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Topic: Appeal to fear


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In the News (Tue 21 May 19)

  
  Appeal to Fear logical fallacy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Appeal to Fear presents a premise intended to produce fear, typically citing a risk.
Fallacious use of Appeal to Fear must be distinguished from valid logic involving premises that assert risk by considering validity of the predicate(s) and their logical relevance to the conclusion.
The appeal to fear is evident and the remaining premises have no direct relevance to the final assertion, which is stated as an inference but in fact is arbitrary.
www.sierrafoot.org /soapbox/fallacies/appeal_to_fear.html   (388 words)

  
 PUTTING THE FEAR BACK INTO FEAR APPEALS: THE EXTENDED PARALLEL PROCESS MODEL
The fear appeal literature is diverse and inconsistent.
In contrast, fear appeals with high levels of threat (e.g., "lung cancer is a severe disease that you are susceptible to because you smoke cigarettes") and low levels of efficacy (e.g., "it's unlikely that you'll be able to quit smoking cigarettes, and it's probably too late to prevent lung cancer anyway") result in message rejection.
Fear is a negatively-valenced emotion, accompanied by a high level of arousal, and is elicited by a threat that is perceived to be significant and personally relevant (Easterling and Leventhal, 1989; Lang, 1984; Ortony and Turner, 1990).
www.msu.edu /~wittek/fearback.htm   (8563 words)

  
 Using Fear to Reach Military Members -- Introduction
First, fear appeals are persuasive messages that emphasize the harmful physical or social consequences of failing to comply with the recommendations of the message (Dillard, 1994).
Fear is an emotion, accompanied by a high level of arousal, and is caused by a threat that is perceived to be significant and personally relevant (Lang, 1984).
While fear and threat are different, they are related, such that the higher the perceived threat, the greater the fear experienced (Witte, 1998).
www.ou.edu /deptcomm/dodjcc/groups/01A1/introduction.html   (1997 words)

  
 Fallacies of Relevance   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Appeal to Pity: This remark is designed to gain pity for those soldiers, now old, who have not won the glory and honor of their comrades who died in battle but who, nevertheless, are often unjustly forgotten when the battles in which they fought are only memories.
Appeal to Fear: There may be any number of reasons why a student may not know his or her work or not be interested in it.
Appeal to Pity: In this argument an attempt is made to arouse pity for the lettuce growers whose crops were damaged by a late spring and "killing frost,' along with inadequate labor to pick the lettuce that did survive these disasters.
faculty.uccb.ns.ca /philosophy/115/answers4.htm   (2078 words)

  
 Propaganda Critic: Special apeals > Fear appeal
Fear appeals are more likely to succeed in changing behavior if they contain specific recommendations for reducing the threat that the audience believes are both effective and doable.
In summary, there are four elements to a successful fear appeal: 1) a threat, 2) a specific recommendation about how the audience should behave, 3) audience perception that the recommendation will be effective in addressing the threat, and 4) audience perception that they are capable of performing the recommended behavior.
When a politician agitates the public's fear of immigration, or crime, and proposes that voting for her will reduce the threat, she is using this technique.
www.propagandacritic.com /articles/ct.sa.fear.html   (617 words)

  
 Appeal to fear - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fear appeals are often used in marketing and social policy, as a method of persuasion.
Fear is an effective attitude changer, especially fears of social exclusion, and getting laid-off from one's job.
A study of public service messages on AIDS found that if the messages were too aggressive or fearful, they were rejected by the subject; a moderate amount of fear is the most effective attitude changer.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Appeal_to_fear   (644 words)

  
 Appeal To Fear   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The appeal to fear is extremely common in Appeal to Fear (Scare Tactics) Description: The argument attempts to persuade by invoking feelings of insecurity and fear.
Fear and love are two of the strongest emotions and this sort of non in a fallacious appeal to fear.
Instead they are explaining to you the appeal to something: Appeal to tradition Appeal to probability Appeal to Appeal to novelty Appeal to flattery Appeal to fear Appeal to consequences Appeal to motive Appeal to pity The 'Appeal to Fear' fallacy gains compliance through threat.
www.freemobileimages.com /appeal-to-fear.htm   (558 words)

  
 Fear-based persuasive appeals abound in political campaigns, advertising copy, and other areas of persuasion, but seem ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
While fear-based persuasive appeals are prevalent in health communication, theoretical explanations regarding the underlying mechanisms by which fear influences persuasion is mixed which can result in conflicting empirical findings.
Fear Arousal Manipulation Checks:  After completing the risk assessment questionnaire, subjects computed their total risk assessment score as the preliminary subjects did in the first pilot study.
Fear Arousal x Message Quality Interaction Effects:  The effect that is most relevant for the hypotheses of the present study is the interaction between the level of fear arousal and the quality of the persuasive messages.
pages.emerson.edu /faculty/L/Lori_Rosenthal/fearexperimental.htm   (10073 words)

  
 Logical Fallacy: Emotional Appeal
An appeal to emotion is a type of argument which attempts to arouse the emotions of its audience in order to gain acceptance of its conclusion.
Appeals to emotion are always fallacious when intended to influence our beliefs, but they are sometimes reasonable when they aim to motivate us to act.
For instance, a familiar type of emotional appeal is the appeal to pity or sympathy, which is used by many charities.
www.fallacyfiles.org /emotiona.html   (384 words)

  
 Appeal to Popularity
In the case of an Appeal to Belief, the appeal is to the fact that most people believe a claim.
In the case of an Appeal to Common Practice, the appeal is to the fact that many people take the action in question.
This fallacy is closely related to the Appeal to Emotion fallacy, as discussed in the entry for that fallacy.
www.opifexphoenix.com /reasoning/fallacies/appealtopopularity.htm   (568 words)

  
 Mission: Critical (Emotional Appeals)
Fallacious appeals to emotions are effective because it's easier for most people not to think critically, but to rely on their gut reaction; and it's easier for the person making the appeal to excite his listeners' emotions than to construct a persuasive argument.
Fear and love are two of the strongest emotions, and this sort of non-rational persuasion is usually designed to tap into both of them, by threatening the safety or happiness of ourselves or someone we love.
A fallacious appeal to pity, also known as a sob story, is different from a simple (and perfectly legitimate) appeal to pity in one significant way: it is used to replace logic, rather than to support it.
www.sjsu.edu /depts/itl/graphics/adhom/emotion.html   (1792 words)

  
 Appeal Fallacies
Appeal to Common Belief: If others believe it to be true, it must be true.
Appeal to Common Practice: If others do it, it must be ok to do it too.
Appeal to Tradition: It has always been done this way, so this way is right.
changingminds.org /disciplines/argument/fallacies/a_appeal.htm   (165 words)

  
 Using Fear to Reach Military Members -- Results
This is important because it confirms that the military is using fear appeals extensively.
Specifically, research question two was utilized to assess whether or not the fear appeal messages were being constructed based on sound theoretical principles.
Finally, as Witte's (1992) model makes clear, it is not the presence of one of the variables that makes fear appeals successful, but the presence of all.
www.ou.edu /deptcomm/dodjcc/groups/01A1/results.html   (291 words)

  
 eppm
Fear can be a barrier to behavior change, as when people are so frightened that they cannot act (so they deny or defensively avoid a threat), or a motivator to change, as when people perceive a risk and are motivated to reduce it.
Alternatively, when people are motivated to control their fear, they no longer think about the fear appeal or danger of the threat.
In sum, threat messages determine the extent of a response (i.e., how strong the danger or fear control responses are), while efficacy messages (or lack thereof) determine the nature of the response (i.e., whether danger or fear control responses are elicited).
www.msu.edu /~wittek/eppm.htm   (735 words)

  
 Mission: Critical (Fallacious Appeals Exercises)
An appeal to common practice uses the approach that something is permissible (or not) because "everyone is doing it." But here, the argument is that George's report should be graded, at least in part, not on its quality but on the effort he put into it.
Not all fallacies with negative outcomes are appeals to fear.
Were this an appeal to fear, there would be either an implicit or explicit threat of illness on the basis of meat-eating.
www.sjsu.edu /depts/itl/graphics/adhom/appeal-q.html   (1983 words)

  
 Handbook - Grievance or Appeal Process | GCSU
A nonacademic grievance or appeal alleges discrimination by a university employee on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, disability or involves personal behavior and/or university policy.
Accordingly, students are encouraged to use the nonacademic grievance or appeal process without fear, prejudice, or reprisal for initiating the process or participating in its resolution.
A non-academic grievance or appeal is an allegation by a student concerning (1) a university employee, (2) administrative policies, procedures, regulations or requirements of the university, (3) student employment, or (4) a university program, service or activity.
www.gcsu.edu /studentlife/handbook/grievance.html   (697 words)

  
 Fear - SourceWatch
Fear is one of the most primordial human emotions and therefore lends itself to effective use by propagandists.
Fear is essentially the survival instinct kicking in: "I'd better watch out because you can harm me." Fear being fundamentally irrational, it is one of the techniques most widely used by propagandists.
Fear of the outside world (flying, opening mail, large crowds and tall buildings) and fear of enemies (evil-doers).
www.sourcewatch.org /index.php?title=Fear   (2087 words)

  
 The Harvard Crimson :: News :: Bentley Discusses Appeal of Melodrama
Pity is the "weaker side" of the appeal of melodrama, Bentley said; the stronger side is fear.
Fear aroused by melodrama is "paranoid." It is the feeling that "all things living and dead are combining to persecute us." "Victorian melodramatic novelists made use of bad weather, but to heighten the audience's fear the playwright must substitute outrageous coincidence."
Melodrama's appeal to fear, however, is essentially "childish," Bentley concluded.
www.thecrimson.com /article.aspx?ref=499666   (392 words)

  
 Appeal to Force   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The phrase "ad baculum" is a Latin phrase meaning "(appeal) to the stick." A baculum or baculus (both forms were used) was a walking-stick or cane.
The distinction is this: Appeal to Force is a threat.
The fallacy may be guilty of a second error as well: in a discussion aimed at arriving at the truth on some question, neither party to the discussion counts as a "legitimate governing authority" over the other, so neither has the right to decide the outcome of the discussion through force.
www.cuyamaca.net /bruce.thompson/fallacies/force.asp   (481 words)

  
 Appeal to Fear   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Appeal to Fear is sometimes confused with Appeal to Force.
The distinction is this: Appeal to Fear is only a warning.
The fallacy of Appeal to Fear imitates rational risk analysis, but exploits natural fear, and the inherent inaccuracy of guessing, to inflate our estimate of the costs and/or our estimate of the risks.
www.cuyamaca.net /bruce.thompson/Fallacies/fear.asp   (387 words)

  
 Democratic Underground Forums - Hope vs Fear. Democrat vs Republican.
That's why they have to appeal to hope, and a sense that we can progress towards a better tomorrow by working and thinking hard.
However, the emotions he appealed to were all the best ones.
Republicans appeal to the fear surrounding foreign powers, Democrat appeal to the fear surrounding war, both appeal to fear surrounding illegal drug use, etc. Elections are a contest of hyperbole.
www.democraticunderground.com /duforum/DCForumID60/27742.html   (673 words)

  
 Appeal to Fear
Fear is a basic motivator that is used surprisingly often.
The danger of using this is that it can also lead to other irrational emotions that can rebound upon the persuader, such as dislike and hate.
Fear also results in people running away, but not always in the direction intended.
changingminds.org /disciplines/argument/fallacies/appeal_fear.htm   (168 words)

  
 Hourly Policies | Problem or Grievance Resolution Procedure | UHRS | IU
However, an avenue of appeal without fear or prejudice to a higher level of authority is provided.
The time limitations for responding or appealing to the next stage may be extended at the mutual agreement of both sides.
If the appeal is on behalf of more than three employees, one or two persons must be designated as representative for the group.
www.indiana.edu /~uhrs/policies/hourly/problem.html   (839 words)

  
 Logical Fallacies
Appeal to fear: Target is persuaded to agree by threats or force.
Appeal to hatred: Target is persuaded to agree by hatred.
Appeal to greed: Target is persuaded to focus on the gains and ignore the risks or costs.
www.constitution.org /col/logical_fallacies.htm   (1036 words)

  
 Religion, The Election, And The Politics Of Fear By Todd May   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
From capriciously raised and lowered terror alerts to invasions of individual privacy to the suppression of dissent to the stoking of racism against Arabs and Muslims, the administration's strategy for consent is driven by periodic infusions of fear.
However, the appeal to fear, in its convergence with the deepest motivations of many Americans, has helped to create an unmistakable atmosphere of anxiety.
Since 9/11 the politics of fear has become the point of intersection between the political/corporate elites who run this country and the religious elites and their flock who offer them the mandate to do so.
www.countercurrents.org /us-may191104.htm   (924 words)

  
 Appeal (disambiguation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Appeal - in law an appeal is a challenge of a judicial judgement to a higher authority, usually called an appellate court.
The Mariam Appeal, a political campaign established in 1998.
Appeal (cricket), a request to an umpire for a ruling on whether a cricket batsman is out.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Appeal_(disambiguation)   (191 words)

  
 Arguments and Persuasion Techniques in Writing
Fear is often used as a means of producing behavior change.
In one study (Janis and Feshbach) researchers found that a strong appeal to fear (such as the depiction of gross tooth decay) had the reverse of the expected results.
Fear as an attitude and behavior change mechanism is a risky choice.
www.csudh.edu /dearhabermas/argpers.htm   (1894 words)

  
 Logical Fallacies: A Beginner's Guide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Appeal To False Authority: Your logical fallacies aren't logical fallacies at all because Einstein said so.  Einstein also said that this one is better.
Appeal to Flattery: If you agree with me that Appeal to Flattery is the greatest fallacy, it shows that you are intelligent and good looking and a snappy dresser.
Appeal To Force: If you don't agree that Appeal to Force is the greatest logical fallacy, my two buddies and will simply beat the stuffing out of you.
www2.norwich.edu /mkabay/overviews/logical_fallacies.htm   (688 words)

  
 Cold Fear First Look - Xbox News at GameSpot
The ability to take charge in a situation that appears to be destined to have a most unpleasant end for your character has always held a pretty strong appeal.
Cold Fear is Ubisoft and developer Darkworks' attempt to offer their own unique spin on the time-honored formula.
Cold Fear is currently slated to ship March 2005 for the PC, PlayStation 2, and Xbox.
www.gamespot.com /xbox/action/coldfear/preview_6114196.html   (588 words)

  
 The Fear of the Liberals
But the infatuation with political fear and imperial deliverance from evil cannot be explained away as mere opportunism.
"Fear," he wrote, "must be put to work on behalf of liberty." And so he dedicated himself to a career of liberal pursuits whose only success would be a scheme of mild improvement in Algeria--and leadership of the counterrevolution in 1848.
So has it been with today's liberals: However much they may argue for domestic reform, it is liberalism's conquering thrusts abroad--and assaults on the left at home--that earn their warmest applause.
www.thenation.com /doc/20050926/robin/4   (716 words)

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