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Topic: Apollo PGNCS


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In the News (Tue 19 Mar 19)

  
  Apollo PGNCS - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Apollo Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) (pronounced pings) was a self-contained inertial guidance system that allowed Apollo spacecraft to carry out their missions when communications with Earth were interrupted, either as expected, when the spacecraft were behind the moon, or in case of a communications failure.
Major differences between Block I and Block II PGNCS included replacing electromechanical resolvers with an all electronic design and replacing the Block I Navbase, which was machined from beryllium, with a frame built out of aluminum tubing filled with polyurethane foam.
PGNCS was still essential to maintain spacecraft orientation, to control rockets during maneuvering burns, including lunar landing and take off, and as the prime source of navigation data during planned and unexpected communications outages.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Apollo_PGNCS   (757 words)

  
 NationMaster.com - Encyclopedia: Apollo PGNCS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
PGNCS was developed by the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory under the direction of Charles Stark Draper and consisted of the following components: The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc....
Apollo One is the name given to the Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) spacecraft after it was destroyed by fire during a training exercise on January 27, 1967, at Pad 34 atop a Saturn IB rocket.
Apollo spacecraft to carry out their missions when communications with Earth were interrupted, either as expected, when the spacecraft were behind the moon, or in case of a communications failure.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Apollo-PGNCS   (1628 words)

  
 Apollo Program Treatise @ KJ5.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The Apollo Program was originally conceived late in the Eisenhower administration as a follow-on to the Mercury program, doing advanced manned earth-orbital missions.
The Apollo Program was dramatically reoriented to an aggressive lunar landing goal by President Kennedy with his announcement at a special joint session of Congress on May 25, 1961:
It is relatively certain that the Apollo 8 decision was primarily based upon the LM schedule, rather than fear of the Soviets beating the Americans to the moon.
www.kj5.com /encyclopedia/Apollo_program   (2314 words)

  
 apollo guidance computer - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com
It was developed for the Apollo program by the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory under Charles Stark Draper, with hardware design led by Eldon C. Hall (see References).
The Apollo flight computer was the first to use integrated circuits (ICs).
Block I was used during the unmanned Apollo 4 and 6 flights, and was slated for the ill-fated Apollo I. The decision to expand the memory and instruction set for Block II, but to retain the Block I's restrictive 3-bit op code and 12-bit address had interesting design consequences.
www.onpedia.com /encyclopedia/Apollo-Guidance-Computer   (3967 words)

  
 Apollo Lunar Module Recapitulation @ Wikirectory.org   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The next LM flight was aboard Apollo 9 using LM-3 on March 3, 1969 as a manned flight (McDivitt, Scott and Schweickart) to test a number of systems in Earth orbit including LM and CSM crew transit, LM propulsion, separation and docking.
Aquarius served as a refuge for the astronauts during their return to Earth orbit, while its batteries were used to recharge the vital re-entry batteries of the command module that brought the astronauts through the Earth's atmosphere and to a safe spashdown on April 17, 1970.
As originally proposed, it would be launched on a Saturn V with a full Apollo crew to accompany it to lunar orbit and then guide it to a landing next to the base; the base crew would then unload the "truck" while the orbiting crew returned to earth.
www.wikirectory.org /encyclopedia/Apollo_Lunar_Module   (1486 words)

  
 Apollo Lunar Module - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Apollo Lunar Module was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program to achieve the transit from Moon orbit to the surface and back.
Apollo 10, which launched on May 18, 1969, was another series of tests, this time in lunar orbit with the LM separating and descending to within 10 km of the surface.
Apollo LM Truck on Mark Wade's Encyclopedia Astronautica – Description of adapted LM descent stage for the unmanned transport of cargo to a permanent lunar base.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Apollo_Lunar_Module   (1939 words)

  
 Apollo PGNCS: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The apollo spacecraft was designed as part of the apollo program, by the united states in the early 1960s to land people on the moon before 1970 and return them...
The apollo lunar module was the lander portion of the apollo spacecraft built for the united statesus apollo program to achieve the transit from moon...
PGNCS was developed by the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory[Follow this hyperlink for a summary of this subject] under the direction of Charles Stark Draper Charles Stark Draper quick summary:
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/a/ap/apollo_pgncs4.htm   (1451 words)

  
 Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection
The Apollo program utilized two manned spacecraft: the Apollo Command-Service Module (CSM), which was the main spacecraft during the earth-orbital and earth-moon/moon-earth transfer phases of the mission, and the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM, later simplified to "Lunar Module," LM), which was utilized during the lunar descent/ascent phases of the mission.
Following the post-accident investigation into the AS-204 (Apollo 1) fire of 27 January 1967, the launch vehicle from that mission (Saturn IB SA-204) was used to launch the unmanned Apollo 5 mission, also designated AS-204, on 22 January 1968.
AS-205/Apollo 7 (Apollo mission C), launched on 11 October 1968, was the first manned launch of the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn IB launch vehicle.
www.nasm.si.edu /research/arch/findaids/bellcomm/bci_sec_21.html   (4569 words)

  
 Apollo Lunar Module   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Apollo 10, which launched on May 18, 1969, is another series of tests, this time in lunar orbit with an LM separating with descending to within 10 km of an surface.
The Apollo LM Truck is the stand-alone LM descent stage intended to deliver up to five metric tons of payload to an Moon of an unmanned landing.
As originally proposed, it would be launched on the Saturn V with the full Apollo crew to accompany it to lunar orbit with then guide it to the landing next to an base; an base crew would then unload an "truck" while an orbiting crew returned to earth.
38.96.215.161 /Jim_Lovell/Apollo_Lunar_Module   (1962 words)

  
 Inertial guidance system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The desire to use inertial guidance in the Minuteman missile and Project Apollo drove early attempts to miniaturize computers.
The primary guidance system of the Apollo spacecraft used a 3-axis gyrostabilized platform, feeding data to the Apollo Guidance Computer.
Laser gyroscopes were supposed to eliminate the bearings in the gyroscopes, and thus the last bastion of precision machining and moving parts.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Inertial_navigation_system   (2187 words)

  
 BBC - h2g2 - The Saturn/Apollo Stack - Guidance and Navigation
While many of the aspects of the construction of the Apollo and Saturn hardware was based on existing technology, one aspect of the project, the spacecraft's guidance and navigation required extensions into new disciplines.
The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC), kept a running log on the spacecraft's velocity and position as it changed due to gravitational effects of the earth and moon, matching it with a pre-planned flight trajectory.
In the event of a PGNCS failure it provided guidance and control for the ascent stage back to rendezvous with the CSM, or an orbit from which it could be rescued.
www.bbc.co.uk /dna/ww2/A3770147   (1120 words)

  
 Home - Apollo Lunar Module   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The Apollo spacecraft was designed as part of the Apollo Program, by the United States in the early 1960s to land man on the moon before 1970 and return them safely to earth.This goal was set forth by the late president Kennedy after the first flight of the Mercury Space Program.
Apollo (disambiguation) Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961–1972.
The Apollo program was at least partly motivated by psycho-political considerations, in response to persistent perceptions of American inferiority in space technology vis-a-vis the Soviets, in the context of the Cold War and the Space Race.
3964836a255913caa532031b87345101.ru.infoax.org /en/Apollo+Lunar+Module   (14116 words)

  
 iqexpand.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The PGNC System malfunctioned during the first live lunar descent, with the AGC showing a 1201 alarm ("Executive overflow - no vacant areas") and a 1202 alarm ("Executive overflow - no core sets") [4] (http://rocinante.colorado.edu/~wilms/computers/apollo.html).
The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was the first recognizably modern embedded system, used in real-time by astronaut pilots to collect and provide flight information, and to automatically control all of...
The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was developed to provide reliable real-time control for the Apollo spacecraft that carried US astronauts to the moon, 1969-1972.
apollo_guidance_computer.iqexpand.com   (4256 words)

  
 Apollo Flight Journal - The Apollo On-board Computers
One of the most important systems of the Apollo spacecraft is the Guidance and Navigation System (GandN), which played a leading role in landing the first men-on-the-moon at precise locations and helped in the three very successful ferry flights to the Skylab space station.
The technique requires, however, that programmes for classes of various Apollo missions be developed and verified before the rope is woven, because the programme determines the weaving or wiring sequence.
The first programme used during the Apollo LM descent to the lunar surface was P63, which contained an ignition algorithm and the basic guidance logic.
history.nasa.gov /afj/compessay.htm   (2970 words)

  
 The Apollo Spacecraft - A Chronology. Vol. IV. Part 3 (1969 4th quarter)
Apollo 12 film from the onboard cameras would be delivered in two batches to the Lunar Receiving Laboratory for decontamination within 24 to 36 hours after recovery, MSC reported.
MSC Flight Operations informed the Apollo 12 commander that records could be set in a number of areas on the Apollo 12 mission.
A configuration control panel for Apollo GFE scientific equipment was established at MSC, with Robert A. Gardiner as chairman.
www.apolloexplorer.co.uk /books/sp-4009/v4p3f.htm   (3780 words)

  
 Apollo_Guidance_Computer - The real meaning from Timesharetalk wikipedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The PGNC System malfunctioned during the first live lunar descent, with the AGC showing a 1201 alarm ("Executive overflow - no vacant areas") and a 1202 alarm ("Executive overflow - no core sets") [4].
These errors automatically aborted the computer's current task, but the frequency of radar data ensured that the abort signals were being sent at too great a rate for the CPU to cope [5].
Project Apollo for Orbiter – Addon for Orbiter spaceflight simulator, working towards a full simulation of the CSM and LEM including the Virtual AGC.
www.timesharetalk.co.uk /wiki.asp?k=Apollo_Guidance_Computer   (4051 words)

  
 Ch2-8
The 330-page "Apollo Spacecraft News Reference" prepared for the first lunar landing mission does not contain a single reference to it, compared with several pages of description of the Primary Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (PGNCS) computer and its interfaces.
The invisibility of the AGS is a tribute to PGNCS, since the AGS was never needed to abort a landing.
As with the PGNCS computer, the AGS computer went through an evolutionary period in which designers clarified and settled the requirements.
www.hq.nasa.gov /office/pao/History/computers/Ch2-8.html   (1172 words)

  
 Lunar module   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Contains pictures of all the Apollo astronauts, the men who went to the moon.Features information...
A biography of James Lovell, NASA astronaut and Captain of Apollo 13.
Opinion column by Matt Wallace on the Apollo 11 Moon landing and its cultural impact.
kisa.bloggerus.com /Lunar_module   (274 words)

  
 Ch2-3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Since the lunar landing did not allow the ground to act as an effective backup, the LEM had the AGS to provide backup ascent and rendezvous guidance.
If the PGNCS failed during descent, the AGS would abort to lunar orbit and assist in rendezvous with the CM.
Therefore the computer systems on the Apollo spacecraft consisted of three processors, two as part of the PGNCS and one as part of the AGS.
www.hq.nasa.gov /office/pao/History/computers/Ch2-3.html   (454 words)

  
 Virtual AGC Links Page
The document specifically refers to spacecraft CM-107 (used on Apollo 11) and LM-6 (used on Apollo 12), so it's not unreasonable to suppose that it is a fairly mature revision of the document.
Apollo 15 Colossus 3 CMC Data Cards (36 pages, 1.5M bytes).
Apollo 15 Luminary 1E LGC Data Cards, (42 pages, 8.3M bytes).
www.ibiblio.org /apollo/links.html   (2966 words)

  
 The world's top apollo guidance computer websites
The other computer was a small machine in the lunar module used for the Abort Guidance System (AGS; built by TRW), to be used in the event of failure of the AGC.
The clock was divided by 2 to produce a 4-phase 1.024 MHz clock which the AGC used to perform internal operations.
It's not widely known, but the PGNC System malfunctioned during the first lunar descent, with the AGC showing a "1201 alarm" and "1202 alarm" (tasks not finished) because the rendezvous (docking) radar was left on when the software wasn't expecting it, and maximum-rate error pulses from its shaft and trunnion axes overloaded the CPU.
www.websbiggest.com /wiki-article-tab.cfm/apollo_guidance_computer   (3429 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
I do expect this to end up being a "future" variant of the Apollo PGNCS so what I come up with will be right up the alley of those who are looking at duplicating the AGC (Apollo Guidance Computer, both versions, CM and LM).
If your intention is to integrate the fascinating Virtual Apollo Guidance Computer with Orbiter, be aware that the star unit vectors have changed in the 35 or so years since the AGC software was written.
The differences may be sub pixel on the Orbiter screen, and therefore not an issue, but it is something to be on your guard for if things don't seem to be matching up.
www.orbitersim.com /v2/read.asp?id=18696   (1184 words)

  
 Category:Apollo program - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Post Free Classifieds ads or search for classified ads.
For more information, see the main article about Apollo program.
This page was last modified 03:01, 28 May 2005.
www.objectsspace.com /encyclopedia/index.php/Category:Apollo_program   (114 words)

  
 Apollo Lunar Module Arrangement @ LaunchBase.com (Launch Base)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Apollo Lunar Module Arrangement @ LaunchBase.com (Launch Base)
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Find More Information about "Apollo Lunar Module" in LaunchBase.com's:
www.launchbase.com /encyclopedia/Apollo_Lunar_Module   (2047 words)

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