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# Topic: Arabic numeral system

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 Hindu-Arabic numeral system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia These Brahmi numerals are the ancestors of the Hindu-Arabic glyphs 1 to 9, but they were not used as a positional system with a zero, and there were rather separate numerals for each of the tens (10, 20, 30, etc.). Muslim scientists used the Babylonian numeral system, and merchants used the Abjad numerals, a system similar to the Greek numeral system and the Hebrew numeral system. Therefore, it was not until Fibonacci that the Hindu-Arabic numeral system was used by a large population. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Arabic_numeral_system   (1042 words)

 Numeral system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The numerals used when writing numbers with digits or symbols, is divided into two types that might be called the arithmetic numerals 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and the geometric numerals 1,10,100,1000,10000... The sign-value system does not need arithmetic numerals because they are made by repetition (except for Ionic system), and the positional system does not need geometric numerals because they are made by position. In India, recognizably modern positional numeral systems, passed to the Arabians, probably along with the astronomical tables, were brought to Baghdad by an Indian ambassador around 773. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Numeral_system   (3472 words)

 History of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Hindu-Arabic numeral system originated from the Hindu numeral system, which is a pure place value system, that requires a zero. Despite such doubts, historians are fairly certain that an early place-value system was in use in India by the end of the 5th century. The numerals came to fame due to their use in the pivotal work of the Persian mathematician Al-Khwarizmi, whose book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals was written about 825, and the Arab mathematician Al-Kindi, who wrote four volumes (see [2]) "On the Use of the Indian Numerals" (Ketab fi Isti'mal al-'Adad al-Hindi) about 830. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/History_of_the_Hindu-Arabic_numeral_system   (1998 words)

 Arabic numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31) Arabic numerals are by far the most common of symbolism used to represent numbers. The Arabic system is a positional base 10 numeral system with 10 distinct glyphs representing the 10 numerical digits. Because the Chinese Hua system (see Chinese numerals) is also a positional base-10 system Ma numerals—or some numeral system similar to have been the inspiration for the base-10 numeral system that evolved in India. www.freeglossary.com /Arabic_numerals   (890 words)

 HighBeam Encyclopedia â“ Free Online Encyclopedia for Reference, Research, Facts The symbol is a member of a family of marks, such as letters, figures, or words, which alone or in a group represent the members of a numeration system. The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasidecimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Both the Arabic and the Roman symbols are believed to be related to this method: 1 or I is one finger, 2 or II is two fingers, and 3 or III is three fingers. www.encyclopedia.com /printable.aspx?id=1E1:numeral   (904 words)

 Binary numeral system - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31) The binary or base-two numeral system is a system for representing numbers in which a radix of two is used; that is, each digit in a binary numeral may have either of two different values. The first known description of a binary numeral system was made by Indian mathematician Pingala in his Chhandah-shastra, placed variously in the 5th century BC or the 2nd century BC. This is due to the fact that the radix of the hexadecimal system (16) is a power of the radix of the binary system (2). www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Binary_numeral_system   (2814 words)

 ipedia.com: Arabic numerals Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31) Arabic numerals are, by far, the most common form of symbolism used to represent numbers. The Arabic numeral system is considered one of the most significant developments in mathematics, ergo, theories have been advanced about its origin. Because the Chinese Hua Ma system (see Chinese numerals) is also a positional base-10 system, Hua Ma numerals—or some numeral system similar to it—may have been the inspiration for the base-10 positional numeral system that evolved in India. www.ipedia.com /arabic_numerals.html   (776 words)

 Arabic numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31) Arabic numerals, also called Hindu-Arabic numerals, are the most common symbols used to represent numbers. For example, the Arabic numeral for the number two hundred and thirty-seven is the sequence of digits 237. In this numeral, the digit 2 has a value of two hundre d, the digit 3 has a value of thirty, and the digit 7 has a value of seven. members.tripod.com /kangwei1a14/arabic1.htm   (271 words)

 Arabic Arabic is a member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Arabic is the official or one of the official languages of Algeria, Bahrain, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestinian West Bank and Gaza, Qatar, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Mauritania, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Arabic is considered to be a Category III language in terms of difficulty for speakers of English. www.nvtc.gov /lotw/months/august/Arabic.html   (1490 words)

 Arabic numerals Abu'l-Wafa, who was himself an expert in the use of Indian numerals, nevertheless wrote a text on how to use finger-reckoning arithmetic since this was the system used by the business community and teaching material aimed at these people had to be written using the appropriate system. The numerals had changed their form somewhat 100 years later when this copy of one of al-Biruni's astronomical texts was made. The form of the numerals in the west of the Arabic empire look more familiar to those using European numerals today which is not surprising since it is from these numerals that the Indian number system reach Europe. www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk /~history/HistTopics/Arabic_numerals.html   (2212 words)

 Uri's page-Arabic Numeral System The common system of number notation in use in most parts of the world today is the Arabic system. The important innovation in the Arabic system was the use of positional notation, in which individual number symbols assume different values according to their position in the written numeral. In the Arabic world the Hejira date may be indicated in Arabic numerals and the Christian date in Western numerals, or both dates represented in either form. www.geocities.com /uripi/arabic_numbers.html   (354 words)

 Number The number system which results depends on what base is used for the digits: any base is possible, but a system with the best mathematical properties is obtained when the base is a prime number p. The number five can be represented by both the base ten numeral 5 and by the Roman numeral V. Notations used to represent numbers are discussed in the article numeral systems. By 130, Ptolemy, influenced by Hipparchus and the Babylonians, was using a symbol for zero (a small circle with a long overbar) within a sexagesimal numeral system otherwise using alphabetic Greek numerals. www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/n/nu/number.html   (3666 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Arabic numerals Arabic numerals (also called Hindu numerals or Indian numerals) are the most common set of symbols used to represent numbers. However, because it was Arabs who transmitted this system to the West after the Hindu numerical system found its way to Persia, the numeral system became known as "Arabic". The numeral set known in English as 'Arabic numerals' is a positional base 10 numeral system with ten distinct symbols representing the 10 numerical digits. www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Arabic_numerals   (957 words)

 numeral. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 B.C. the ancient Egyptians began to use a demotic (a simplified cursive style of hieroglyphics) system of numerals based on a decimal system. B.C. the Greeks borrowed the Egyptian demotic numeral system and devised an alphabetic decimal system. A.D. The numerals are made up of three symbols: zero (egg shape), one (a dot), and five (a horizontal bar). www.bartleby.com /65/nu/numeral.html   (943 words)

 Arabic numeral definition by The Linux Information Project   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31) Arabic numerals are the characters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 0. Arabic numerals derive their name from the fact that they were long used in the Arab countries. Rather, computers use the binary system, which is only concerned about two alternative states (e.g., zero and one, or no and yes) because this is by far the most efficient system for their digital circuitry. www.bellevuelinux.org /arabic_numerals.html   (471 words)

 David Marr Representation and Process The binary numeral system's description of the number 37 is 100101, and this description makes explicit the number's decomposition into powers of 2. In the Roman numeral system, thirty-seven is represented as XXXVII. For example, if one chooses the Arabic numeral representation, it is easy to discover whether a number is a power of 10 but difficult to discover whether it is a power of 2. www.psych.utah.edu /stat/dynamic_systems/Content/examples/E42_Manual/Marr-Rep&Process_Quote.html   (1831 words)

 Nothing at Last - Indian Mathematics Arabic numbers were invented in India, but no one knows their exact origin. The Arabic system used a base of ten and was more efficient than any prior mathematical system for several reasons. One of the greatest advantages of the Arabic numeral system is that at last there was a symbol for nothing. www.edhelper.com /ReadingComprehension_35_197.html   (606 words)

 The Enneagram - History of the Decimal System A noteworthy characteristic of the Chinese system, and one that represented a substantial advantage over the Mediterranean systems, was its predilection for a decimal notation, as demonstrated by foot rulers dating back as far as the 6th century BC. The Arabic numeral system is considered one of the most significant developments in mathematics, and, ergo, several theories have been advanced about its origin. Because the Chinese Hua Ma system (see Chinese numerals) is also a positional base-10 system, Hau Ma numerals—or some numeral system similar to it—may have been the inspiration for the base-10 positional numeral system that evolved in India. www.endlesssearch.co.uk /philo_enneagram_dec.htm   (796 words)

 Hindu-Arabic numeral system   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31) Hindu mathematicians of the 300's and 200's BC used a system based on 10. Others preferred Roman numerals because they were accustomed to solving problems on a device called an abacus without writing out the calculations. Mathematicians regard the Hindu-Arabic system as one of the world's greatest inventions. members.tripod.com /kangwei1a14/hindu.htm   (282 words)

 Hindu-Arabic Numerals This system quickly came into use - probably earliest symbol for zero was a dot and not a small circle. At about the same time a place value system appeared in which the numbers were represented by the so called East Arabic numerals with a special symbol for zero. In the West Arabic numerals one dot indicates tens, 2 dots hundreds so it is not a complete place value system. www.scit.wlv.ac.uk /university/scit/modules/mm2217/han.htm   (688 words)

 Names of Ethiopic Digits The Ethiopic zero numerals were mapped to the zero positions or ASCII 048 in ModEth and EthioWord and were added for their mathematical uses and to make the sets complete. Their positions in the GeezEdit fonts have continued to be arbitrary, mainly because priority was given to the Arabic numerals and due to lack of interest in using the Ethiopic zeros. The longevity of the Geez numerals may also have been because their major problem is still the absence of zero, if we compare them with others like the Roman numerals, acrophonic Greek and Babylonian cuneiforms. www.ethiopic.com /ETHIOPIC/numerals.htm   (934 words)

 numeral numeration - numeration, in mathematics, process of designating Numbers according to any particular system; the... Roman numerals are expressed by letters of the alphabet: I=1 V=5... Numerical Prefixes - A prefix is a syllable at the beginning of a word. www.factmonster.com /ce6/sci/A0836175.html   (967 words)

 Image:Arabic numerals-en.svg - Wikimedia Commons The Arabic numeral system has used many different sets of symbols. East Arabic numerals — which were developed primarily in what is now Iraq — are shown in the table below as Arabic-Indic. West Arabic numerals — which were developed in al-Andalus and the Maghreb — are shown in the table, labelled European. commons.wikimedia.org /wiki/Image:Arabic_numerals-en.svg   (369 words)

 SciFri 4.22.05: Zero tolerance: UMNnews: U of M.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31) It appeared in the Arabic language in the 9th century as as-sifr, a literal translation of "empty." It passed to Spain and then the rest of Europe. But the new numerals were symbolic--more purely intellectual and hard to visualize, as well as a whole new system that had to be learned. The new numerals popped in and out of European writings throughout the Middle Ages, often in monastic manuscripts, and were notably adopted by the Salem Monastery in Germany. www1.umn.edu /umnnews/Feature_Stories/Zero_Tolerance.html   (1082 words)

 Pune Before the rise of the Arab empire, the Hindu-Arabic numeral system was already moving West and was mentioned in Syria in 662 AD by the Nestorian scholar Severus Sebokht who wrote: "I will omit all discussion of the science of the Indians,... History of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, History of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system - Origins, History of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system - Positional notation, History of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system - Adoption by the Arabs, History of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system - Adoption in Europe There are evidences that Babylonians had a place value system as early as the 19th century BC but the Babylonian systems were to base 60. www.experiencefestival.com /pune/page/3   (1250 words)

 FLEETING FOOTSTEPS The Hindu—Arabic numeral system (1, 2, 3,...) is one of mankind's greatest achievements and one of its most commonly used inventions. Those who have written about the numeral system have hypothesized that it originated in India; however, there is little evidence to support this claim. This system was widely used in China from antiquity till the 16th century. www.worldscibooks.com /mathematics/5425.html   (382 words)

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