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# Topic: Archimedes Palimpsest

###### In the News (Sun 21 Jul 19)

 Archimedes Palimpsest - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Archimedes lived in the third century BC, but the copy was made in the 10th century by an anonymous scribe. Among those problems were that of calculating the center of gravity of a solid hemisphere, the center of gravity of a frustum of a circular paraboloid, and the area of a region bounded by a parabola and one of its secant lines. In 1998 the ownership of the palimpsest was disputed in federal court in New York in the case of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem versus Christie's, Inc. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Archimedes_Palimpsest   (981 words)

 PowerPedia:Archimedes - PESWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05) In this scroll Archimedes obtains the result he was most proud of: the relation between the area of a sphere to that of a circumscribed straight cylinder is the same as that of the volume of the sphere to the volume of the cylinder (exactly 2/3). Archimedes first has to invent a system of naming large numbers in order to give an upper bound, and he does this by starting with the largest number around at the time, a myriad myriad or one hundred million (a myriad is 10,000). Archimedes' method is especially interesting as it may be the first known example of experimentation in psychophysics, the branch of psychology dealing with the mechanics of human perception, and whose development is generally attributed to Hermann von Helmholtz (this work of Archimedes is not well known in psychology). peswiki.com /index.php/PowerPedia:Archimedes   (4517 words)

 math lessons - Archimedes Archimedes became a popular figure as a result of his involvement in the defense of Syracuse against the Roman siege in the First and Second Punic Wars. In this scroll Archimedes obtains the result he was most proud of: that the area and volume of a sphere are in the same relationship to the area and volume of the circumscribed straight cylinder. Archimedes did probably consider these methods not mathematically precise, and he used these methods to find at least some of the areas or volumes he sought, and then used the more traditional method of exhaustion to prove them. www.mathdaily.com /lessons/Archimedes   (1638 words)

 ARCHIMEDES ANCIENT MANUSCRIPT Archimedes lived in the ancient Greek city of Syracuse in Sicily and was killed in 212 B.C. by the Romans during the Second Punic Wars. Archimedes, a Greek who spent most of his life in the city of Syracuse in Sicily, is remembered especially for the mathematics he devised that prefigured the invention of calculus, and for his discovery of the physics of flotation. In his will Archimedes asked that a cylinder circumscribing a sphere be placed on his tomb, illustrating what he apparently considered the most important geometrical relationship he had proved: that the volume of a sphere is two-thirds that of a circumscribed cylinder of the same dimensions. www.omogenia.com /arch.htm   (4460 words)

 [No title] Archimedes had investigated properties of the lever and pulley, and it is on the basis of these that he is said to have asserted, "Give me a place to stand and I can move the earth." Hieron, amazed at this, asked for some physical demonstration. Archimedes was born and mainly lived in Syracuse on the eastern coast of Sicily. Archimedes (287 - 212 BCE) is usually regarded as one of the three greatest mathematicians of all time, the other two being the German Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 - 1855) and the English Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727). www.lycos.com /info/archimedes--king-hiero.html   (530 words)

 Physics Today On The Web - Feature Article - May 2000 The way in which Archimedes manages to have satisfactory physical proofs, based purely on conceptual considerations, may be neatly illustrated by a closely related proof, found in Planes in Equilibrium and presented in box 1: that the center of the weight of a triangle lies at the intersection of its medians. Archimedes derives a wide range of results, including such highlights of his mathematical achievement as the volume of the sphere and the volumes of segments of solids of revolution. Archimedes did not prove that the centers of the weight of triangles are physically located one-third of the way along the median line. www.aip.org /pt/june00/origins.htm   (4706 words)

 [No title] Rather than trying to measure the polygons one at a time, Archimedes uses a theorem of Euclid to develop a numerical procedure for calculating the perimeter of a circumscribing polygon of 2n sides, once the perimeter of the polygon of n sides is known. The truly unique aspect of Archimedes' procedure is that he has eliminated the geometry and reduced it to a completely arithmetical procedure, something that probably would have horrified Plato but was actually common practice in Eastern cultures, particularly among the Chinese scholars. Archimedes adopted Euclid's uniform and rigorously logical form: axioms followed by theorems and their proofs. www.lycos.com /info/archimedes--mechanical-theorems.html   (426 words)

 Placed under X-ray gaze, Archimedes manuscript yields secrets lost to time Legend has it that Archimedes, upon displacing water in his tub and realizing he had found a way to measure volumes, leapt out of the bath and ran naked through the streets shouting 'Eureka!' (I have found it!). Archimedes did not just take steps toward calculus, as formerly believed; he actually created and used calculus methods, the basis for modern engineering and science. The palimpsest is a 1,000-year-old parchment made of goatskin containing Archimedes' work as laboriously copied down by a 10th century scribe. news-service.stanford.edu /news/2005/may25/archimedes-052505.html   (988 words)

 Exploratorium | Ancient Writings Revealed! | Peering Archimedes, born in 287 B.C. in Syracuse on the island of Sicily, is famous for shouting “Eureka” (“I have found it”), and running naked from his bath through the streets of Syracuse declaring that he had discovered a method for determining the volume of bodies from the amount of water displaced when objects are submerged. But Archimedes remains scientifically relevant to this day for his concepts of abstract mathematics and his understanding of fundamental physical phenomena, which fuse together for the first time in Archimedes’s treatises and form the foundation for mathematical physics. Another unique passage contained in the palimpsest is the Stomachion, arguably the first-ever treatise on combinatorics, the branch of mathematics concerned with the selection, arrangement, and operation of elements within sets. www.exploratorium.edu /archimedes/peering.html   (553 words)

 BBC - Science & Nature - Horizon - Archimedes' Secret - Transcript WILLIAM NOEL: The Archimedes manuscript is, to all intents and purposes, the material remains of the thought of the man. I like to think of it as his brain in a box and it's for us to dig into that box and to pull out new thought. NARRATOR: But Archimedes' writings did survive, copied by scribes who passed on his precious mathematics from generation to generation, until in the 10th-century one final copy of his most important work was made, but interest in mathematics had now died. CHRIS RORRES: Now prior to Archimedes the volume of a cone and a cylinder was already known and so he tried to use those previously known results to compute the volume of a sphere and so he concocted this very interesting balancing act. www.bbc.co.uk /science/horizon/2001/archimedestrans.shtml   (6050 words)

 American Scientist Online - Archimedes Unbound   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05) One of the great apocryphal stories in the annals of science is how the Greek mathematician Archimedes ran naked through Syracuse shouting, "Eureka!"—fresh from the bath where he figured out that the force of buoyancy was equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. Archimedes, supposedly drawing curlicues in the sand when the Romans finally broke through, was killed for admonishing a fumble-footed soldier, "Don't disturb my circles!" Noel says no one knows where the Archimedes manuscript originated, but he suspects it was in Constantinople, "probably in a monastery or the imperial palace." He says that fortune favored Archimedes; the manuscript was written in an enlightened cultural center, where the ancients were valued. www.americanscientist.org /template/AssetDetail/assetid/15726   (1046 words)

 Archimedes's method It provides a glimpse into the thinking which led Archimedes to many of his famous results, including the determination of the area of a parabola, the area and volume of a sphere, and the volume of an ellipsoid. Apparently, Archimedes, whose understanding of such matters as levers and centers of gravity was particularly insightful, was able to envision ways to "weigh" various geometric figures against one another so as to successfully compare their areas or volumes. P.S. The Archimedes Palimpsest was sold on October 29, 1998 at Christie's to "an unidentified American Collector" for \$2,000,000. www.cut-the-knot.org /pythagoras/Archimedes.shtml   (747 words)

 Archimedes and the Palimpsest Archimedes pioneered the use of infinitesimals, showing how by dividing a figure in an infinite number of infinitely small parts could be used to determine its area or volume. Archimedes' “Method” is the only remnant of his work that lets us see the scaffolding," Rorres said. Byzantium, the successor of the East Roman Empire, was the custodian of the Archimedes Palimpsest for centuries until it was somehow obtained by a French around 1920 and its family sold it at Christie's to some unknown almost 80 years later. www.mlahanas.de /Greeks/ArchimedesPal.htm   (1230 words)

 NOVA | Infinite Secrets | The Archimedes Palimpsest | PBS The French owners of the Archimedes palimpsest confidentially approach an expert at Christie's in Paris to ask for an appraisal. After the appraiser discovers that the manuscript is the lost Archimedes palimpsest (in part by comparing it to Heiberg's photographs), he values it at between \$800,000 and \$1.2 million. Not long after its sale for roughly double the appraised amount in the fall of 1998, the manuscript's anonymous billionaire owner loans it to the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland, where a team of restorers and scholars are cleaning, imaging, and translating the Archimedes palimpsest at last (see Imaging the Palimpsest). www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/archimedes/palimpsest.html   (649 words)

 Living the Scientific Life (Scientist, Interrupted): The Archimedes Palimpsest Palimpsests were common in antiquity because parchment was expensive and rare. When a particular manuscript fell out of favor, it would be remade into a palimpsest by unbinding its parchment pages, which were scrubbed and refolded such that each page became two leaves in a new book that was half the size of the original manuscript. In the early 1900s, the Archimedes palimpsest was believed stolen because it disappeared, but it was rediscovered in a manuscript collector's apartment in Paris in 1991, followed by a legal battle over the rightful ownership of the book. scienceblogs.com /grrlscientist/2006/08/archimedes_palimpsest.php   (1171 words)

 A letter from Archimedes Archimedes: To math-phobes, he's the character who muttered "Eureka!" after divining a way to distinguish gold from dross without wrecking the metal. Archimedes also invented the Archimedes screw, an ingenious method of pumping water and a way to calculate the volume of a sphere and the area under a parabola. Archimedes was, after all, so brilliant that it took almost 2,000 years for other mathematicians to catch up with him. whyfiles.org /shorties/060archimedes   (601 words)

 Archimedes Palimpsest The Archimedes Palimpsest is a medieval parchment manuscript, now containing 174 parchment folios. The Archimedes manuscript was written in the second half of the tenth century, almost certainly in Constantinople. What you see when you open the Archimedes palimpsest therefore, is not a mathematical text, or even a piece of Greek oratory, but a prayer book. www.archimedespalimpsest.org /palimpsest_making1.html   (584 words)

 The Interaction Point, May 20, 2005 Archimedes is legendary for sitting down in his bath, sloshing water over the sides, and immediately recognizing this gave him a way to measure the volume of a supposedly all-gold wreath to determine if the craftsman had cheated the King of Sicily by slipping in cheaper silver. The palimpsest is a 1,000-year-old parchment made of goat skin containing Archimedesâ€™ work as laboriously copied down by a 10th century scribe. Generally, the ink from the Archimedes text is no more than a faint stain in the fibers of the parchment, while the thicker, un-erased ink of religious text sits on its surface. www2.slac.stanford.edu /tip/2005/may20/archimedes.htm   (1417 words)

 Writing Samples: ePortfolio A palimpsest is a book in which the original writing has been erased or scraped away, so that new text can be rewritten upon it. Archimedes wrote his works and they were recopied over time to preserve his words. The Archimedes palimpsest is an important part of the history of the world. www.public.iastate.edu /~jonef/writing.html   (1275 words)

 Archimedes scholar finds something to holler 'Eureka!' about: 11/02 The Archimedes Palimpsest, as the book is called, is in terrible shape. But when the palimpsest caught the attention of the great Danish philologist Johan Ludvig Heiberg in 1906, the underlying script was much more legible. But what Netz and Saito found in the palimpsest was that Archimedes actually had dealt with infinitely large sets in a mathematical proof. www.stanford.edu /dept/news/pr/02/archimedes116.html   (780 words)

 BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | X-rays reveal Archimedes secrets Palimpsesting involves scraping away the original text so the parchments can be used again. The result was the near total obliteration of the original texts apart from faint traces of the ink used by the 10th Century Scribe. The team have until the 7 August this year to scrutinise the palimpsest, before the synchrotron is switched off for maintenance. news.bbc.co.uk /2/hi/science/nature/5235894.stm   (805 words)

 Archimedes Palimpsest   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05) The subject of this website is a manuscript of unique importance to the history of science, the Archimedes Palimpsest. This tenth century manuscript is the unique source for two of Archimedes Treatises, The Method and Stomachion, and it is the unique source for the Greek text of On Floating Bodies. The Archimedes Palimpsest project, as it is called, has generated a great deal of public curiosity, as well as the interest of scholars throughout the world. www.archimedespalimpsest.org   (251 words)

 The Archimedes Palimpsest - Davide Castelvecchi, Freelance Science Writer Until he died in 212 B.C. at the hands of the Roman invaders, Archimedes was perhaps the smartest man on the planet. According to legend, Archimedes was taking a bath one day, when he suddenly understood the physics principle of why his body floated in water. The Palimpsest is a copy of Archimedes’ works made by Greek monks around 900 A.D. Without it, some of those works would have been lost for ever. sciencewriter.org /archie   (913 words)

 NPR : A Prayer Book's Secret: Archimedes Lies Beneath As the legend goes, Archimedes discovered the principle of buoyancy in his bathtub, prompting him to shout "Eureka!" Regardless of whether this story is true, Archimedes was, without a doubt, a great mathematician. The prayer book is known as the "Archimedes Palimpsest" -- a palimpsest is a document with hidden writing -- and it resides at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore. He wants every possible word of Archimedes extracted, even though some pages are at the point of crumbling into dust, and others have fallen victim to the ravages of bookworms. www.npr.org /templates/story/story.php?storyId=5583668   (1158 words)

 The Walters Art Museum - Museum News Baltimore–The Archimedes Palimpsest is considered by many to be the most important scientific manuscript ever sold at auction. A publication of the results as well as an exhibition of the Archimedes Palimpsest are being planned for 2008 at the Walters. The Archimedes Palimpsest Web site is www.archimedespalimpsest.org and will be updated by Aug. 1, 2005, so that the public can follow the progress that has been made to date. www.thewalters.org /news_art_museum/pressdetail.aspx?e_id=3   (562 words)

 Archimedes Palimpsest - Math The term palimpsest comes from the Greek word Palimpsestos, meaning "scraped again." Parchment paper is made from animal skin so it has more durability than the paper we use now made from trees. The Archimedes Palimpsest is a collection of 5 such books that have been scraped and then rebound and rewritten as a prayer book, or Euchologion. For a more detailed history of the Palimpsest, to view photos, and to read the current deciphered text visit the Official Archimedes Palimpsest site. www.bellaonline.com /articles/art13333.asp   (353 words)

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