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Topic: Apology (Xenophon)


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In the News (Tue 16 Jul 19)

  
  The Apology by Xenophon eBook by BookRags
Xenophon the Athenian was born 431 B.C. He was a pupil of Socrates.
He died in 354 B.C. The Apology describes Socrates’ state of mind at his trial and execution, and especially his view that it was better to die before senility set in than to escape execution by humbling himself be-fore an unjust persecution.
Xenophon was away at the time, involved in the events of the march of the ten thousand.
www.bookrags.com /ebooks/1171   (134 words)

  
 Xenophon [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Proxenus, a friend of Xenophon, was already with Cyrus, and he invited Xenophon to come to Sardis, and promised to introduce him to the Persian prince.
Xenophon, who was very poor, mad an expedition into the plain of the Caicus with his troops before they joined Thimbrou, to plunder the house and property of a Persian named Asidates.
Xenophon continues, though, maintaining that Socrates was not unversed in mathematical and astronomical subjects.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/x/xenophon.htm   (1787 words)

  
 Xenophon
Among Xenophon's other works are Hellenica, a continuation of Thucydides' history of Greek affairs from 411 to 362 B.C., the Memorabilia of Socrates, and the Cyropedia (Education of Cyrus), a historical novel about Cyrus the Elder, the founder of the Persian empire.
Apology of Socrates and Symposion were probably intended as responses to Plato's Apology and Symposium, but generally they are considered inferior to Plato in their philosophical importance.
Xenophon's elegant style, clear and straightforward, sometimes rhetorical, is much admired, but at the same time he has not been regarded as a thinker.
www.classicreader.com /author.php/aut.208   (1230 words)

  
 Xenophon - Crystalinks
Foucault took Xenophon's depiction of the relationship between Ischomachus and his wife as the locus classicus for Greek ideology of power, according to which a man's control of his emotions was externally reflected in his control of his wife, his slaves, and his political subordinates.
Xenophon's Apology describes Socrates' state of mind at his trial and execution, and especially his view that it was better to die before senility set in than to escape execution by humbling himself before an unjust persecution.
This presumably is due to the fact that Xenophon wrote this treatise before the invention of the saddle.Xenophon's On Horsemanship is considered to be one of the first works detailing the principles of classical dressage, including training the horse in a manner that is non-abusive.
www.crystalinks.com /xenophon.html   (1642 words)

  
 SOCRATES: Sophia on the web: Articles about Philosophers and Philosophical Topics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Xenophon was a general in the Peloponnesian war.
Xenophon states that: "[T]hey (Plato for example) have all touched upon his arrogant tone, so it is clear that this is how Socrates' actually spoke." But it should be remembered that the word translated here as arrogant did not have negative connotations in Greek.
Xenophon claims that Socrates is a good man, and did not sacrifice to any new deities.
members.aol.com /moresophia/socrates.html   (3287 words)

  
 Apology (disambiguation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Apology can mean a formal justification or defense, such as:
The prototype of such "apologies": The Apology of Socrates, as written down by Plato, see Apology (Plato)
The Apology of Socrates, as written down by Xenophon, see Apology (Xenophon)
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Apology   (132 words)

  
 Plato's Apology
Xenophon's Apology is a narrative in which "quotations" from Socrates's speech are interspersed.
Xenophon's Socrates, in his reaction to this oracle, confirms the truth of Apollo's statement, adding a claim of wisdom and, in general, revealing a conspicuous lack of the humility evident in Plato when he wonders about the meaning of the oracle (21b).
Although Plato and Xenophon certainly do not present impartial views of Socrates, it is generally accepted that a truer picture of the real Socrates can be found in the pages of their works than anywhere else.
depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu /classics/dunkle/studyguide/apology.htm   (3288 words)

  
 Bryn Mawr Classical Review 95.10.25
The eleventh volume of the Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy is devoted almost exclusively to Plato and Aristotle: one paper is on Socrates in Xenophon's Apology, two are on Plato, and four on Aristotle.
Xenophon's Socrates believes justice is a form of benefaction and challenges the jury to judge him in that light.
Through his version, Xenophon rejects Plato's representation of Socrates' ethical attributes and philosophical mission, presenting in its place a Socrates who does not proclaim ignorance or belittle human wisdom, nor reduce the virtues to wisdom.
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /bmcr/1995/95.10.25.html   (1898 words)

  
 Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Xenophon is not thought to have been philosopher enough to have understood Socrates well or to have captured the depth of his views and his personality.
Xenophon's Apology of Socrates, Symposium and Memorabilia (or Memoirs) may well reflect knowledge of Plato's own Apology and some of his early and middle period dialogues, as well as lost dialogues of Antisthenes and others.
Xenophon emphasizes Socrates' freedom from the strong appetites for food, drink, sex and physical comfort that dominate other people; his enkrateia or self-mastery is the first of the virtues that Xenophon claims for him (Memorabilia I 2.1).
caae.phil.cmu.edu /cavalier/80130/Part1/Preface/R_Socrates.html   (7034 words)

  
 Xenophon Notes
And yet Socrates in both Plato and Xenophon speaks of the Greek gods and is said to engage in rituals, none of which are particularly unusual.
Xenophon thinks it might have been Socrates' mantic practices (techniques to ascertain the future from divine signs), whatever they were, but Xenophon also claims that all of Socrates' mantic practices were normal Greek mantic practices.
Nonetheless, given that both Plato and Xenophon's portrait of Socrates is of a man who may be annoying, but fundamentally works to improve his fellow humans, even if that work be not unquestionable, it is hard to see why his teaching offers clear grounds for conviction.
www.uvm.edu /~jbailly/courses/Socrates/Notes/xen.html   (1468 words)

  
 Socrates
Xenophon’s Apology and Memorabilia offer a practical and through worldly account of the of Socrates in contrast to Plato’s philosophical account.
The Apology is generally regarded as historical despite of the fact that it usually impossible to determine how much of Plato’s thinking actually derives from Socrates.
In any event, the Apology gives a clear picture of a man of a certain type: a man sure of himself, high-minded, indifferent t worldly success, believing that he is guided by a divine voice, and persuaded that clear thinking is the most important requisite for right living.
www.personal.kent.edu /~rmuhamma/Philosophy/PhiloHistory/socrates.htm   (1179 words)

  
 I. F. Stone Interviewed aboout the Trial of Socrates
In Plato’s "Apology," the contrast drawn between the nobility of Socrates and the grim verdict of his juror-judges indicted democracy in the eyes of posterity.
Xenophon does so in is "Memorabilia" by quoting an unnamed "accuser." This accuser has been variously identified as one of the accusers at the trial or as a contemporary prodemocratic orator named Polycrates whose "pamphlet" on the trial of Socrates has since disappeared.
When Xenophon discusses the charge that Socrates used certain passage from Homer and other poets to teach his pupils to be lawbreakers and tyrannical, he had to be referring to teachings which continued after the restoration of the democracy.
www.law.umkc.edu /faculty/projects/ftrials/socrates/ifstoneinterview.html   (4710 words)

  
 Harvard University Press/Xenophon, Anabasis
After the defeat of Cyrus, it fell to Xenophon to lead the Greeks from the gates of Babylon back to the coast through inhospitable lands.
The Apology is an interesting complement to Plato's account of Socrates' defense at his trial.
Xenophon's Symposium portrays a dinner party at which Socrates speaks of love; and Oeconomicus has him giving advice on household management and married life.
www.hup.harvard.edu /catalog/L090.html   (343 words)

  
 The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition: Xenophon @ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
XENOPHON [Xenophon], c.430 BC-c.355 BC, Greek historian, b.
After the Greek generals had been treacherously killed by the Persians, Xenophon was chosen as one of the leaders of the heroic retreat.
After his return Xenophon, a great admirer of the military, disciplined, and aristocratic life of the Spartans, was in the service of Sparta.
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1E1:Xenophon&refid=ip_encyclopedia_hf   (250 words)

  
 Dr. J's Lecture on Socrates and the Apology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Xenophon: authenticity of text disputable – he was in Asia Minor at time of trial.
In the Apology, Socrates says that the cultivation of the soul is the primary business of life, and that an unexamined life is not worth living.
In the text of the Apology Socrates outlines his actions: he questioned everyone with a reputation for wisdom – poets, craftsmen, politicians – and after engaging them in conversation, determined that they in fact were not wise at all, and concluded that no man was wiser than he because he admitted his ignorance.
lilt.ilstu.edu /drjclassics/texts/socrates.shtm   (3599 words)

  
 A Cast of Characters
Kriken was a chief ally of Meletus and of Algiers in their war against Simonides, and the mortal enemy of Xenophon.
After the defeat of Corinth at the battle of Salamis, Xenophon fled to Nordakar, where he was granted political asylum.
Status : Xenophon suffered mortal wounds at the second battle of Finuval in the early stages of the UNL war.
es.geocities.com /mabplay/alcritas_lyceum/npcs.html   (1834 words)

  
 Socrates (469-399 BC)
In Xenophon, Socrates is also sometimes ironical and playful, especially in the Symposium, but his conversation is usually direct, even didactic, and often chummy in tone; his attitudes are for the most part conventional though earnest; and there is nothing to unsettle anyone or make them suspect hidden depths.
In Xenophon he describes his love as love for their souls, not their bodies, and he vigorously condemns sexual relations with any young man: using him that way disgraces him and harms him by encouraging a loose attitude as regards physical pleasures Symposium 8).
Reeve, C.D.C. Socrates in the Apology, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.
www.muslimphilosophy.com /ip/rep/A108.htm   (8083 words)

  
 The Last Days of Socrates
Apology from The Classical Origins of Western Culture: The Core Studies 1 Study Guide by Roger Dunkle, Brooklyn College, The City University of New York.
Arguments in the Apology by Dr. Michael Sudduth, St. Michael's College, Vermont.
Reeve, C. Socrates in the Apology, An Essay on Plato's Apology of Socrates.
socrates.clarke.edu /aplg0004.htm   (646 words)

  
 Commentary on the Apology of Socrates
Unfortunately, Xenophon was not a philosopher, did not, I expect, understand Socrates very well, also, as he admits, was not at the trial, and did not try to reproduce the whole speech.
Xenophon's Apology thus is an abbreviated and disappointing document next to Plato's, but it does tell us a couple of things that we might not know otherwise.
Xenophon tells us (Memorabilia I-10) that "in the morning he went to the public promenades [perípatoi] and training-grounds [gymnásia]; in the forenoon he was seen in the market..." [Loeb ed., p.7].
www.friesian.com /apology.htm   (20865 words)

  
 Agana Belea and the Death of Socrates
Agana belea, the sweet shafts of Apollo and Artemis, indicates a swift and painless death.(2) In the Phaedo Socrates describes himself as dedicated to the same god as the swans who belong to Apollo.(3) Artemis, sister of Apollo and the goddess of midwifery, is also referred to by Socrates in the Theaetetus.
Although this exact phrase does not occur in Xenophon's Apology, Socrates does state (twice) that the god gave him the opportunity of ending his life "in the way that is easiest."(13) Socrates then describes how the death penalty allows him to avoid the hardships of old age.
Xenophon tells how Hermogenes asked Socrates if he is prepared to defend himself in court.
www.friesian.com /ravitch.htm   (3072 words)

  
 "I.F. Stone Breaks the Socrates Story," from New York Times Magazine, April 8, 1979
I believe the case against Socrates was political and that the charge of corrupting the youth was based on a belief – and considerable evidence – that he was undermining their faith in Athenian democracy.
Xenophon does so in is "Memorabilia" by quoting an unnamed "accuser." This accuser has been variously identified as one of the accusers at the trial or as a contemporary prodemocratic orator named Polycrates whose "pamphlet" on the trial of Socrates has / 66 / since disappeared.
A quotation from Homer was effective as Holy Writ, and the two omissions Xenophon makes are of two passages which would have infuriated an Athenian democrat, but would have delighted an anti-democratic aristocrat – because they would seem fully to justify violent methods in putting down the democracy.
chss.montclair.edu /english/furr/essays/ifstoneonsocrates.html   (4720 words)

  
 Pierre Destrée, Nicholas D. Smith (eds.) - Socrates' Divine Sign: Religion, Practice and Value in Socratic ...
Xenophon's Socrates heard a somewhat different voice, one that did not hesitate to endorse one action over another.
Xenophon and Plato agree however that the divine sign of Socrates needs specially to be discussed in connection with the trial at which Socrates defended himself with such famous unsuccess.
Had they been wrong about the sign and was Socrates just an ordinary man? If that anxiety goaded Plato and Xenophon, their complicated appeals to the sign and explanations of why Socrates saw his death sentence as a happy ending may have been after-the-fact rationalizations for the voice's apparent failure.
ndpr.nd.edu /review.cfm?id=4321   (2395 words)

  
 Review 12   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Xenophon was part of the Socratic circle as a young man.
It is generally thought, however, that Plato's Apology of Socrates (the account of Socrates' trial and his defense speeches) is faithful to what actually occurred.
See Plato's Apology, which is an account of the trial of Socrates.
www.pitt.edu /~classics/mythlit/review12.html   (4091 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Held -- Connecticut College The eleventh volume of the Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy is devoted almost exclusively to Plato and Aristotle: one paper is on Socrates in Xenophon's Apology, two are on Plato, and four on Aristotle.
Thus for Xenophon, Socrates' "paramount aim was preservation of piety and of his reputation for justice." Vander Waerdt next adduces the story of the Delphic oracle.
He is usually more cautious, and acknowledges that in the end all a comparison can show is that Xenophon and Plato differ in their accounts--a conclusion to which no one will take exception.
www.infomotions.com /serials/bmcr/bmcr-9510-held-oxford.txt   (1927 words)

  
 [No title]
The Apology by Xenophon Translation by H. Dakyns January, 1998 [Etext #1171] *****The Project Gutenberg Etext of The Apology by Xenophon***** ******This file should be named aplgy10.txt or 1aplgy10zip****** Corrected EDITIONS of our etexts get a new NUMBER, aplgy10.txt.
The Apology By Xenophon Translation by H. Dakyns Xenophon the Athenian was born 431 B.C. He was a pupil of Socrates.
He died in 354 B.C. The Apology describes Socrates' state of mind at his trial and execution, and especially his view that it was better to die before senility set in than to escape execution by humbling himself be- fore an unjust persecution.
snowy.arsc.alaska.edu /gutenberg/etext98/aplgy10.txt   (3401 words)

  
 Ziniewicz on Plato's Apology
It should be noted that the Apology is not a "dialogue" in the strict sense, in the manner of Plato's other dialogues.
In the Apology, Socrates asserts (dialectically) that death is either an eternal dreamless sleep (and therefore a welcome rest) or it is an exit to an afterlife in pleasant communion with the gods.
In the Apology, Socrates claims to be ignorant of "life after death." But he does "know" that it is pernicious to corrupt one's soul by committing injustice.
www.fred.net /tzaka/apology.html   (2851 words)

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