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Topic: Aqueous solution


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  #1 Site For Learning Chemistry
When the salt is in an aqueous solution, the current flows and the bulb glows brightly.
Solutions of sodium chloride, copper sulphate, dilute sulphuric acid are examples of strong electrolytes.
In an aqueous solution of NaCl, water molecules separate the Na and the Cl ions.
home.att.net /~cat6a/electrolysis-I.htm   (828 words)

  
 Patent 6,238,664
An aqueous protein solution buffered with a potassium phosphate buffer, in which the ratio of potassium ions to sodium ions in the solution is at least 10:1, is resistant to the formation of protein aggregates and particles under conditions of freezing, thawing, lyophilization, and reconstitution.
In an embodiment of this invention the solution is buffered with a potassium phosphate buffer in a concentration of from 10 to 300 mmol/liter in the solution.
the solution being buffered at a pH from 6 to 8 with a potassium phosphate buffer in a concentration of from 10 to 300 mmol/liter in the solution.
www.pharmcast.com /Patents/Yr2001/May2001/052901/6238664_Proteine052901.htm   (1959 words)

  
 US Pat 6,054,584 - Process for Extracting and Purifying Morphine From Opium
The basic aqueous solution may be filtered to remove any solid matter remaining after the aqueous extraction step, and then be stirred with a sufficient amount of a salt to avoid emulsion formation.
The basic alcoholic solution is filtered and the alcohol removed from the filtrate to leave a residue.The residue is then extracted with a basic aqueous solution having a pH of at least 11.
The basic aqueous solution may be filtered to remove any solid matter remaining after the aqueous extraction step, and may then he stirred with a sufficient amount of a salt to avoid emulsion formation.
www.erowid.org /archive/rhodium/chemistry/morphextr.html   (2319 words)

  
 Process for cleaning articles with an aqueous solution of terpene and recycle water after separation - Patent 5271773
The aqueous solution is formulated such that effective cleaning is achieved and quick release of contaminants is obtained to allow for subsequent recycle of the aqueous solution.
This ratio is a measure of the stability of the terpene and water emulsion in the aqueous solution and the ability of the aqueous solution to allow contaminants to separate after cleaning.
To prevent accumulation of contaminants in the wash solution 10 to an unacceptable level, a portion of the wash solution 10 is conducted to a separation vessel 16.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5271773.html   (4712 words)

  
 Untitled Document
Often expressed as the ratio of the quantity of solute to the quantity of solution, sometimes it is the ratio of solute to solvent.
Solute: The substance that dissolves in a solvent in a solution.
It is unstable relative to the saturated solution.
crystals.llnl.gov /glossary-terms.html   (1812 words)

  
 Carbonated cleaning solution - Patent 4219333
An aqueous cleaning composition containing 0.1-5 percent of a detergent which may be nonionic or anionic, 0-1 percent of one or more alkaline builder salts and 0-5 percent of a volatile organic solvent wherein the cleaning solution is carbonated with carbon dioxide and maintained at a pressure of from about 1 to 10 atmospheres.
An aqueous cleaning composition according to claim 1 wherein the composition is carbonated by subjecting the composition to gaseous carbon dioxide under pressure.
An aqueous cleaning composition according to claim 6 wherein the volatile organic solvent is a member selected from the group consisting of halogenated hydrocarbons having from one to three carbon atoms, lower alkyl ethers having one ether linkage and unsubstituted hydrocarbons.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4219333.html   (3716 words)

  
 Electrolysis
The copper sulphate is ionised in aqueous solution.
The electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium sulphate using inert electrodes produces hydrogen at the cathode and oxygen at the anode and a neutral solution of sodium sulphate remains unaltered by the electrolysis.
The electrolysis of an aqueous solution of dilute sulphuric acid is often carried out in a Hofmann Voltammeter, an apparatus in which the gases evolved at the anode and cathode can be collected in separate graduated tubes.
www.ucc.ie /academic/chem/dolchem/html/dict/electrol.html   (775 words)

  
 Aqueous electrolyte solution absorber and method for producing it patent invention
The present invention relates to an aqueous electrolyte solution absorber including an aqueous electrolyte solution absorbent polymer obtained by introducing a hydrophilic polar group to a water insoluble polymer and a material to be sucked.
The aqueous electrolyte solution absorber is produced by filling a water permeable bag type member with the aqueous electrolyte solution absorbent polymer obtained by introducing the hydrophilic polar group to the water insoluble polymer and a material to be sucked.
Further, the aqueous electrolyte solution absorber containing the aqueous electrolyte solution absorbent polymer advantageously and effectively acts on the electrolytes eluted from the components of soil in sandbags, sea water originally containing electrolytes or water leaking from a factory or the like.
www.freshpatents.com /Aqueous-electrolyte-solution-absorber-and-method-for-producing-it-dt20060907ptan20060199079.php   (1412 words)

  
 FDA > CDRH > CFR Title 21 Database Search
C in 0.5 percent aqueous solution and an average molecular weight of 3,300, and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether.
C in 1 percent aqueous solution and an average molecular weight of 807.
C in 0.5 percent aqueous solution and an average molecular weight of 3,300, and polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block polymers (having a minimum average molecular weight of 2,000).
www.accessdata.fda.gov /scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?FR=178.1010   (3270 words)

  
 Technical Issues and Aqueous Cleaning Systems
More recently, aqueous cleaning processes have been shown in the published literature to be a technically feasible alternative to solvents that are ozone-depleting or have other undesirable characteristics.
The aqueous solution was investigated as a replacement for a petroleum distillate solvent and a naphthalene-based solvent that had been used to replace the original TCA vapor degreaser.
Aqueous cleaning installations were found in the literature to rely heavily on the mechanical properties of the system, referred to as "impingement" by Rowney.
www.pprc.org /pubs/techreviews/aqueous/aqtech.html   (2222 words)

  
 Chapter 18 Solutions
Solutes may be ionic or molecular – and they are too small to be filtered out of a solution.
A solution is a homogeneous mixture – its components are evenly dispersed and a solution is stable.
It is important to remember that the solution is equal to the mass of the mass of the solute plus the mass of the solvent.
pages.prodigy.net /anderhan/ch18solutions.html   (2480 words)

  
 Hydrothermal and Aqueous Solutions
Meteoric waters (groundwater) or salty water-rich brines derived from sedimentary basins occur as low-temperature aqueous solutions.
The dissolved metals are carried downward in aqueous solution, eventually producing a leached zone at a greater depth.
Because crystals precipitated from aqueous solutions crystallize in water-filled spaces, they have the potential to be well-formed and extremely beautiful.
www.utexas.edu /tmm/npl/mineralogy/Mineral_Genesis/HydrothermalAqueousSolutio.htm   (532 words)

  
 Calorimetry: Heat of Solution of Ammonium Nitrate   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
The mass of the solution is the sum of the masses of the water and ammonium nitrate originally placed in the calorimeter.
Use the temperature change and heat capacities for the calorimeter and aqueous solution to calculate the heat of solution.
Divide the heat of solution by the moles of ammonium nitrate to obtain the molar heat of solution of NaCl.
www.chm.davidson.edu /ChemistryApplets/calorimetry/HeatOFSolutionOfAmmoniumNitrate.html   (562 words)

  
 NYU/European scientists solve the mystery of proton transport in aqueous solution
Research by an international team of chemists has shed new light on the process of transporting protons through aqueous basic solutions, invalidating some long-held misconceptions regarding proton transport and revealing that the process is more complex than ever before imagined.
Proton transport in acidic solution is an electrochemical process that is important for the generation of power in fuel cells.
Where H3O+ corresponds to an excess proton, hydroxide, or OH- ions, the fundamental component in basic solutions, were long thought to constitute "proton holes" and, therefore, to have chemical properties analogous to those of hydronium.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2002-06/nyu-nss062502.php   (869 words)

  
 Water -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
When appropriately lit, water drops in the air can (Click link for more info and facts about refract) refract the beautiful colours of a (An arc of colored light in the sky caused by refraction of the sun's rays by rain) rainbow.
Rivers and the (A division of an ocean or a large body of salt water partially enclosed by land) seas offered opportunity for travel and commerce.
Common impurities include chemicals or harmful ((microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants) bacteria.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/w/wa/water.htm   (2306 words)

  
 Non-aqueous secondary battery and portable equipment using the same patent invention
As an additive to an electrolyte solution, which is polymerized under a high voltage to improve safety during overcharging, biphenyl described in JP 9(1997)-171840 A, cyclohexylbenzene described in JP 2001-015155 A, and the like have been proposed.
Furthermore, when a large amount of an additive to the electrolyte solution is used, particularly, in combination with a positive electrode having a large surface area, the stability of the additive in a charged state is decreased.
Therefore, the content of the compound B with respect to the total non-aqueous electrolyte solution is desirably 3% by mass or less, more desirably 0.5% by mass or less, and most desirably 0.2% by mass or less.
www.freshpatents.com /Non-aqueous-secondary-battery-and-portable-equipment-using-the-same-dt20060817ptan20060183021.php   (1419 words)

  
 Stabilized Nanoparticles of Phytosterol by Rapid Expansion From Supercritical Solution Into Aqueous Solution
In case of a 1.0 or 5.0 wt% Tween 80 solution, the smallest particles range from 10 to 35 nm; larger particles in the range of 80 to 130 nm and 280 to 1100 nm were observed.
In the case of the former solution, particles ranging from 29 to 35 nm and from 140 to 240 nm were stabilized.
In case of the lower concentrated solution, particles ranging from 40 to 80 nm and 100 to 300 nm were observed, while the higher concentrated solution led to particles stabilized ranging from 30 to 55 nm and from 80 to 220 nm.
www.aapspharmscitech.org /view.asp?art=pt050456&pdf=yes   (5155 words)

  
 The MSDS HyperGlossary: Aqueous
The term aqueous may appear on an MSDS in terms of a special instruction (such as first aid procedures), a particular chemical property, or a chemical incompatibility.
Aqueous solutions are not usually flammable, but may be able to carry toxic materials into your body through skin contact or ingestion.
A solution of ammonia gas (NH) in water is often called ammonium hydroxide, NH OH, ammonia water, or simply ammonia.
www.ilpi.com /msds/ref/aqueous.html   (341 words)

  
 Aqueous Cleaning
Aqueous cleaners are water-based solutions that, unlike petroleum-based solvents, are typically nonflammable and contain little or no volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
Contaminated oil and other solids that are removed from aqueous cleaning operations should be managed as hazardous waste unless you have performed tests that indicate they are non-hazardous.
You may need to test the solution to determine whether it is a hazardous waste.
www.ecarcenter.org /ca/ca-aqueous.htm   (1073 words)

  
 Aqueous PUREX Solidification in Saltstone">
When the aqueous fraction of Tank 33 and Tank 35 are composited, mixes will be prepared using the composited PUREX and Tank 50 solution to produce samples for processing evaluations and testing using the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).
The maximum amount of Tank 50 salt solution (Tank 50 salt solution 24% salt; 76% water) that could remain in the SSHT and process the entire aqueous PUREX fraction (~14k gallons, Table 1) in one SSHT batch is ~36k gallons.
An algorithm was used to achieve the blends of the Tank 50 salt solution and aqueous PUREX while maintaining the proper amount of water.
sti.srs.gov /fulltext/tr2003127/tr2003127.html   (930 words)

  
 Aqueous solution - aqueous solution, aqueous solutions- WordWeb dictionary definition
Solutions in which water is the dissolving medium are called aqueous solutions.
Surfactants and Polymers in Aqueous Solution is aimed at those dealing with surface chemistry research at universities and with surfactant formulation in
The method of decreasing the uranium content of an aqueous HF solution separating the resulting aqueous HF solution from the settled particulates.
yournetport.com /q/aqueous-solution.html   (217 words)

  
 Method of producing an aqueous zein solution (EP0383428A2)
An improved method for producing an aqueous solution of zein in which, the water to be used has its pH adjusted to an intermediate pH between 8.0 and 10.5.
Following this adjustment, a quantity of air powdered zein is added to the water in an amount between 5 and 20 percent by weight of the water and zein mixture.
Agitation of the mixture is continued until substantially all of the zein is solvated in the water.
www.delphion.com /details?pn=EP00383428A2   (306 words)

  
 Unit 11 Review - Answers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Vinegar is an aqueous solution that is 5 % acetic acid by mass.
What is the mass percent of an aqueous solution of sodium acetate made from 10.2 g of sodium acetate dissolved in 415 g of water ?
Answer: Dissolved solute particles decreases the number of solvent molecules at the solution surface and thus reduces the number of solvent molecules that can escape from the solution.
www.glenbrook.k12.il.us /gbssci/chem/chem173/reviews/unit11ans.htm   (546 words)

  
 Aqueous biphasic systems
The most thoroughly investigated of these is the aqueous dextran-PEG system, where dextran forms the more hydrophilic, denser, lower phase and PEG the more hydrophobic, less dense, upper phase.
An interesting and revealing phenomenon occurs in PEG solutions as the temperature is raised; the solution at low temperatures separates into two phases (PEG-rich and PEG-poor) at higher temperature (separating at the cloud-point) and reverts to a single phase at even higher temperatures.
At low temperatures a solution is formed due to the enthalpy of hydrogen bonding between the PEG and the water more than compensating for the entropy lost in forming the low-density water.
www.lsbu.ac.uk /water/biphasic.html   (1295 words)

  
 Process for extracting and purifying morphine from opium
Separation and purification of morphine from the other alkaloids in the aqueous extract is also time consuming and relatively complicated due to the physical properties of the extract and the nature of the substances present.
After removing any precipitate, preferably by filtration, the remaining alkaloids are separated from the morphine-containing basic aqueous solution by extraction with a substantially water-immiscible solvent, such as toluene or benzene.
To test the stability of morphinate in basic aqueous solutions, morphinate was analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and then allowed to stay overnight at room temperature.
www.poppies.org /news/99502105011300.shtml   (3206 words)

  
 Photochemical Wolff Rearrangement of Diazo Meldrum’s Acid and Corresponding Diazirine in Aqueous Solution. ...
Photochemical Wolff Rearrangement of Diazo Meldrum’s Acid and Corresponding Diazirine in Aqueous Solution.
During the past decade there has been a remarkable development of methods for generating enols of simple ketones and aldehydes in aqueous solution and observing their reactivity directly[1].
All kinetic measurements were made at 25.0 +/- 0.05 0C, and the ionic strength of the solutions was kept at 0.1 M by addition of sodium perchlorate, with the exception of perchloric acid solutions with concentration above 0.1 M where the ionic strength was equal to the perchloric acid concentration.
www.ch.ic.ac.uk /ectoc/papers/popik   (1852 words)

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