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Topic: Apartheid

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  Apartheid -- Africana
The system of apartheid was enforced by a series of laws passed in the 1950s: the Group Areas Act of 1950 assigned races to different residential and business sections in urban areas, and the Land Acts of 1954 and 1955 restricted nonwhite residence to specific areas.
Though the implementation and enforcement of apartheid was accompanied by tremendous suppression of opposition, continual resistance to apartheid existed within South Africa.
Apartheid was also denounced by the international community: in 1961 South Africa was forced to withdraw from the British Commonwealth by member states who were critical of the apartheid system, and in 1985 the governments of the United States and Great Britain imposed selective economic sanctions on South Africa in protest of its racial policy.
www.africanaencyclopedia.com /apartheid/apartheid.html   (541 words)

 The History of Apartheid in South Africa
Initially, aim of the apartheid was to maintain white domination while extending racial separation.
With the enactment of apartheid laws in 1948, racial discrimination was institutionalized.
The apartheid policy was highly effective of achieving its goal of preferential treatment for whites, as is demonstrated by the statistics in Figure 1.
www-cs-students.stanford.edu /~cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.html   (737 words)

 Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign
August 5th, 2007-- The oppressions visited by the Occupation on Palestinians living behind the Apartheid Wall makes no exception for children or the disabled.
October 15th, 2007-- A significant victory for the Palestinian BDS and anti-normalization movement and the call for Justice has been scored as the organizers of the “One Voice” concert in Jericho have cancelled the event.
November 4th, 2007-- The Arab-American University and the organizing committee of the Week against the Apartheid Wall invite you to participate in the Week’s events in the University in Jenin starting from Saturday 10 — Wednesday 14 November.
www.stopthewall.org   (432 words)

  IMEU: Israel and apartheid
It is true that "apartheid" typically involves considerations of how states govern and treat residents of territories under their control.
Another key difference is that while white South Africans sought to exploit the labor of the nonwhite community under apartheid, Israel has more often sought to displace Palestinians from as much of their land as possible and keep the land for Jewish use.
It is in its administration of these territories that Israel exhibits the strongest parallels to apartheid.
imeu.net /news/article003473.shtml   (2437 words)

  History of South Africa in the apartheid era - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
That white South Africans considered the implementation of apartheid necessary may have been motivated by demographics; as a minority that was shrinking as a percentage of the total population, there was widespread unease at the thought of being swamped by the fl majority, and of losing their identity through intermarriage if that were permitted.
Discriminated against by apartheid, coloureds were as a matter of state policy forced to live in segregated townships — in some cases leaving homes their families had occupied for generations — and received an inferior education, though better than that provided to fl South Africans.
Apartheid legislation was increasingly enforced, and the walls between the races were built even higher, culminating in the creation of separate Homelands for fls.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Apartheid   (7149 words)

 Apartheid - MSN Encarta
The word apartheid means “separateness” in the Afrikaans language and it described the rigid racial division between the governing white minority population and the nonwhite majority population.
The National Party introduced apartheid as part of their campaign in the 1948 elections, and with the National Party victory, apartheid became the governing political policy for South Africa until the early 1990s.
Apartheid continued to be criticized internationally, and many countries, including the United States, imposed economic sanctions on South Africa.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761561373/Apartheid.html   (566 words)

 Apartheid, by Thomas W. Hazlett: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Library of Economics and Liberty
Apartheid's decline can also be seen in increasing expenditures on fl education: the twenty-to-one ratio in white-to-fl per-pupil educational spending in 1952 had shrunk to about five to one in 1987.
Most evidently, reform is seen in the elimination of the apartheid laws: the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act (scrapped in 1985), the abolition of the Pass Laws (1986), and the widespread elimination of "petty apartheid" (whereby separate facilities for racial groups was rigidly maintained).
Apartheid was sought by those economically threatened by the synergies between fl workers and white capitalists.
www.econlib.org /library/Enc/Apartheid.html   (3469 words)

 Apartheid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Apartheid (International Phonetic Alphabet [əˈpɑː(r)teɪt] or [-taɪt] in English and [aˈpartheid] in Afrikaans) is the policy and the system of laws implemented and continued by "White" minority governments in South Africa from 1948 to 1990; and by extension any legally sanctioned system of racial segregation.
It immediately began implementing stricter racial segregation policies, creating the system of "apartheid" which was to last for 42 years until it was dismantled in 1990 by F.W. de Klerk, after decades of domestic protest led by the African National Congress and extensive international outcry.
Many of the apartheid laws were repealed, and a new constitution was introduced which gave limited representation to certain non-whites, although not to the fl majority.
www.secaucus.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Apartheid   (2789 words)

 Brothers in arms - Israel's secret pact with Pretoria | Israel and the Middle East | Guardian Unlimited
Apartheid sought to segregate every aspect of life from the workplace to the bedroom, even though whites in practice were dependent on fl people as a workforce and servants.
Apartheid collapsed in part because South African society was exhausted by its demands and the myth of victimhood among whites fell away.
Apartheid drained so much energy from South African society that this was one of the compelling reasons beyond the economic sanctions and pressures that convinced De Klerk that this was not sustainable.
www.guardian.co.uk /israel/Story/0,,1704037,00.html   (6213 words)

 Apartheid? Israel is a democracy in which Arabs vote - Benjamin Pogrund
The word "apartheid" was coined in the 1920s for Calvinist religious purposes but became widely known through the general election in 1948 as the expression of Afrikaner nationalist political, social and economic policy.
The anti-racism conference of NGOs adopted resolutions condemning Israel as an “apartheid state” and called for an international policy of total isolation “as in the case of South Africa which means the imposition of mandatory and comprehensive sanctions and embargoes (and) the full cessation of all links…”.
The difference between the current Israeli situation and apartheid South Africa is emphasised at a very human level: Jewish and Arab babies are born in the same delivery room, with the same facilities, attended by the same doctors and nurses, with the mothers recovering in adjoining beds in a ward.
www.mideastweb.org /israel_apartheid.htm   (2919 words)

 SARA: A journey through resistance art in South Africa   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Apartheid, meaning apart-ness in Afrikaans (a South African national language) was a policy of rigid racial segregation instituted by the political party called the National Party in power from 1948 until 1994.
Apartheid was built upon earlier South African laws and customs, and classified every South African as fl, white, coloured (mixed race) or Asian (mainly Indians).
Apartheid broke down as a response to domestic and international pressure during the 70s and 80s.
library.thinkquest.org /18799/time33.html   (247 words)

 apartheid. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The purpose of apartheid was separation of the races: not only of whites from nonwhites, but also of nonwhites from each other, and, among the Africans (called Bantu in South Africa), of one group from another.
Under the prime ministership of Hendrik Verwoerd apartheid developed into a policy known as “separate development,” whereby each of the nine African (Bantu) groups was to become a nation with its own homeland, or Bantustan.
Although the policy of apartheid was continued under Prime Minister John Vorster, there was some relaxation of its pettier aspects, and this accelerated under his successor, P. Botha.
www.bartleby.com /65/ap/aparthei.html   (1014 words)

 Crimes Of War Project > The Book
Apartheid was the system of racial discrimination and separation that governed South Africa from 1948 until its abolition in the early 1990s.
Apartheid has also been labeled a war crime in international conflicts under Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions.
The inclusion of apartheid as a grave breach stemmed from the international campaign to isolate South Africa and was opposed by several Western powers as not sufficiently connected to armed conflict.
www.crimesofwar.org /thebook/apartheid.html   (481 words)

 Apartheid - Christian Reformed Church   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Apartheid exists where the following are conditional upon racial or national identity: citizenship in a state; membership in a church and participation in the Lord's Supper; participation in the economic, educational, or social function of a community; and the official status of persons.
The practice of apartheid is sinful, and the theological justification of it is heretical.
That suspension was in effect until 1996, when synod lifted the suspension because of changes in the RCSA's position and practices re apartheid and the changes in the political and societal situation in South Africa.
www.crcna.org /pages/positions_apartheid.cfm   (167 words)

 APARTHEID & RESISTANCE   (Site not responding. Last check: )
More than this, apartheid was a social system which severely disadvantaged the majority of the population, simply because they did not share the skin colour of the rulers.
Another reason why apartheid was seen as much worse than segregation, was that apartheid was introduced in a period when other countries were moving away from racist policies.
The other main reason for apartheid was fear, as in South Africa the white people are in the minority, and many were worried they would lose their jobs, culture and language.
www.sahistory.org.za /pages/specialprojects/apartheid-and-resistance/background.htm   (1114 words)

 BBC NEWS | Middle East | Carter: Israeli apartheid 'worse'
Correspondents say the book, Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid, blames all sides for not seizing the opportunity of the Camp David peace process in the late 1970s.
He added that the book was intended to stimulate debate in the US - Israel's closest political ally - where he said Israeli policies are seldom questioned.
Jewish groups in the US have petitioned against his use of the word "apartheid" - the system which underpinned white minority rule - to describe Israel's treatment of Palestinians.
news.bbc.co.uk /2/hi/middle_east/6169107.stm   (414 words)

 apartheid — Infoplease.com
apartheid: History - History Racial segregation and the supremacy of whites had been traditionally accepted in South...
apartheid: The Bantustans - The Bantustans In 1962 the South African government established the first of the Bantustans, the...
Apartheid era crooks exposed: a damning new report exposes instances of deeply entrenched grand corruption involving high ranking......
www.infoplease.com /ce6/history/A0804329.html   (219 words)

 Apartheid and South Africa
Under Apartheid, racist beliefs were enshrined in law and any criticism of the law was suppressed.
Transkei was one of the ten so-called fl "homelands" (formerly "bantustans") created around the country since 1913, and was one of four that were nominally "independent" in 1982 when this photo was taken, although they were not recognized as such anywhere else in the world.
The United Nations condemned the creation of such areas as a means of consolidating the inhumane policies of apartheid, destroying the territorial integrity of the country, perpetuating white domination and dispossessing fl people of their inalienable rights.
www.un.org /av/photo/subjects/apartheid.htm   (930 words)

 Guardian | Worlds apart
Using the term 'apartheid' to apply to Israel's legitimate responses to terror and the threat of annihilation both demeans the South African experience, and is the most immoral of charges against the right of the Jewish people to self-determination," he replied.
"Apartheid was an extension of the colonial project to dispossess people of their land," said the Jewish South African cabinet minister and former ANC guerrilla, Ronnie Kasrils, on a visit to Jerusalem.
Separate and unequal education systems were a central part of the apartheid regime's strategy to limit fl children to a life in the mines, factories and fields.
www.guardian.co.uk /print/0,,5392485-103552,00.html   (6921 words)

 Apartheid South Africa
Apartheid is an afrikaans word meaning "seperateness" - it was a legal system whereby people were classified into racial groups - White, Black, Indian and Coloured; and seperate geographic areas were demarcated for each racial group.
Apartheid laws were part of South Africa's legal framework from 1948 to 1994.
On Wednesday, 16th June 1976, Soweto pupils revolt against the apartheid education system, where they were forced to be taught in Afrikaans (as their medium of instruction).
www.southafrica.to /history/Apartheid/apartheid.htm   (3917 words)

 Israel: an apartheid state?, by Leila Farsakh
South African apartheid wanted the land and the people, albeit with segregation; the Israeli leadership tried to take the land without the people, a policy seriously challenged by the 1967 war, which altered the demographic reality of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
The road map is an international endorsement of the bantustanisation of the WBGS; the international community accepted the establishment of a Palestinian state with provisional borders while settlements are not dismantled and the 1967 borders continue to be redefined by Israel.
The disappearance of that option would condemn Israel to being an apartheid and binational state, unless it were to embark on a massive programme of population transfer.
mondediplo.com /2003/11/04apartheid   (2585 words)

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