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Topic: Apportionment

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In the News (Mon 24 Jun 19)

  Congressional Apportionment
The population of the District of Columbia is excluded from the apportionment population.
Apportionment is the process of dividing the 435 memberships or seats in the U.S. House of Representatives among the 50 states.
Apportionment is the process of determining the number of representatives to which each state is entitled in the U.S. House of Representatives based on the decennial census.
nationalatlas.gov /articles/boundaries/a_conApport.html   (2023 words)

Apportionment factors should appear on the RPS record on the description 2 field as demonstrated in the "Standard RPS Field Entries" section of this manual.
The apportionment factors for mass utility properties for the school districts can be calculated by dividing the AV (assessed value) of the school district in the town outside the village by the total AVs of the town outside the villages.
For the village of 772201 the apportionment factor is 1, all the value is attributable to the village and the entry should be for $50,000.
www.orps.state.ny.us /sas/ucars/apport.htm   (908 words)

 Apportionment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The lessee is not bound, however, by an apportionment of rent made upon the grant of part of the reversion unless it is made either with his consent or by the verdict of a jury.
Apportionment by operation of law may be brought about where by act of law a lease becomes inoperative as regards its subject-matter, or by the "act of God", as, for instance, where part of an estate is submerged by the encroachments of the sea.
An equitable apportionment, apart from statute law, arises where property is bequeathed on trust to pay the income to a tenant for life and the reversion to others, and the realization of the property in the form of a fund capable of producing income is postponed for the benefit of the estate.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Apportionment   (1297 words)

 Congressional Apportionment
The fundamental reason for conducting the decennial census of the United States is to apportion the members of the House of Representatives among the 50 states.
A state's apportionment population is the sum of its resident population and a count of overseas U.S. military and federal civilian employees (and their dependents living with them) allocated to the state, as reported by the employing federal agencies.
Apportionment of the U.S. House of Representatives for the 108th Congress
www.census.gov /population/www/censusdata/apportionment.html   (211 words)

 Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.1, Entry 69, APPORTIONMENT: Library of Economics and Liberty
The term apportionment was applied in the federal constitution to the distribution of representatives in the lower chamber of the federal congress between the several states and to the allotment of direct taxes upon the basis of population.
Bentham proposed an apportionment based in part on population and in part on territory, and such a principle was adopted in France in the constitution drawn by the constituent assembly in 1791.
The census of 1797 was assumed as a basis of the apportionment made by the constitution, but it is difficult to reconcile its allotment of representation with the returns of population; Valencia and Granada, with a nearly equal population, having respectively 19 and 2 deputies.
www.econlib.org /library/YPDBooks/Lalor/llCy69.html   (6884 words)

 Apportionment considerations
The language of the earlier statutes was more specific in their definition of "apportionment" than is the simple phrases "based on causation"and "caused by other factors." A great deal of case law has further clarified the meaning of those earlier statutes and the public policy underlying them.
I propose that apportionment to these active causative factors, by describing an "approximate percentage of the permanent disability which was caused by" these "other factors" would result in a change in the determination of apportionment that is compatible with the other basic policies underlying the workers' compensation scheme.
If a "retro-active prophylactic work restriction" could be apportioned away, it would be possible to retroactively conclude that a worker should have been precluded from the activity he was performing at the time of the injury, since it is clear that such an activity would have caused him to be injured.
www.hurtworker.com /english/apportionmentconsiderations.htm   (1213 words)

 Proposed Northern Illinois Apportionment Formula   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Apportionments are a part of the mutual covenant we make at annual and general conference sessions.
Consequently, the apportionment formula asks that a share of the local church’s use of funds be given to accomplish a similar purpose in the world.
The apportionment formula asks for a share of the local church’s spending on their program and ministries to be given to similar ministries beyond the local church.
www.gbgm-umc.org /nillconf/apportion.htm   (3184 words)

 PSC Census Support: Apportionment
The fundamental reason for conducting the decennial census of the United States is to determine the number of members of the House of Representatives each of the 50 states is entitled to have.
Apportionment is based on the size of the resident population for each state as well as the overseas population allocated to their home state.
The apportionment population for 2000 is shown for each state.
www.psc.isr.umich.edu /dis/census/subject/apportionment.html   (425 words)

 Sharing God's Gifts - Glossary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Apportioned fund that supports with operating funds and capital a university in Africa providing post-secondary education for African students.
Apportioned fund that supports general agencies whose work is administrative in nature, the cost of General Conference and other items essential to the operation of The United Methodist Church.
Apportioned fund that provides educational support for ordained elders, ordained deacons and diaconal ministers of the church through funding for theological schools, recruitment, professional development and continuing education.
www.umcgiving.org /content/glossary.asp   (2670 words)

 Apportionment (politics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Apportionment, or reapportionment, is the process of determining representation in politics within a legislative body by creating constituencies.
Apportionment is also applied in party-list proportional representation elections to distribute seats between different parties once they've won a particular percentage of the vote, much like how different U.S. states obtain different shares of the population from the census.
The result was that, in some cases, rural districts would have drastically less population than an urban counterpart and still hold an equal or greater number of representatives or senators - thereby diluting the voice in the legislature of the latter, compared to that of the former.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Apportionment_(politics)   (1509 words)

 JustPENSIONS » Part VII. Apportionment Between Community and Separate Property
Disposition of retirement benefits is a three-step process: valuation to determine present value, apportionment between separate and community interests, and assignment of the retirement benefits to one party with other assets of equal value to the other party or division of each retirement benefit as it is paid.
The case mentions the insurance apportionment rule which applies a percentage based on the ratio of the amount paid into the fund during marriage to the total amount paid.
Under a benefits rule of apportionment, a pension benefit of $350 per month would be community property if the marriage were during the first ten years of employment, and $650 per month if the marriage were during the second ten years of employment.
www.justpensions.com /?page_id=20   (766 words)

 Arkansas Board of Apportionment
"The Board of Apportionment" hereby created shall, from time to time, divide the state into convenient senatorial districts in such manner as that the Senate shall be based upon the inhabitants of the state, each senator representing, as nearly as practicable, an equal number thereof; each district shall have at least one senator.
The word "apportionment", when used in the legislative context, means the distribution of legislative seats to geographic areas that are entitled to representation.
This was essentially the task of the Board of Apportionment prior to 1965, at least with regard to the House of Representatives, when it was required to decide how many representatives each county received.
www.state.ar.us /arkdistrict/legal.html   (914 words)

 DRS: 12-221a-1, Alternate method of apportionment
If a company is entitled to apportion its net income or its additional tax base, the statutory apportionment formula must be used, unless an alternate method of apportionment is petitioned for (and granted) under subsection (b) or required under subsection (c) of this regulation.
The Commissioner may require an alternate method of apportionment when the statutory apportionment formula has operated or will operate so as to subject the company to taxation on a lesser portion of its net income or additional tax base than is equitably attributable to this state.
An alternate method of apportionment shall be used only in limited and specific cases where unusual fact situations (which ordinarily will be unique and nonrecurring) produce incongruous results under the statutory apportionment formula.
www.ct.gov /drs/cwp/view.asp?a=1512&q=269244   (611 words)

 Thirty-Thousand.org - A Brief History of Apportionment
In the first apportionment bill passed by Congress, an additional Representative was assigned to the nine States whose quotas had the highest fractional remainders.
The Constitution has prescribed that Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers; and there is no one proportion or divisor which, applied to the respective numbers of the States, will yield the number and allotment of Representatives proposed by the bill.
The 1822 apportionment Act increased the ratio to 40,000 and the size of the House to 213.
www.thirty-thousand.org /pages/Apportionment.htm   (3053 words)

The Pennsylvania inheritance tax shall be apportioned as provided in Article XXI of the act of March 4, 1971 (P.L. 6, No. 2), known as the Tax Reform Code of 1971.
Subject to the provisions of section 3701 (relating to power of decedent), the Federal generation-skipping tax shall be apportioned as provided by Federal law and, to the extent not provided by Federal law, shall be apportioned by analogy to the rules specified in section 3702 (relating to equitable apportionment of Federal estate tax).
When a fiduciary holds property of a party liable to apportionment insufficient to satisfy the apportioned Federal estate tax, the court may direct that the balance of the apportioned amount of Federal estate tax shall be paid to the fiduciary by the party liable.
members.aol.com /DKM1/20.Cp.37.html   (472 words)

 Restatement (Third) of Torts: Apportionment Liab
It is often difficult to compare a plaintiff's conduct with that of a defendant when different apportionment rules govern comparative responsibility in the same lawsuit.
Some causation issues actually apportion damages among parties according to causation and therefore are in the first (core) category.
The basic concept is that liability should be apportioned among all legally culpable actors according to proportionate shares of responsibility while affording appropriate redress to victims of intentional torts.
students.ou.edu /S/Frank.J.Sullivan-1.III/Section1.htm   (4671 words)

 Apportionment of Corporate Franchise Tax - House Research
Public finance economists generally agree that apportionment formulas are a very important feature of state corporate taxes.
Following conventional economic theory, the portion of the tax that is apportioned by sales will be a tax on consumption or consumers, similar to a sales tax.
After the U.S. Supreme Court ruled sales-only apportionment was valid in 1978, many states increased their reliance on the sales factor because of these incentive effects.
www.house.leg.state.mn.us /hrd/issinfo/ssapcft.htm   (1007 words)

 Apportionment of the federal estate tax--effect of selective federal apportionment and need for reform Real Property, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Federal law apportions the burden of paying the federal estate tax with respect to certain property that is included in the gross estate, but the federal system of apportionment is not comprehensive.
The existing federal tax apportionment statutes have been enacted on a piecemeal basis, leaving questions about the rationality and fairness of the selective apportionment of the federal estate tax and the corresponding preemption of state law.
A survey of state apportionment statutes reveals several approaches to apportionment of that part of the federal estate tax that can be apportioned by state law.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3714/is_199807/ai_n8793608   (666 words)

 Bureau of Corporations, Elections & Commissions, Elections Division
The 121st Legislature, in the First Regular Session, passed two public laws establishing the apportionment of districts for the Maine House of Representatives and for the County Commissioner Districts.
This link connects to Chapter 289 of the Public Laws of 2003, which was enacted by the 121st Legislature and signed by the Governor on May 23, 2003, and became effective on September 13, 2003.
This link connects to Chapter 291 of the Public Laws of 2003, which was enacted by the 121st Legislature and signed by the Governor on May 23, 2003, and became effective on September 13, 2003.
www.maine.gov /sos/cec/elec/apport/apport.htm   (273 words)

Apportionment Projections for the U.S. House for 2010, 2005 Estimates
Apportionment Projections for the U.S. House for 2010, 2004 Estimates
This does not include D.C. and does not equal the actual average population per member based upon the districting phase of the apportionment proces as overseas population are not districted.
www.polidata.org /maps/apmaps.htm   (519 words)

 Apportionment Data   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A brief summary of the apportionment population, number of representatives, and the method of apportionment used throughout the history of the census.
Apportionment and Apportionment Population Based on the 1990 Census (Data are shown for the United States and States.
Population Base for Apportionment and the Number of Representatives Apportioned: 1790-1990 (Data are shown for the United States.
permanent.access.gpo.gov /lps3289/apportionment-1.html   (134 words)

 2000 Census Counts Produce Surprises in Congressional Delegations
Given the tightness the apportionment numbers, efforts by states such as Georgia to cooperate with the Census Bureau and seek a full and complete count in the 2000 census may have paid off.
North Carolina’s gain of one congressional seat in after the 2000 census is attributed to the inclusion of overseas military and federal civilian employees in the census population counts.
Had the current congressional apportionment been in effect for the November 2000 elections, Bush would have had 278 electoral votes (compared to the 271 he officially received), and Gore would have gone from 267 to 260 electoral votes.
www.electiondataservices.com /Apport00release_wtables.htm   (1436 words)

 A little history of apportionment
No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen.
The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years in such manner as they shall by law direct.
Rep. Albert Hopkins (IL), chm of the House Committee on Apportionment, submitted a bill using a House size of 357--causing an uproar.
www.ctl.ua.edu /math103/apportionment/apphisty.htm   (755 words)

 Congressional Apportionment--1990 Census Results
Paralleling the pattern evident between the 1970 and 1980 censuses, the states that gained representation after the 1990 census were in the South and West, while those that declined were in the Northeast and Midwest.
Apportionment Population Based on the 1990 Census (Data are shown for the United States and States.
Apportionment of Membership of the House of Representatives: 1789-1990 (Data are shown for the United States, Regions, Divisions, and States.
www.census.gov /population/www/censusdata/apportionment/results.html   (195 words)

Many mathematicians are employed by the Census Bureau to assist directly with the Census and related issues in applying the census data to such problems as apportionment, both at the federal and the state level.
You may find the apportionment population data for the last census, a graphic showing changes in the number members of the House of Representatives for each state based on the 2000 census, the United States overseas population, and US population growth data of interest.
It is also important to notice that apportionment ideas come into play in a wide variety of applied problems, many of which grow out of operations research.
www.ams.org /featurecolumn/archive/apportion1.html   (982 words)

 SSRN-Fixing the Constitutional Absurdity of the Apportionment of Direct Tax by Calvin Johnson
Fixing the Constitutional Absurdity of the Apportionment of Direct Tax argues that the Constitutional requirement that "direct tax" be apportioned among the states according to population should never be used to make any federal tax impossible.
Farmer's Trust (1895) which illegitimately used apportionment to overturn the income tax with a rationale that was not accurate to the original history.
This article also reviews the history of the 16th Amendment to the Constitution and argues that it was intended to bury the apportionment requirement in the last small area in which it could be said to have still been alive.
papers.ssrn.com /sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=821351   (369 words)

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