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Topic: Aquatic ape hypothesis


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In the News (Sat 23 Mar 19)

  
  African Wildlife « Laelaps
Her new aquatic streamlining had been unable to prevent her becoming lumpy in the middle, and as a littoral biped her legs were developing in the opposite direction from the seal’s - they were becoming not smaller and thinner but farther apart, but longer and thicker and closer together.
While Morgan implied that the aquatic apes were an isolated group that ended up leading to man (what happened to populations elsewhere is never spelled out), Verhaegen suggests that the last common ancestor of living gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans was at least semi-bipedal and semi-aquatic, likely living in a habitat like a mangrove swamp.
The problem with the hypothesis that hippos were initially infected by anthrax-contaminated water, however, is that the park in which the outbreak occurred is said to have plenty of flowing water, not the stagnant pools typical of an environment that harbors anthrax.
laelaps.wordpress.com /tag/african-wildlife   (10143 words)

  
 Fishing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
By extension, the term fishing is also applied to hunting for other aquatic animals such as various types of shellfish as well as squid, octopus, turtles, frogs and some edible marine invertebrates.
The aquatic ape hypothesis, a controversial proposal, suggests that the ancestors of modern humans went through one or more periods of time living in a semi-aquatic setting and gathered most of their food from shallow coastal or other waters before their descendants returned to a more land-based existence.
Commercial fishermen harvest almost all aquatic species, from tuna, cod and salmon to shrimp, krill, lobster, clams, squid and crab, in various fisheries for these species.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fishing   (5872 words)

  
 Morgan
The aquatic model suggests that in a flooded habitat, bipedalism may have been resorted to under duress, the significant reward being the ability to breathe air.
A thermoregulatory hypothesis suggesting that erect posture lessened the sun's mid-day heat load on a savanna primate became less credible once it was accepted that bipedalism preceded the emergence of savanna conditions.
The onset of an aquatic phase, if it contributed to the separation between ape and human lineages, could not have been later than 5-6mya There is nothing in the fossil record either to confirm or to disprove the possibility of an aquatic or semi-aquatic or flooded-forest habitat for the earliest hominids.
users.ugent.be /~mvaneech/Morgan.html   (2817 words)

  
 Straight Dope Staff Report: Did humans descend from "aquatic apes"?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Apes and humans, on the other hand, tend to float vertically with their nostrils submerged.
Only some aquatic mammals have lost all or most of their hair, and they are almost invariably very large species weighing a ton or more, whose ancestors have been living in the water for tens of millions of years.
A fossil species called Oreopithecus ("swamp ape," not "creme-filled chocolate cookie ape") is cited by AAH supporters as an example of a primate that learned to walk upright by first wading in swamps.
www.straightdope.com /mailbag/maquaticape.html   (2397 words)

  
 [No title]
The aquatic ape theory (AAT) of Sir Alister Hardy (1) states that a few million years ago human ancestors spent a considerable part of their day swimming and diving in a river, lake or sea, and, at least partially, consumed aquatic food.
All of this is very speculative but interesting enough to elaborate the hypothesis of the aquatic origin of speech and to propose a possible scenario for speech emergence.
Aquatic mammals can close the airway entrances much more completely than land mammals, thus avoiding being drowned by water entering the lungs, and they have a very refined voluntary control of mouth, nose and throat passages.
allserv.rug.ac.be /~mvaneech/Fil/Verhaegen_Language_SpeculationsScienceTechnology.html   (2574 words)

  
 Langdon’s Critique of The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis: Not the Last Word
Langdon did no justice to the hypothesis by avoiding this complexity and merely defining it’s meaning as “having observed a number of anatomical parallels between distinctively human traits and marine animals, he [Hardy] proposed that the human lineage had been shaped evolutionarily by a temporary phase of adaptation to a littoral habitat” (1997:p480).
Langdon’s evidence for his claim that the AAH feeds on suspicion against the establishment was merely that Morgan has consistently compared the poor reception of the aquatic ape hypothesis with the early sceptical reception of the continental drift theory of Wegener, a historical fact that no-one would dispute today.
Putting aside the question of whether the AAH is popular or not (how many school books on the subject of human evolution show pictures of early man as ‘man-the-mighty-hunter’ on open, grassy plains rather than images of women bathing infants in water?) it is not clear that this argument uniquely applies to the AAH.
www.riverapes.com /AAH/Arguments/Langdon/LangdonCritique.htm   (8869 words)

  
 The Aquatic Ape Theory--Elaine Morgan
For example, on the question of why humans lost their body hair, it has been argued at various times that no explanation is called for, or that we may never know the reason, or even that there may not be a reason.
It suggests that when our ancestors moved onto the savannah they were already different from the apes; that nakedness, bipedalism, and other modifications had begun to evolve much earlier, when the ape and human lines first diverged.
One hypothesis used to be that they first developed big brains and began to make tools, and finally walked on their hind legs to free their hands for carrying weapons.
www.primitivism.com /aquatic-ape.htm   (2708 words)

  
 Come on in - the water's lovely | Life | Guardian Unlimited
It was generally accepted that apes evolved into humans when they were forced because of climate changes to descend from the withering trees to live on the arid savannah.
Morgan was alerted to the hypothesis by a slight reference in The Naked Ape by Desmond Morris.
She published The Descent of Woman in 1972, The Aquatic Ape in 1982, The Scars of Evolution in 1990, The Descent of the Child in 1994, and The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis in 1997.
www.guardian.co.uk /life/interview/story/0,12982,946539,00.html   (2276 words)

  
 Aquatic Ape Hypothesis
Aquatic mammals are born rather advanced as opposed to humans, and they have milk which is very different than humans milk in several features (extremely rich in fat and protein, and very low in lactose).
You claim falsity in the aquatic ape theory, yet it is only a possible explanation of observation and testings.
The Aquatic Ape is a perfect example and thus I respect the topic starter for his initiative.
www.captaincynic.com /thread/45811/aquatic-ape-hypothesis.htm   (3166 words)

  
 Dragon Myths: Ancient Greece & China
The AAH, currently modified as the wading ape hypothesis, is indeed the model of the early evolution, which now has the most arguments on its side.
The Aquatic Ape Theory has many valid points and the fact it isn't taken seriously by the Paleontologists isn't surprising since they don't seem to be motivated to find any alternate answers.
Critics of the aquatic ape theory are usually quite laughable - their main argument against AAT is that every detail of the theory isn't concretely provable.
www.survive2012.com /dragon_myths_4.php/aquatic_ape_theory.php?comment_id=aquatic_ape_theory.php&comment_page=show_all   (8134 words)

  
 Sea Shepherd - Ocean Realm Spring 2001
The Aquatic Ape theory postulates that during a period of a million or two years after hominids broke away from chimpanzees, human ancestors spent a considerable time living and evolving in estuaries, marshy jungles and along coastal shorelines.
The fat on aquatic mammals adheres to the skin, whereas on terrestrial animals it is attached to the muscle.
When swimming, the aquatic apes would have kept one part of their anatomy above the water more than any other part, and that of course is the head.
www.seashepherd.org /ocean_realm/ocean_realm_spr01.html   (2615 words)

  
 The Aquatic Ape: Fact or Fiction
Its aim was to evaluate the pros and cons of Sir Alister Hardy's daring idea about the Aquatic Ape, a presumed early ancestor of humans.
So begins the published book "Aquatic Ape Fact or Fiction" which remains the only serious academic work to properly evaluate the AAH in a serious and scientific way.
The supporters of the AAH were looking for some kind of vindication of the theory, the opponents were looking for some kind of final rebuttal.
www.riverapes.com /AAH/FoF/FactOrFiction.htm   (899 words)

  
 The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis - Page 5 - IIDB   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
I key point of understanding about the so-called aquatic ape hypothesis is to realise that it is not espousing that there was ever an aquatic ape in any real sense of the term.
IMO, part of the reason for AAH being met with such hostility by the "establishment" is that it hi-lights the somewhat speculative nature of their more specific claims.
Most of the assertions of AAH are difficult to test because they deal with soft tissues that have not fossilized (hairlessness, sweat glands, fat layer), however fossils should at least give some indication of whether hominids occupied savannah, forest, or swamp by matching fossils to sediments and to co-fossilized plants and animals.
www.iidb.org /vbb/showthread.php?p=1761218   (4912 words)

  
 Critique of book: The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis
The one she's wrestling with is about aquatic mammals and the length of their legs; they have shorter legs (or incredibly modified legs, like seals and whales) compared to their terrestrial relatives.
You see, Morgan claims there wasn't enough time to change the skeletal features of hominids during her purported aquatic period yet, at the same time, she insists that there was a massive change to the skeleton, specifically the pelvis during that time and due to this aquatic period.
The reason she finds this a problem is that there are ubiquitous traits among aquatic mammals, yet none of them are found in hominids; while her purported aquatic traits are either actually nonexistent, not shared with aquatic mammals, or unique to humans.
www.aquaticape.org /aahbook.html   (6739 words)

  
 The Official Graham Hancock Website: Forum
On land, female apes always had known who the alpha males were, and those males enforced their sexual rights with physical punishment or its threat.
Other aquatic mammals are probably orgasmic (since the link of vaginal angle to orgasm is probably unique to primates) so they don't need to fall in love.
Aquatic life is a trap - it can help a primate survive a short term drought, but in the long run it causes fatal damage to the species.
www.grahamhancock.com /forum/craigHagstrom.php   (1500 words)

  
 What is the Aquatic Ape Hypothesis?
The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis, sometimes referred to as the Aquatic Ape Theory or AAT, is a questionable theory from paleoanthropology that enjoyed popularity in the 80s and early 90s.
For example, many species of non-aquatic apes are capable of walking bipedally, at least temporarily, which places doubt on the idea that water was necessary to facilitate permanent bipedalism.
The Aquatic Ape hypothesis is frequently studied by paleoanthropologists as a way of how evolution theories should be falsifiable and as amenable to scientific testing as possible.
www.wisegeek.com /what-is-the-aquatic-ape-hypothesis.htm   (506 words)

  
 Aquatic Ape Hypothesis - IIDB   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
On aquatic predators, it's worth noting that nowhere in the world do we find any animal of small to medium size with a slow reproduction rate in an aquatic environment, whereas we do in terrestrial environments.
And they are either fully aquatic or, in the case of the phocid seals, so nearly fully aquatic that they can't do much outside of water, and they all have very specialized, unusual, and extremely unhuman-like skin.
As for "hunting apes", since the late 60s it's been realised that plant foods almost certainly made up the majority of a hominid diet, just as they do for chimps (and for "modern" gathering-hunting groups, despite their fairly advanced weaponry).
www.iidb.org /vbb/showthread.php?t=71811&goto=nextoldest   (4433 words)

  
 The Aquatic Ape Theory
While we were aquatic mammals, our descended larynx helped us with communication - as we began to speak we were capable of a wider range of sounds.
The primary reason why apes such as the chimpanzee can not "speak" is not because of the limited range of sounds available to them - they can say "ah", "ee", "oo", and pronounce the letters k, p, h and m.
“An aquatic environment seems to have had a broadly similar effect on some other species - that is, relative retraction of the femal sex organ leading to a corresponding extension of that of the males.
www.survive2012.com /aquatic_ape_theory.php?comment_id=aquatic_ape_theory.php&comment_page=show_all   (10451 words)

  
 Book Review by Anthony Campbell: The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis.
In other words, it is a defence of the aquatic ape hypothesis using the same arguments as in the earlier work.
She now states categorically that the savannah hypothesis for human origins is defunct, as opposed to merely weak and inadequate.
The aquatic ape hypothesis, in contrast, is she believes stronger than ever.
www.accampbell.uklinux.net /bookreviews/r/morgan-2.html   (203 words)

  
 Untitled Document   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
He argued that the layer of subcutaneous fat that we share with marine mammals and the fact that babies are born with sufficient fat to give them buoyancy in water is consistant with an aquatic past.
The hypothesis was followed up by Elaine Morgan who has written several books on the subject in which she has commented on the naivety of the alternative 'Savannah' hypothesis and its inconsistancy with human physiology.
Until recently the hypothesis was virtually ignored by paleoanthropologists but the ideas are gradually gaining credence.
www.billbrouard.com /aquatic.htm   (272 words)

  
 Behavior « Laelaps
The hypothesis the authors put forth in the paper is hypothetical and relatively superficial, depending on woman only gathering and consuming the plant material and men only doing the hunting (and consuming the meat).
Still, great apes are distinguished from “early man” and the genus Homo, and given that details are not given it can’t be ascertained whether Simpson held the view that all hominids discovered by that time were linked in a straight-line of evolution.
Exclusively using the behavior of living apes to work backwards to the behavior of our own ancestors treats the subject as if chimpanzees and bonobos our are ancestors, one of the biggest mistakes still made by people unfamiliar with how evolution works.
laelaps.wordpress.com /tag/behavior   (16832 words)

  
 Interview: The natural optimist - opinion - 23 April 2005 - New Scientist
You are best known for championing the theory that humans are descended from an aquatic ape, first suggested by the marine biologist Alister Hardy in New Scientist in 1960 as a way of explaining our species' unusual characteristics.
He contacted lots of the leading people in the field saying, "I'm just an ordinary sort of guy, but can you tell me why you don't believe in the aquatic ape theory?" And when they answered him - some of them did - he sent their replies to me. He was my gadfly.
There has not been a single paper in any of the professional journals outlining the case for the aquatic ape hypothesis, and only one paper outlining the case against.
www.newscientist.com /channel/opinion/mg18624962.000   (1786 words)

  
 Aquatic Ape Theory (AAT): Sink or Swim?
The Aquatic Ape Theory (often referred to as the AAT or AAH -- I'll generally refer to it as the AAT/H on this site) says humans went through an aquatic or semi-aquatic stage in our evolution and that this accounts for many features seen in human anatomy and physiology.
Using the principle of convergent evolution, it says that life in an aquatic environment explains these features, and that a transition from ape to hominid in a non-aquatic environment cannot.
It shouldn't have to be pointed out that when someone produces a theory or hypothesis and calls it science, it is perfectly legitimate to look at the facts used to support it.
www.aquaticape.org   (2307 words)

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