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Topic: Arabic numerals

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In the News (Mon 23 Oct 17)

  Numerals in many different writing systems
The Urdu numerals are also known as 'East Arab' numerals and differ slightly from those used in Arabic.
The numerals 1, 2, 3, etc. are also known as Arabic numerals, or Hindu-Arabic numerals, Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals.
These numerals where first used in India in about 400 BC, were later used in Persia, then were brought to Europe by the Arabs.
www.omniglot.com /language/numerals.htm   (133 words)

 Arabic numerals
The Indian numerals discussed in our article Indian numerals form the basis of the European number systems which are now widely used.
The numerals had changed their form somewhat 100 years later when this copy of one of al-Biruni's astronomical texts was made.
The form of the numerals in the west of the Arabic empire look more familiar to those using European numerals today which is not surprising since it is from these numerals that the Indian number system reach Europe.
www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk /history/HistTopics/Arabic_numerals.html   (2212 words)

 Islamic History in Arabia and Middle East
The system of numeration employed throughout the greater part of the world today was probably developed in India, but because it was the Arabs who transmitted this system to the West the numerals it uses have come to be called Arabic.
The new mathematical principle on which the Arabic numerals were based greatly simplified arithmetic.
Their adoption in Europe began in the tenth century after an Arabic mathematical treatise was translated by a scholar in Spain and spread throughout the West.
www.islamicity.com /mosque/ihame/Ref6.htm   (527 words)

 Islamic History in Arabia and Middle East   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The system of numeration employed throughout the greater part of the world today was probably developed in India, but because it was the Arabs who transmitted this system to the West the numerals it uses have come to be called Arabic.
The new mathematical principle on which the Arabic numerals were based greatly simplified arithmetic.
Their adoption in Europe began in the tenth century after an Arabic mathematical treatise was translated by a scholar in Spain and spread throughout the West.
islamicity.org /Mosque/IHAME/Ref6.htm   (527 words)

  Islamic Medical Manuscripts: Glosssary of Terms
These numerals were ultimately derived from an early Hindu system and came to form the basis of the numerals used today in Europe and throughout most of the Western world.
In Arabic and Persian manuscripts it is now the custom to designate the front of a folio by the letter "a" and the back of the folio be the letter "b".
The process was quickly adopted by all countries using Arabic script (India, Persia, the Ottoman Empire, and North Africa), for it permitted all the calligraphic and aesthetic features of a manuscript without the limitation of fonts and yet produced inexpensive multiple copies.
www.nlm.nih.gov /hmd/arabic/glossary.html   (6377 words)

 Arabic Numerals in Sicily - Best of Sicily Magazine
The numerals were known in Europe since at least the tenth century, but as recently as the fifteenth their use was viewed as arcane.
Qaid Brun (born Thomas Le Brun), a treasurer to the king of Sicily by 1154, used Arabic numerals and then took the numeration system to the English court, where it was not immediately embraced.
Roman numerals are written left to right, with the highest value on the left; applying this principle to the Arabic numerals in a European context reversed the way they were sequenced in Arabic-speaking lands.
www.bestofsicily.com /mag/art215.htm   (437 words)

  Hindu-Arabic Numerals
He explained in great detail how the value of the numeral changes when it is put in another place.
The so called West Arabic numerals are contemporary with the East Arabic numerals and likewise stem from Hindu figures and are forerunners of our Western figures.
Later the symbol for zero (0) was introduced from the East.
www.scit.wlv.ac.uk /university/scit/modules/mm2217/han.htm   (688 words)

  Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world.
The European acceptance of the numerals was accelerated by the invention of the printing press, and they became commonly known during the 15th century.
The widespread Western "Arabic numerals" used with the Latin alphabet, in the table below labelled "European", descended from the "West Arabic numerals" which were developed in al-Andalus and the Maghreb (There are two typographic styles for rendering European numerals, known as lining figures and text figures).
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Arabic_digit   (996 words)

 Arabic alphabet at AllExperts
The Arabic script is cursive, and all primary letters have conditional forms for their glyphs, depending on whether they are at the beginning, middle or end of a word, so they may exhibit 4 distinct forms (initial, medial, final or isolated).
The first known text in the Arabic alphabet is a late fourth-century inscription from Jabal Ramm (50 km east of Aqaba), but the first dated one is a trilingual inscription at Zebed in Syria from 512.
In the 20th century, Arabic script was generally replaced by the Latin alphabet in the Balkans,Sub-Saharan Africa, Somalia and Southeast Asia,while in the Soviet Union, after a brief period of Latinization, [1] use of the Cyrillic alphabet was mandated.
en.allexperts.com /e/a/ar/arabic_alphabet.htm   (3925 words)

 Arabic numerals at AllExperts
Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also known as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world.
By the mid 16th century, they were in common use in most of Europe.[3] Roman numerals remained in use mostly for the notation of years of the Common Era, and for numbers on clockfaces.
The numeral system employed, known as Algorism, is positional decimal notation.Various symbol sets are used to represent numbers in the Arabic numeral system, all of which evolved from the Brahmi numerals.
en.allexperts.com /e/a/ar/arabic_numerals.htm   (972 words)

 Arabic numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu-Arabic numerals, are the most common symbols used to represent numbers.
For example, the Arabic numeral for the number two hundred and thirty-seven is the sequence of digits 237.
In this numeral, the digit 2 has a value of two hundre d, the digit 3 has a value of thirty, and the digit 7 has a value of seven.
members.tripod.com /kangwei1a14/arabic1.htm   (271 words)

 Arabic numeral definition by The Linux Information Project
Arabic numerals are the characters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 0.
Arabic numerals derive their name from the fact that they were long used in the Arab countries.
The biggest reasons for the popularity of the Arabic numerals are their simplicity (including their simple shapes and consequent ease and speed of writing) and their suitability for calculation.
www.bellevuelinux.org /arabic_numerals.html   (471 words)

 Roman numerals Summary
The Roman numeral system for representing numbers was developed around 500 B.C. As the Romans conquered much of the world that was known to them, their numeral system spread throughout Europe, where Roman numerals remained the primary manner for representing numbers for centuries.
Roman numerals are commonly used today in numbered lists (in outline format), clockfaces, pages preceding the main body of a book, chord triads in music analysis, the numbering of movie sequels, book publication dates, successive rulers with identical names, and the numbering of some sport events, such as the Olympic Games or the Super Bowls.
Roman numerals remained in common use until about the 14th century, when they were replaced by Arabic numerals (thought to have been introduced to Europe from al-Andalus, by way of Arab traders and arithmetic treatises, around the 11th century).
www.bookrags.com /Roman_numerals   (5184 words)

 Roman numerals
Numerals are written with the largest values to the left: MCI is one thousand plus one hundred plus one, or 1101.
A numeral that is “out of order,” that is, that appears to the left of a numeral with a larger value, has its value subtracted from the value of the larger numeral.
Today, Roman numerals are used mainly as an alternative to the Hindu-Arabic numerals in outlines and other instances in which two distinct sets of numerals are useful, for clock faces, for ceremonial and monumental purposes, and by publishers and film distributors who have an interest in making copyright dates difficult to read.
www.sizes.com /numbers/roman_numerals.htm   (958 words)

Arabic is the official or co-official language of Algeria, Bahrain, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestinian West Bank and Gaza, Qatar, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Mauritania, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
In addition to the Arab countries, in which Arabic speakers are concentrated, large numbers of Arabic speakers live in Iran and France (about 600,000 speakers each), and a substantial number of speakers live in Israel and parts of Africa (Ethnologue).
Arabic is a Category III language in terms of difficulty for speakers of English.
www.nvtc.gov /lotw/months/august/Arabic.html   (2010 words)

 PBS - Islam: Empire of Faith - Innovative - Algebra & Trigonometry
His book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals, written about 825, was principally responsible for the diffusion of the Indian system of numeration (Arabic numerals) in the Islamic lands and the West.
Traditional systems had used different letters of the alphabet to represent numbers or cumbersome Roman numerals, and the new system was far superior, for it allowed people to multiply and divide easily and check their work.
The merchant Leonardo Fibonacci of Pisa, who had learned about Arabic numerals in Tunis, wrote a treatise rejecting the abacus in favor of the Arab method of reckoning, and as a result, the system of Hindu-Arabic numeration caught on quickly in Central Italy.
www.pbs.org /empires/islam/innoalgebra.html   (390 words)

The Milesian numeric system has the same basis as the Hebrew: 9 letters are assigned to each of the units 1-9, 9 letters to the tens 10-90, and 9 letters to the hundreds 100-900.
As a result, the numeric versions of the characters drifted away from their original natures—aided by the fact that the numerals got uncial and thence lowercase versions as they were incorporated into the mediaeval development of the Greek script, whereas the archaic letters remained frozen on stone, and forgotten by the scribes.
The identification of the Ionic letter with the numeral is conjectural, and Jeffery herself titles the letter "sampi" in scare-quotes, because she does not believe that was the original name of the letter.
www.tlg.uci.edu /~opoudjis/unicode/numerals.html   (3758 words)

 AXmedit - Arabic Motif text editor
The Arabic (right to left or R2L) type session where the initial cursor position is located on the rightmost position of the text widget, and text is written from right to left.
Arabic digits, or Numerals, are written from left to right, as in Latin languages.
Arabic digit may be displayed in either Hindi or Arabic digits depending on the choice of the user.
www.langbox.com /arabic/axmedit.html   (917 words)

 Wikinfo | Arabic numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Arabic numerals, in common usage, means representation of the digits of the decimal (base-10) system by the signs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.
The Arabic numerals that Europeans use now have different shapes than the Indian numerals which Arabs use.
Note that Roman numerals (which one writes using Roman letters, not Arabic numerals) are different from romaji numerals, which are Arabic numerals.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Arabic_numerals   (315 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Indian numerals were not directly transmitted from Indian to Europe but came first to the Arabic/Islamic people who spread the information to Europe.
A Arabic alphabetical style of writing numbers emerged that was based on the Greek.
The West Arabic numerals are similar to the East Arabic numerals and also come from the Hindu symbols.
everyschool.org /u/logan/culturalmath/arabicnum.htm   (543 words)

 Chinese numerals - Chinese Language - Chinese
Rod numerals are closely related to the counting rods and the abacus, which is why the numeric symbols for 1, 2, 3, 6, 7 and 8 in "Hua1 Ma3" system are represented in a similar way as on the abacus.
After Qing dynasty, both the Chinese numeral characters and the Suzhou numerals were replaced by Arabic numerals in mathematical writings.
Traditional Chinese numeric characters are recognized and used in Japan where they are used in much the same formal or decorative fashion that Roman Numerals are in Western cultures.
www.famouschinese.com /virtual/Chinese_numerals   (2151 words)

 Hindu-Arabic numeral system Summary
The modern system of notation, using ten different numerals including a zero and using position to denote value, appears to be the invention of Hindu mathematicians and astronomers, reaching its present form by the seventh century.
These symbol sets can be divided into three main families: the West Arabic numerals used in the Maghreb and in Europe, the Eastern Arabic numerals used in Egypt and the Middle East, and the Indian numerals used in India.
These Brahmi numerals are the ancestors of the Hindu-Arabic glyphs 1 to 9, but they were not used as a positional system with a zero, and there were rather separate numerals for each of the tens (10, 20, 30, etc.).
www.bookrags.com /Hindu-Arabic_numeral_system   (2327 words)

 Uri's page-Arabic Numeral System
At that time the numerals 1, 4, and 6 were written in substantially the same form used today.
The important innovation in the Arabic system was the use of positional notation, in which individual number symbols assume different values according to their position in the written numeral.
In the Arabic world the Hejira date may be indicated in Arabic numerals and the Christian date in Western numerals, or both dates represented in either form.
www.geocities.com /uripi/arabic_numbers.html   (354 words)

 Math   (Site not responding. Last check: )
One of the greatest advances was the introduction of "Arabic" numerals.
The "Arabic" numerals were influenced by India's mathematics.
The word for "Algebra" comes from the Arabic word for "al-jabr" which means "restoration of balance" in both sides of an equation..
www.sfusd.k12.ca.us /schwww/sch618/ScienceMath/Math.html   (1347 words)

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