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Topic: Apoptosis

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  Apoptosis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In just one of many scenarios of apoptosis, the process is triggered by another neighboring cell; the dying cell eventually transmits signals that tell the phagocytes, which are a part of the immune system, to engulf it.
Apoptosis can occur, for instance, when a cell is damaged beyond repair, or infected with a virus.
Abnormal apoptosis and clearance of apoptotic cells is a fundamental factor in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases including cancer, neuro-degenerative and ischemic diseases, AIDS, and autoimmunity.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Apoptosis   (4380 words)

 A Brief Introduction to Apoptosis
Morphologically, apoptosis is characterized by a series of structural changes in dying cells: blebbing of the plasma membrane, condensation of the cytoplasm and nucleus, and cellular fragmentation into membrane apoptotic bodies (Steller, 1995; Wyllie et al.
Although apoptosis is important for the normal development and health of an animal, its aberrant activation may contribute to a number of diseases, for example, AIDS, neurogenerative disorders, and ischemic injury (Thompson, 1995).
In contrast, impaired apoptosis may be a significant factor in the etiology of such diseases as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections (Thompson, 1995).
www.acs.ucalgary.ca /~browder/apo_intro.html   (1115 words)

 Cell Suicide in Health and Disease
Although most of the observable events that define apoptosis were well documented as early as the 1950s, and its role in embryonic development was understood, the importance of apoptosis to the daily maintenance of the fully formed organism would not gain recognition for another 20 years.
Apoptosis may be set in motion by various triggers, including withdrawal from a cell of the chemical signals (known as growth, or survival, factors) through which cells reassure one another of their importance.
In contrast to cancer, where too little apoptosis occurs, excessive cell suicide accounts for much of the cell death that follows so-called ischemic heart attacks and strokes—those caused by blockage of a blood vessel feeding a segment of the heart muscle or brain.
www.critpath.org /aric/library/art006.htm   (5043 words)

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death—the distinct form of cell death caused by physiologic processes as opposed to some external stimuli, such as a wound—is a hot topic in medical and biochemical research today.
Methods for identifying apoptosis were restricted to inferred data from gel electrophoresis, but new, more straightforward methods have been developed, including labeling nuclear DNA fragmentation in situ, and using a propidium iodide stain with flow cytometry.
Correlations between non-mammalian and mammalian apoptosis, apoptosis during nervous system development, and the dependence of the apoptotic process on survival signals from neighboring cells are also explored in the top 25 papers in our survey.
www.esi-topics.com /apoptosis   (365 words)

 AIG - About apoptosis
Apoptosis was distinguished from necrosis, which was associated with acute injury to cells.
Apoptosis is characterized by nuclear chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic shrinking, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and membrane blebbing.
This type of cell death is often hard to observe in vivo because the dying cells are rapidly phagocytosed by tissue macrophages, and this phagocytosis is clearly different from that seen in inflammation, when activated macrophages are recruited from outside the immediate area of death.
www.nih.gov /sigs/aig/Aboutapo.html   (1004 words)

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a normal component of the development and health of multicellular organisms.
Apoptosis, by contrast, is a process in which cells play an active role in their own death (which is why apoptosis is often referred to as cell suicide).
A family of proteins known as caspases are typically activated in the early stages of apoptosis.
www.sgul.ac.uk /depts/immunology/~dash/apoptosis   (400 words)

 National Cancer Institute : Plans & Priorities for Cancer Research
The "extrinsic" pathway is activated by the binding of death activator proteins to the cell surface.
The link between apoptosis and cancer was not established until David Vaux and colleagues demonstrated in 1988 that the bcl-2 gene specifically blocks death of B cells in follicular lymphoma (an immune system cancer).
For example, the p53 protein, known as the guardian of the human genome, serves as an important tumor suppressor because it either blocks the cell division of a genetically damaged cell or triggers apoptosis by causing damage to the mitochondria and cytochrome c release.
plan2004.cancer.gov /discovery/apoptosis.htm   (1375 words)

 Apoptosis Summary - Apoptosis Information
Apoptosis is a process by which cells in a multicellular organism commit suicide.
In young children, apoptosis is involved in the processes that literally shape the connections between brain cells, and in mature females, apoptosis of cells in the uterus causes the uterine lining to slough off at each menstrual cycle.
Apoptosis can occur in as little as twenty minutes, after which the cell "corpse" typically becomes engulfed and completely degraded by neighboring phagocytic cells that are present in the tissue and attracted to the apoptotic cell.
www.bookrags.com /sciences/genetics/apoptosis-gen-01.html   (838 words)

 [6G] Apoptosis
Apoptosis is a tightly regulated form of cell death, also called the programmed cell death.
During apoptosis, the cell is killed by a class of proteases called caspases.
Apoptosis in sepsis: a new target for therapeutic exploration - FASEB J., 2001.
www.web-books.com /MoBio/Free/Ch6G.htm   (615 words)

For example, inflammatory response which can cause further damage to surrounding tissue does not take place in apoptosis, while it is evident in necrosis because of the leakage of cell content into the intercellular space through cell membrane that is disrupted by necrosis-causing agents.
Apoptosis of DNA-damaged cells may constitute a physiological antineoplastic mechanism to protect the organism from cancer development by eliminating cells that might otherwise replicate the damaged DNA and lead to mutations and eventually to cancer.
Apoptosis is also implicated in the mechanism of cytotoxicity of a variety of chemotherapeutic agents (anti-cancer drugs).
www20.uludag.edu.tr /~eulukaya/apopANDcancer.html   (711 words)

This ordered destruction of a cell is referred to as programmed cell death or apoptosis and it is distinguishable from death by necrosis which is a considered a random event.
The morphological features of apoptosis consist of chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing, which can be clearly observed by light microscopy.
Apoptosis consists of a cascade of events leading to the ordered dismantling of critical cell survival components and pathways.
www.apoptosisworld.com   (253 words)

Apoptosis is a process through which cells initiate their own deaths.
The growth of these markets is fueled by advances in knowledge about the biochemical pathways that control apoptosis, and the effect of apoptosis on the development and progression of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disorders, and other problems.
In the pharmaceutical market, apoptosis modulating agents aimed at treating cancer are the most advanced, and will likely lead the market in apoptosis pharmaceuticals for some time.
www.vrgtech.com /analysis/apoptosis.html   (513 words)

 Dr Karl - Apoptosis Part 3
Apoptosis is also responsible for other unique structures, such as the natural curvatures of the spine.
Another evolutionary advantage to apoptosis, is that it helps the organism end up with the right amount of cells for the environment - too few and it can't fight off invaders, while too many cells means too many cells to feed.
So apoptosis is not a fate worse than death - it's a very necessary part of living, where one healthy life depends upon millions of well-timed cell deaths.
www.abc.net.au /science/k2/moments/gmis9850.htm   (677 words)

 Apoptosis in Development
Apoptosis is characterized by maintenance of intact cell membranes during the suicide process so as to allow adjacent cells to engulf the dying cell so that it does not release its contents and trigger a local inflammatory reaction.
Cells undergoing apoptosis usually exhibit a characteristic morphology, including fragmentation of the cell into membrane-bound apoptotic bodies, nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation and endolytic cleavage of the DNA into small oligonucleosomal fragments (Steller, 1995).
Recently, Drosophila has entered the apoptosis field (McCall and Steller, 1997) and it is certain that the combined use of the powerful genetic, molecular, biochemical, and cell biological techniques available in Drosophila will provide important insights into the genes involved in and the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis.
www.ucalgary.ca /UofC/eduweb/virtualembryo/death.html   (3093 words)

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a process where-in cells that are no longer needed or that will be detrimental to an organism or tissue are disposed of in a neat and orderly manner; this prevents the development of an inflammatory response, which is often associated with necrotic cell death.
Apoptosis is a critical process during development, and is fundamental to immune responses.
If you are not studying the mechanism of apoptosis, but need to qualitatively or quantitatively measure apoptosis as part of your research or drug discovery efforts, Upstate has products that will satisfy these needs as well.
www.upstate.com /features/apop_pathway.asp   (637 words)

 Yigong Shi--Research
Apoptosis, executed by caspases (cysteine proteases with aspartate substrate specificity), plays a central role in the development and homeostasis of all multi-cellular organisms.
In normal cells, the Inhibitor of Apoptosis proteins (IAPs) suppress apoptosis by inhibiting the enzymatic activity of mature caspases.In cells undergoing apoptosis, another protein Smac (also known as DIABLO) is also released from the mitochondria into the cytosol together with cytochrome c.
During apoptosis, Apaf-1 binds to cytochrome c and in the presence of ATP/dATP forms an apoptosome, leading to the recruitment and activation of the initiator caspase, caspase-9.
www.princeton.edu /~ygshi/research.htm   (2848 words)

One of the methods by which cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) kill virus-infected cells is by inducing apoptosis [diagram of the mechanism].
Apoptosis triggered by internal signals: the intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway
Apoptosis triggered by external signals: the extrinsic or death receptor pathway
users.rcn.com /jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/Apoptosis.html   (1847 words)

 Apoptosis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
During apoptosis cells shrink, and microvilli on the plasma membrane disappear.
The nucleus is also condensed, and fragmented; at the final stage of apoptosis the cells themselves are fragmented with all cellular contents inside; one of the biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis is the fragmentation of chromosomal DNA into nucleosome size units (180 bp).
Cellular and Molecular Regulation: Apoptosis is mediated by a family of proteases called caspases that are activated by processing from its inactive precursor (zymogen).
claim.springer.de /EncRef/CancerResearch/samples/0003.htm   (1058 words)

 Apoptosis - BioChemWeb.org
Apoptosis - Overview of the process with a particular emphasis on the role of nitric oxide.
Apoptosis: Overall Scheme - Basic overview of apoptosis, with a useful table outlining differences between apoptosis and necrosis.
NIH Apoptosis Interest Group - A site designed to facilitate communication between scientists at the NIH and in the Washington area interested in apoptosis and programmed cell death with monthly seminars open to the public; also sponsors an accompanying e-mail list.
www.biochemweb.org /apoptosis.shtml   (463 words)

A common mistake is the mispronunciation of the word “apoptosis”; the correct pronunciation is with the second “p” silent (a-po-toe-sis) (2).
Apoptosis is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes.
The role of apoptosis in each of these diverse areas implicates immense potential for the manipulation of apoptosis to treat disease.
www.portfolio.mvm.ed.ac.uk /studentwebs/session2/group28/apoptosis.html   (1397 words)

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