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Topic: Apical membrane


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In the News (Thu 20 Jun 19)

  
 P2 purinoceptors regulate calcium-activated chloride and fluid transport in 31EG4 mammary epithelia -- Blaug et al. 284 (4): C897 -- AJP - Cell Physiology
Shown are apical and basolateral membrane mechanisms and second messengers involved in the purinoceptor-mediated alterations in cell Ca, membrane potential, and resistance.
Apical and basal membrane ion transport mechanisms in bovine retinal pigment epithelium.
Lactate transport mechanisms at apical and basolateral membranes of bovine retinal pigment epithelium.
ajpcell.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/284/4/C897   (5862 words)

  
 More than apical: distribution of SGLT1 in Caco-2 cells -- Kipp et al. 285 (4): C737 -- AJP - Cell Physiology
apical plasma membrane and intracellular compartments of 1:2.
The fractions obtained from FFE were assayed for (A and D) protein, alkaline phosphatase (AP; apical plasma membrane), and Na/K-ATPase (Na/K; basolateral plasma membrane) (A and D), for HRP (early endosomes) and FITC-dextran fluorescence (late endosomes) (B and E), and for SGLT1, using an ELISA assay (C and F).
Biogenesis of the rat hepatocyte plasma membrane in vivo: comparison of the pathways taken by apical and basolateral proteins using subcellular fractionation.
ajpcell.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/285/4/C737   (6362 words)

  
 Epithelial Fluid Transport-A Century of Investigation -- Spring 14 (3): 92 -- Physiology
Water enters the cell across the apical membrane because of the small (2–4%) hyperosmolality of the cytoplasm and leaves across the basolateral membrane driven by a similarly small osmotic pressure difference (3–6%).
permeability to the apical membrane of proximal tubule cells.
The outer-facing membrane is semipermeable (high water permeability and relatively low solute permeability); the inner-facing membrane is nonselective (high water and solute permeabilities).
physiologyonline.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/14/3/92   (3524 words)

  
 Auditory Physiolgy
The vibrations are transmitted to the basilar membrane (see diagram opposite) which in turn vibrates at a particular frequency, depending upon the position along its length {high frequencies vibrate the window end where the basilar membrane is narrow and thick, and low frequencies vibrate the apical end where the membrane is wide and thin}.
The basilar membrane is narrow and stiff at the window end and wide and flexible at the apical end.
The cilia of the hair cells, which contact the overlying tectorial membrane, bend as the basilar membrane vibrates, this opens ion channels and causes the entry of ions into the hair cell and a generator potential develops.
www.cf.ac.uk /biosi/staff/jacob/teaching/sensory/ear.html   (3524 words)

  
 Internal Shearing within the Hearing Organ Evoked by Basilar Membrane Motion -- Fridberger et al. 22 (22): 9850 -- Journal of Neuroscience
To shift the position of the basilar membrane, the pressure in the scala tympani was modified using the
Fridberger A, van Maarseveen JTPW, Scarfone E, Ulfendahl M, Flock B, Flock Å (1997) Pressure-induced basilar membrane position shifts and the stimulus-evoked potentials in the low-frequency region of the guinea pig cochlea.
Zinn C, Maier H, Zenner H-P, Gummer AW (2000) Evidence for active, nonlinear, negative feedback in the vibration response of the apical region of the in-vivo guinea-pig cochlea.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/22/22/9850   (3524 words)

  
 Three-dimensional reconstruction of cytoplasmic membrane networks in parietal cells -- Duman et al. 115 (6): 1251 -- Journal of Cell Science
ADP + Pi at the apical plasma membrane.
of the gastric parietal cell; the canalicular apical membrane
Numerous membrane profiles of H,K-ATPase-rich structures (arrowheads), most of which appear tubular and vesicular in thin section, are located in spaces between the mitochondria (m).
jcs.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/115/6/1251   (3524 words)

  
 MRP2, a human conjugate export pump, is present and transports fluo 3 into apical vacuoles of Hep G2 cells -- Cantz et al. 278 (4): 522 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
of similar substrate specificities of MRP1 and MRP2 (29), CF is likely to be transported by MRP2 across the apical membrane
Number of cells and number of fluorescent, substrate-filled apical vacuoles were counted and ratio of number of apical vacuoles to number of total cells was calculated.
CGamF was observed mainly in the apical vacuoles (Fig.
ajpgi.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/278/4/G522   (6668 words)

  
 Thyroglobulin Is Selected as Luminal Protein Cargo for Apical Transport via Detergent-resistant Membranes in Epithelial Cells -- Martin-Belmonte et al. 275 (52): 41074 -- Journal of Biological Chemistry
One portion of Tg in FRT cells is extracellularly disposed on the apical plasma membrane (Fig.
Apical targeting of Tg to the lumen of thyroid follicles is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis (2).
Apical secretion of Tg in MDCK cells is sensitive to cholesterol depletion but not to FB treatment.
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/275/52/41074   (6781 words)

  
 The Apical Submembrane Cytoskeleton Participates in the Organization of the Apical Pole in Epithelial Cells -- Salas et al. 137 (2): 359 -- The Journal of Cell Biology
of the apical region of the cytoplasm and the apical membrane.
apical counterpart of the basolateral fodrin cytoskeleton is known.
the acquisition of apical polarity is conceived as a multistep
www.jcb.org /cgi/content/full/137/2/359   (9845 words)

  
 Na+-H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) is present in lipid rafts in the rabbit ileal brush border: a role for rafts in trafficking and rapid stimulation of NHE3 -- Li et al. 537 (2): 537 -- The Journal of Physiology Online
This was based on reports that in MDCK cells syntaxin 3 was localized in the apical membrane where it was shown to be raft associated, whereas syntaxin 4 was basolateral and not raft associated (Lafont et al.
Syntaxin 3 was exclusively apical whereas syntaxin 4 occurred in both BB and lateral domains.
, S. The apical Na exchanger isoform NHE3 is regulated by the actin cytoskeleton.
jp.physoc.org /cgi/content/full/537/2/537   (9405 words)

  
 Junctions Between Cells
They block the movement of integral membrane proteins (red and green ovals) between the apical and basolateral surfaces of the cell.
The portion of the cell exposed to the lumen is called its apical surface.
a growth stimulant, called heregulin, on their apical surface and
users.rcn.com /jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/J/Junctions.html   (870 words)

  
 Carbon monoxide stimulates the apical 70-pS K+ channel of the rat thick ascending limb -- Liu et al. 103 (7): 963 -- Journal of Clinical Investigation
have been found in the apical membrane of the TAL (1, 4-7).
Wang, W.H., and Lu, M. Effect of arachidonic acid on activity of the apical K channel in the thick ascending limb of the rat kidney.
Carbon monoxide stimulates the apical 70-pS K+ channel of the rat thick ascending limb -- Liu et al.
www.jci.org /cgi/content/full/103/7/963   (4662 words)

  
 Microfilament Network Is Needed for the Endocytosis of Water Channels and Not for Apical Membrane Insertion Upon Vasopressin Action -- Dibas et al. 223 (2): 203 -- Experimental Biology and Medicine
Microfilament Network Is Needed for the Endocytosis of Water Channels and Not for Apical Membrane Insertion Upon Vasopressin Action -- Dibas et al.
of membranes into the apical membrane are microfilament-independent.
Microfilament Network Is Needed for the Endocytosis of Water Channels and Not for Apical Membrane Insertion Upon Vasopressin Action
www.ebmonline.org /cgi/content/abstract/223/2/203   (299 words)

  
 Localization of the PE methylation pathway and SR-BI to the canalicular membrane: evidence for apical PC biosynthesis that may promote biliary excretion of phospholipid and cholesterol -- Sehayek et al. 44 (9): 1605 -- Journal of Lipid Research
Localization of the PE methylation pathway and SR-BI to the canalicular membrane: evidence for apical PC biosynthesis that may promote biliary excretion of phospholipid and cholesterol -- Sehayek et al.
: evidence for apical PC biosynthesis that may promote biliary excretion of phospholipid and cholesterol
www.jlr.org /cgi/content/abstract/44/9/1605   (541 words)

  
 Basilar membrane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Georg von Békésy, high frequencies will lead to vibrations at the narrow, basal end of the membrane, low frequencies will lead to vibrations at the wide, apical end of the membrane.
The localized vibration of the basilar membrane is then transduced into neural signals by the inner hair cells of the
In brief, the membrane is tapered and is stiffer at one end than the other.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Basilar_membrane   (541 words)

  
 A century of (epithelial) transport physiology: from vitalism to molecular cloning -- Schultz 274 (1): 13 -- AJP - Cell Physiology
are shuttled to and from apical and basolateral membranes "on
The mechanism responsible for sugar exit from the cell across the basolateral membrane was not known at that time; it is now known to be facilitated diffusion mediated by the protein GLUT-2 (25).
that, in the presence of an impermeant anion, the outer membrane
ajpcell.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/274/1/C13   (6061 words)

  
 Molecular Motors and a Spectrin Matrix Associate with Golgi Membranes In Vitro -- Fath et al. 139 (5): 1169 -- The Journal of Cell Biology
from the Golgi apparatus to the apical plasma membrane, and a
the dynactin complex behaves as a Golgi stack peripheral membrane
Approximately 300 µg/ml of Golgi stack protein in PEMS was digested with 1 µg/ml of papain at 37°C for 10 min.
www.jcb.org /cgi/content/full/139/5/1169   (8634 words)

  
 CHEST: HTI56, An Integral Apical Membrane Protein of the Human Alveolar Type I Cell, Is a Biochemical Marker of Acute Lung Injury - )
We hypothesized that cell-specific alveolar epithelial apical plasma membrane proteins might be useful biochemical markers for lung injury.
We used a monoclonal antibody against HTI56, an apical integral membrane protein specific to human type I cells (Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 151:A169), to develop a sensitive, quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for HTI56.
This hypothesis has been validated in various models of rodent lung injury, in which the airspace liquid content of RT140, a rat type I cell integral membrane protein, correlated directly with the extent of epithelial injury assessed by morphologic criteria (Am J Physiol 1995; 268:L181-186, and 1997., 272:L631-638).
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0984/is_1_116/ai_55332554   (495 words)

  
 Stable, polarised, functional expression of Kir1.1b channel protein in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line -- Ortega et al. 528 (1): 5 -- The Journal of Physiology Online
In this cell line, Na diffuses across the apical membrane and is actively extruded across the basolateral membrane via the Na -ATPase.
In these cell lines, Kir1.1b is appropriately sorted to the apical membrane when tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) at its N-terminus and functions normally.
Frindt, G. and Palmer, L. Low-conductance K channels in apical membrane of rat cortical collecting tubule.
jp.physoc.org /cgi/content/full/528/1/5   (495 words)

  
 a2m2html output for tmp.a2m
spP50492AMA1_PLAF8_99:537 Apical membrane antigen 1 precursor (Merozoite surface antigen) [Taxonomy]
spP22621AMA1_PLAFF_99:537 Apical membrane antigen 1 precursor (Merozoite surface antigen) [Taxonomy]
spP50489AMA1_PLAFC_99:537 Apical membrane antigen 1 precursor (Merozoite surface antigen) [Taxonomy]
www.soe.ucsc.edu /~karplus/casp6/T0237/T0237.t2k.pa.html   (345 words)

  
 Interactive Fly, Drosophila
Placement of the adherens junction is critical because it signals to the cell which side is out and which side is in, preventing the mixing of apical cell membrane tissue with the biochemically distinct basal cell membrane, and thereby assuring cell polarity.
Crumbs protein is essential for the biogenesis of the adherens junction and the establishment of apical polarity in ectodermally derived epithelial cells.
The junction is not spread randomly between the cells, but is found in a belt-like, zonular structure encircling the apical side of the cell.
www.sdbonline.org /fly/gene/crumbs.htm   (345 words)

  
 Biotechnologisches Zentrum der TU Dresden
Retention of prominin in microvilli reveals distinct cholesterol-based lipid microdomain within the apical membrane of epithelial cells.
Selective localization of the polytopic membrane protein prominin in microvilli of epithelial cells- A combination of apical sorting and retention in plasma membrane protrusions.
Prominin: A story of cholesterol, plasma membrane protrusions and human pathology.
www.biotec.tu-dresden.de /corbeil/publications_html   (755 words)

  
 INABIS '98 - Sorting of GABA Transporters in Polarized Cells
Its close cousin, the gastric H,K-ATPase, is sorted to the apical membrane and to a pre-apical intracellular vesicular storage compartment in its native gastric parietal cells [28].
The GLUT1 and GLUT2 isoforms accumulate at the basolateral plasmalemma, whereas GLUT3 and GLUT5 behave as apical polypeptides.
Transfer of the last 20 amino acids of GAT2 to the C-terminus of GAT3 is sufficient to redirect this protein to the basolateral membrane [50].
www.mcmaster.ca /inabis98/klip/muth0302/two.html   (755 words)

  
 Checklist of the Collembola: Some notes on the Ultrastructure of the Cuticula
They concluded that the glycocalyx consists of two parts, an inner continuous layer which is tightly bound to the apical plasma membrane and is always preserved, and an outer filamentous layer which is not always preserved by the conventional method.
Glycocalyx glycoproteins are regularly replaced via biosynthesis in the ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, followed by final assembly with the oligosaccharide moiety in the Golgi apparatus, that subsequently packs them into membrane bound secretion granules, that get integrated in the plasma membrane.
The plasma membrane exhibits a glycocalyx, consisting of carbohydrates anchored to the membrane bilayer.
www.geocities.com /~fransjanssens/publicat/integum/integum.htm   (7777 words)

  
 Chap VI
When sound energy is introduced into the inner ear, the resultant up-and-down motion of the basilar membrane produces shearing motion between the stereocilia projecting from the apical surfaces of hair cells and the tectorial membrane.
Because these auditory nerve fibers each innervate a single inner hair cell, and because the basilar membrane is itself tonotopically organized in a mechanical sense, the characteristic frequency of a nerve fiber is directly related to a location (or a 'place') along the basilar membrane.
Hermann von Helmholtz, a brilliant German physicist at the time viewed the basilar membrane in the inner ear as a series of mechanical resonators arranged like the strings of a harp, varying in tuning from high frequency at the base of the cochlea to low frequency at the apex.
www.neurophys.wisc.edu /h%26b/textbook/chap-6.html   (3134 words)

  
 Enterocyte - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Glucose, from the intestinal lumen, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte using the Na+ dependent glucose transporter; moves through the cytosol and exits the enterocyte via the basolateral membrane (into the blood capillary) using GLUT-2.
Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using GLUT-5.
It is thought to cross into the blood capillary using one of the other GLUT transporters.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Enterocytes   (133 words)

  
 Microtubule-Dependent Vesicle Transport: Modulation of Channel and Transporter Activity in Liver and Kidney -- HAMM-ALVAREZ and SHEETZ 78 (4): 1109 -- Physiological Reviews
the apical plasma membrane and in apical vesicles.
of pericanalicular vesicles to the canalicular membrane (23, 64, 70, 71).
Microtubule-dependent vesicle transport is clearly a contributor to the constant membrane trafficking that occurs between
physrev.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/78/4/1109   (133 words)

  
 DHEA, antibiotics, Weight Loss drugs, weight loss herbs, weight loss herbal formula, hair loss, hair growth, buy Rx online, pharmaceuticals online, online pharmacy, Lutein, Tramadol, buy Tramadol, tacrolimus, Protopic.
Although M2 was formed from purified seco-sirolimus (20 micromol/L) in the homogenates, it was not detected in cells when seco-sirolimus was added to the apical compartment because seco-sirolimus was essentially impermeable to the apical membrane.
Sirolimus, seco-sirolimus (basolaterally dosed), and M2 were all secreted across the apical membrane, and secretion of each was inhibited by the P-gp inhibitor LY335979 (zosuquidar trihydrochloride).
Along with CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-gp-mediated efflux, a novel elimination pathway was identified that may also contribute to the first-pass extraction,
pharmacy-online-usa.com /ref-tacrolimus/tacrolimus-research-abs4.76.html   (133 words)

  
 NDI Article Translation: 413
The water channels are proteins that, when inserted in the apical membrane, allow water to pass through the membrane.
Marples, et al., after performing a series of experiments on toad bladders, report that the chemical, N-ethyl maleimide (NEM) also increases the flow of body water across the apical membrane.
It does not allow as much water as the VP-induced water flow, but both flows have a roughly similar pattern in terms of the time it takes for the water flow to increase.
www.ndif.org /Translation/jtran-413.html   (133 words)

  
 Cadmium Inhibits Vacuolar H+ATPase-Mediated Acidification in the Rat Epididymis -- Herak-Kramberger et al. 63 (2): 599 -- Biology of Reproduction
ATPase is concentrated both on the apical plasma membrane
ATPase in their apical plasma membrane [15, 17] and carbonic
ATPase was unaltered on a per unit membrane basis.
www.biolreprod.org /cgi/content/full/63/2/599   (4871 words)

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