.
www.tribwatch.com /guti.htm   (2851 words)

 Language in India
Languages of the Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman language families are also spoken in India, though by relatively few people compared to speakers of the other two families.
Despite being the progenitor of the major north Indian languages, Sanskrit retains a somewhat pan-Indian character and is held in high regard by the majority of Indians in both the north and the south.
The official language is not always the majority language of the state; for example, many of the north-eastern states use English for this purpose.
www.languageinindia.com /may2002/baldridgelanguagepolicy.html   (15813 words)

 Bangla Language and Script
The literary documents of IA language in Indian Peninsula can be classified into three periods according to their linguistic changes.
The inadequacy of written documents of immediate Pre-Bengali period is one of the most important limi-tations to find out the gradual change from Apabhramsa, Avahattha to the historic period of Bengali (16th century AD).
In this language difference between spoken and written style is a known fact to scholars.
www.isical.ac.in /~rc_bangla/bangla.html   (1289 words)

A Grammar of the Prakrit Language - H.B. Hannah -
A Grammar of the Tibetan Language Literary and Colloquial (with Copius Illustrations and treating fully of Spelling, Pronunciation and the Construction of the Verb and including Appendices of the various froms of the verb - Herbert Bruce Hannah -
An Introduction to the Grammar of the Tibetan Language - Sarat Chandra Das -
www.libroelibri.com /motilal-languages.htm   (992 words)

Prakrit (Sanskrit prakrta: "natural, usual") refers to the broad family of the Indic languages and dialects spoken in ancient India.
The earliest extant use of Prakrit are the inscriptions of Asoka, emperor of Northern India, and while the various Prakritic languages are associated with different patron dynasties, with different religions and different literary traditions, none of them were at any time an informal "mother tongue" in any area of India.
The modern languages of India developed from the Prakrits, after the intermediary stage of the Apabhramsa language.da:Prakrit de:Prakrit es:Prácrito eo:Prakrito fr:Prâkrit id:Bahasa Prakerta nl:Prakrit ja:プラークリット pl:Prakryty sa:प्राकृत sv:Prakrit
www.measuroo.com /rel-P/Prakrit.php   (374 words)

 India Languages
A knowledge of the Dravidian language structure in all its development stages, from their earliest beginnings to today, is necessary for understanding numerous fundamental aspects with the emergence of the indoarian, Munda and other languages of south Asia and of course for the history of the Dravidian language family itself.
With the work of the renowned Russian Dravidian scientist Mikhail S. Andronov, in which the over 80 known, investigated and described languages and dialects of the Dravidian language family are taken in consideration, this gap has been closed.
The Dravidian languages are spoken by over 200 million people in South Asia and in Diaspora communities around the world, and constitute the world’s fifth largest language family.
www.atleest.nl /en-us/dept_272.html   (1348 words)

Such works are Trisatisalakapurusacaritam, Upamitibhavaprapancakatha, Siddhahema, Kavyanusasana, Ganitatilaka, Paumacariyam, Desinamamala, Kathakosa, Joisasara, Karalakhana, Ristasamuccaya, Paialacchlnamamala, Tattvarthasutra, etc. The Jains have written in all the principal languages of India.
They have written in Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabhramsa, old Gujarati, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada etc. South Indian languages woe a good deal for development as literary languages to Jainism and Jain saints.
Jains have not lagged behind in art, architecture, sculpture, painting etc. The beautiful and world famous temples on Mount Abu, Acalgadha, Sammetsikhara, Satrunjaya, Girnar are enough to show the patronage and enthusiasm given to art and sculpture.
jainsamaj.org /literature/role_jainism.htm   (1748 words)

 Bookstore-Language, Creative Writing, English, Hindi, Other Languages
The author argues that Derrida’s notion of difference (with an a) is closely related to the central concept of linguistic value of a sign as enunciated by Fedinand de Sassure.
1986/1991 This is a collection of papers on different aspects of language and linguistics, style and stylistics and discourse analysis.
The Imagery and Language of Keats’ Odes by V N Sinha
jodocareers.com /BS/Subcat/Language.htm   (571 words)

 urdu language
The grammatical structure of Urdu is based on Western Sauraseni Apabhramsa but its vocabulary, idioms and literary traditions drew heavily from Central Asian, Turkish and Persian sources.
The literary flowering of Urdu does not go farther than 13th century.
Hussain Azad's anecdotal history of Urdu poetry titled Abe Hayat has laid the foundation of modern literary criticism.
www.india4world.com /indian-language/urdu-language.shtml   (496 words)

 Linguist List - Description of Maithili
(The code MAI was previously used for the language Maidu, Northwest.
This change was made to bring language codes
Apabhramsa Bihari Maitili Maitli Methli Tirahutia Tirhuti Tirhutia
linguistlist.org /forms/langs/LLDescription.cfm?code=mai   (88 words)

 The Ultimate Category:Extinct languages - American History Information Guide and Reference
The Ultimate Category:Extinct languages - American History Information Guide and Reference
This category deals with human languages that are extinct.
See also Extinct language, Endangered language, Linguicide, List of extinct languages.
www.historymania.com /american_history/Category:Extinct_languages   (42 words)

 Punjabi.net discussions chat forums
Reproduction of this article is not permitted without a prior permission of the author.
47 The elite used Sanskrit as we have seen but the common people used what scholars have called 'North-Western Prakrit'; or the 'language of Gandhara'.
Do not use abusive language, CAPITAL letters or UPPER case!
punjabi.net /talk/messages/1/2372.html?1107832378   (4823 words)

See Herman Jacobi, Sacred Books of the East, v.
In the Apabhramsa language, perfect, imperfect and aorist are seldom found and the past tense is expressed by a past participle.
In the Latin language aoristum is lacking, but plusquamperfectum and futurum exactum are added.
www.drury.edu /ess/Culture/references.html   (419 words)

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