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Topic: Application layer


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In the News (Wed 24 Apr 19)

  
 Application layer firewall - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In computer networking, an application layer firewall is a firewall operating at the application layer of a protocol stack.
As it works on the application layer, it may inspect the contents of the traffic, blocking what the firewall administrator views as inappropriate content, such as certain websites, viruses, attempts to exploit known logical flaws in client software, and so forth.
An application layer firewall does not route traffic on the network layer.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Application_layer_firewall   (152 words)

  
 Presentation layer
The presentation layer is responsible for the delivery and formatting of information to the application layer for further processing or display.
The ideal is that the application layer should be able to point at the data to be moved, and the Presentation layer will deal with the rest.
The presentation layer is the sixth level of the seven layer OSI model.
www.fact-index.com /p/pr/presentation_layer.html   (264 words)

  
 Application layer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
TBold texthe application layer is the seventh level of the seven-layer OSI model.
It interfaces directly to and performs common application services for the application processes; it also issues requests to the presentation layer.
Note: Examples of common application services of general interest include the virtual file, virtual terminal, and job transfer and manipulation protocols.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Application_layer   (125 words)

  
 O'Reilly Network: The Scholar's Approach to the Internet
The purpose of the transport layer is to guarantee correctness of data before it is passed up the layers to the application.
The presentation layer is responsible for syntax and formatting in the application layer.
However, routers can also be optimized software applications running on servers for small networks.
www.oreillynet.com /pub/a/network/2001/02/09/net_2nd_lang.html   (1421 words)

  
 What is Application Layer
Application layer falls under the "host layers" in the OSI topologies used in network communication and it is also the top layer in the Internet model.
The proposed application layer is based on a bi-directional set of mappings between the FTP and FTAM protocols.
The presentation layer provides the application layer with a familiar local representation of data independent of the format used on the network.
homepages.uel.ac.uk /u0110988/page2.htm   (1350 words)

  
 IT Architect Application-Layer Protection July 5, 2004
When application proxy firewalls and network IPSs say they provide application protection, what they mean is that they examine Application-layer protocols such as HTTP, SMTP, H.323, and FTP for signs of attack.
Applications can be attacked through the protocols that carry them, or by manipulating the logic of the application code itself.
Web application attacks are prevalent because of the ubiquity of browsers and because the information stored behind Web applications-credit card and bank account numbers, passwords, and so on-is of significant value to criminals.
www.itarchitect.com /shared/article/showArticle.jhtml?articleId=22103705&classroom=   (1646 words)

  
 Application layer firewalls
An Application layer firewall as the name suggests is a firewall operating at the application layer of a protocol stack.
An application layer firewall does not route on the network layer.
As it works on the layer it may also inspect the contents the traffic blocking what the firewall administrator as inappropriate content such as certain websites known attempts to exploit logical flaws in software and so forth.
www.freeglossary.com /Application_layer_firewalls   (201 words)

  
 OSI Application Layer Processing © AA VERSTRAETE
The application layer obtains the data from user inputs or storage and organizes it into a block of data in main memory.
A header is placed in the front of the user data to identify the the sender and receiver applications using the label agreed upon in the peer-to-peer dialogue.
It is stored in main memory, where each layer of the protocol suite will contribute to its packaging and hand it to the next lower level.
www.smeal.psu.edu /misweb/datacomm/ID/OSI_SAL.HTM   (162 words)

  
 Application Layer (Linktionary term)
The application layer is the top layer of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model.
Common Internet applications in the application layer include Telnet, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), NFS (Network File System), SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol), and DNS (Domain Name System).
In this model, the presentation layer and session layer of the OSI protocol stack are used.
www.linktionary.com /a/application_layer.html   (345 words)

  
 Webopedia: The 7 Layers of the OSI Model
Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.
This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software services.
This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control.
www.webopedia.com /quick_ref/OSI_Layers.asp   (426 words)

  
 OSI Model Application Layer
The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application.
This layer is the main interface for the user to interact with the application and therefore the network.
This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component.
www.tutorialsweb.com /networking/osi-model-application-layer.htm   (1522 words)

  
 The TCP/IP Guide - Application Layer (Layer 7)
Continuing the trend that we saw in layers 5 and 6, this one too is named very appropriately: the application layer is the one that is used by network applications.
Similarly, not all uses of the application layer are by applications.
Application protocols are defined at this layer, which implement specific user applications and other high-level functions.
www.tcpipguide.com /free/t_ApplicationLayerLayer7.htm   (754 words)

  
 Protocol Layer
Each layer adds to the services provided by the lower layers in such a manner that the highest layer is provided a full set of services to manage communications and run distributed applications.
The upper layers are sometimes known as "middleware" because they provide software in the computer which convert data between what the applications programs expect, and what the network can transport.
In each case, however, there is a distinction between the functions of the lower (network) layers, which are primarily designed to provide a connection or path between users to hide details of underlying communications facilities, and the upper (or higher) layers, which ensure data exchanged are in correct and understandable form.
www.erg.abdn.ac.uk /users/gorry/course/intro-pages/layer.html   (544 words)

  
 Chapter 4 - Application Layer
The application layer is also responsible for setting the display adapter to graphics mode and drawing the separate data acquisition windows.
The application runs on a remote computer, so the user is not able to determine which bedside monitors are active simply by glancing around the ward.
In this application, a single source is defined for parameter data from a single logical bed, and all data messages originate from this bed.
www.forrestg.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk /msc/chap4.htm   (3844 words)

  
 Introducing the ISA Server 2000 Application Layer Filtering Kit
An application layer filtering firewall is able to examine the application layer commands and data and determine whether the content or commands being sent to a server on the corporate network fall outside the bounds of valid connection attempts.
Application layer filtering firewalls are required to protect networks from modern attackers because attackers now focus their efforts on developing exploits against weaknesses in the services they attack.
Even third party application layer firewalls are unable to inspect the contents of the communications between the Web client on the Internet and the Web server on the internal network because the application layer firewall is unable to determine the contents of the SSL tunneled communications.
www.isaserver.org /pages/article_p.asp?id=1174   (3477 words)

  
 The Application Layer
This layer proivides the interface to the communications environment which is used by the application process.
This process occurs by invocation of instances of entities in the lower layers.
Establishment of the authority of the application process to use the communication services.
www.scit.wlv.ac.uk /~jphb/comms/std.osirm7.html   (169 words)

  
 ISA Firewall Fairy Tales - What Hardware Firewall Vendors Don't Want You to Know (v1.02)
In contrast, the packet filter firewalls are totally unaware of application layer attacks, and even hardware firewalls with rudimentary application layer inspection cannot be quickly upgraded to meet the latest application layer exploit because of the limits of ASIC (hardware) processing and development.
Since modern exploits are aimed at the application layer (because that’s where the "money" is), the backbone application layer firewalls do the job of checking the validity of the communications moving through them.
ISA firewalls are honest-to-goodness, enterprise class firewalls that provide the strong inbound and outbound access control and application layer filtering you need to protect today’s networks, not the networks of yesteryear at which traditional packet filter based firewalls are aimed.
www.isaserver.org /pages/article_p.asp?id=1229   (8270 words)

  
 Application Layer Filtering (ALF): What is it and How does it Fit into your Security Plan?
Application layer filtering goes beyond packet filtering and allows you to be much more granular in your control of what enters or exits the network.
Application layer filtering, used in conjunction with filtering at the lower layers, provides for the highest possible level of security.
The primary disadvantage of application layer filtering is its effect on performance.
www.windowsecurity.com /articles/Application_Layer_Filtering.html   (1360 words)

  
 Application Layer Packet Classifier for Linux
Netfilter that identifies packets based on application layer data.
l7-filter.sourceforge.net   (377 words)

  
 OSI Application Layer Concepts
The Application layer of the OSI reference model is concerned with providing services on the network, including file services, print services, e-mail services, and database services, among others.
A common misunderstanding is that the Application layer is responsible for running user applications such as word processors.
The Application layer also advertises the available services to the network.
www.measureup.com /testobjects/MS_NetEss/5a65f0d.htm   (72 words)

  
 Internet Application Layer Protocols and Standards
The application layer protocols and standards are the ways in which different applications (like e-mail programs, web servers and browsers, etc.) talk to each other.
By protocols is meant the language used when the applications talk to each other through the network.
This book, which is under development (but some chapters are available on the web), will give an introduction to the Internet application layer protocols and standards.
dsv.su.se /jpalme/abook   (260 words)

  
 ISA Fieldbus Standard for Use in Industrial Control Systems Part 6: Application Layer Protocol Specification
The Application Layer protocol is the set of rules that governs the format and meaning of the information exchange between the Application Layers in various devices.
The Fieldbus Application Layer (FAL) is an Application Layer communication standard designed to support the conveyance of time-critical application requests and responses among devices in an automation environment.
The purpose of this document is to define the protocol provided to the Fieldbus Data Link Layer at the boundary between the Application and Data Link Layers of the Fieldbus Reference Model, and to the System Management at the boundary between the System Management and Application Layers of the Fieldbus Reference Model.
www.isa.org /PrinterTemplate.cfm?template=Ecommerce/ProductDisplay.cfm&ProductID=2953   (841 words)

  
 Content with Style: XML as intermediate application layer
The 3 layer paradigm has been around for a while and most of you probably are familliar with it.
By keeping the dataflow of the application logic stricly XML compliant we also have no problems using the same code for outputting a different version, to mobile devices, for example, OR to swap the data-source with an external web-service.
My final issue is 5 layers adds to the number of files to think about when trying to nail down an problem.
contentwithstyle.co.uk /.../29/xml-as-intermediate-application-layer   (1857 words)

  
 Ethernet/IP - Industrial application layer protocol for industrial automation applications - Siemon
The Ethernet/IP application layer protocol is based on the Control and Information Protocol (CIP) layer used in both DeviceNet™ and ControlNet™.
Ethernet/IP is an application layer protocol that was designed for the industrial environment.
These same groups are working on the physical layer connectivity requirements that are needed in the harsh environments of the factory floor.
www.siemon.com /us/white_papers/03-03-25-ethernet-ip.asp   (1350 words)

  
 ISO/OSI Network Model
Mail, ftp, telnet, DNS, NIS, NFS are examples of network applications.
The network layer may have to break large datagrams, larger than MTU, into smaller packets and host receiving the packet will have to reassemble the fragmented datagram.
The data link layer handles the physical and logical connections to the packet's destination, using a network interface.
www.uwsg.iu.edu /usail/network/nfs/network_layers.html   (754 words)

  
 A Comparative Study of Application Layer Multicast Protocols - Banerjee, Bhattacharjee (ResearchIndex)
Unlike network-layer multicast, application layer multicast requires no infrastructure support and can be easily deployed in the Internet.
A comparative study of application layer multicast protocols.
Abstract: Due to the sparse deployment of IP multicast in the Internet today, some researchers have proposed application layer multicast as a new approach to implement widearea multicast services.
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /banerjee01comparative.html   (571 words)

  
 Application Layer
The application layer consists of what most users think of as programs.
Berkeley Unix includes a set of network applications that support the idea of a set of trusted hosts.
If an application uses both local and remote files, an application may not work, even if the local machine is running.
web.cs.wpi.edu /~cs4514/b98/week8-appl/week8-appl.html   (3893 words)

  
 Application layer - a Whatis.com definition
It may be convenient to think of the Application layer as the high-level set-up services for the application program or an interactive user.
In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communications model, the Application layer provides services for an application program to ensure that effective communication with another application program in a network is possible.
The Application layer is NOT the application itself that is doing the communication.
searchnetworking.techtarget.com /sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci211579,00.html   (233 words)

  
 CCNA Study Notes - OSI - Application Layer
In addition, the Application layer advertises any services that are being offered and determines whether requests made by the client should be processed locally or remotely (through another network resource).
It synchronizes the tgransmission of data between the application and its protocol.
It matches the application to the appropriate communication protocol or service.
www.defoenet.com /ccna/osi_l7.html   (165 words)

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