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Topic: Arctic Ocean

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  Arctic Ocean. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The principal arms of the Arctic Ocean are the Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, Laptev, Kara, Barents, and Greenland seas.
The continental shelf encloses a deep oval basin (average depth 12,000 ft/3,658 m) that stretches between Svalbard and Alaska; E of Greenland the ring of the continental shelf is broken by the Greenland Sea.
Arctic research was stimulated when it was recognized that the shortest air routes between the great cities of the Northern Hemisphere cross the Arctic Ocean.
www.bartleby.com /65/ar/ArcticOc.html   (980 words)

 Arctic Ocean - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
The Arctic Ocean, located mostly in the north polar region, is the smallest of the world's five oceans, and the shallowest.
The average depth of the Arctic Ocean is 1038 m (3,407 ft), in part due to the large extent of continental shelf extant on the Eurasian side [1].
The Arctic is a major source of very cold air that inevitably moves toward the equator, meeting with warmer air in the middle latitudes and causing rain and snow.
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/Arctic_Ocean   (1198 words)

 Arctic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Arctic is mostly a vast, ice-covered ocean, surrounded by treeless, frozen ground.
The Arctic region is one of the last and most extensive continuous wilderness areas in the world and its significance in preserving biodiversity and genotypes is considerable.
The Arctic is particularly susceptible to the abrasion of groundcover and to the disturbance of the rare reproduction places of the animals that are characteristic to the region.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Arctic   (1103 words)

 Arctic Ocean - MSN Encarta
The Arctic Ocean extends south from the North Pole to the shores of Europe, Asia, and North America.
Emptying into the Arctic Ocean are the Ob’, Yenisey, and Lena rivers in Asia and the Mackenzie River in North America.
Approximately one-third of the Arctic Ocean is underlain by continental shelf, which includes a broad shelf north of Eurasia and the narrower shelves of North America and Greenland.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761562552/Arctic_Ocean.html   (451 words)

 RUSNET :: Encyclopedia :: A :: Arctic Ocean
Nearly landlocked, the Arctic Ocean is bordered by Greenland, Canada, Alaska, Russia, and Norway.
The principal arms of the Arctic Ocean are the Greenland, Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, Laptev, Kara, and Barents seas.
Arctic research was stimulated when it was recognised that the shortest air routes between the great cities of the Northern Hemisphere cross the Arctic Ocean.
www.rusnet.nl /encyclo/a/arctic_ocean.shtml   (419 words)

 The Arctic: Ocean of Ice   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The ocean areas are all in blue with the darker blues the deeper areas.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of all the oceans and is covered with ice most of the year.
In the ocean this results in a tremendous plant plankton bloom followed by a tremendous animal plankton bloom (of the animals that eat the plant plankton).
www.biosbcc.net /ocean/marinesci/04benthon/arcocean.htm   (1908 words)

 Arctic FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions about the Arctic
The North Pole is in the middle of the Arctic Ocean.
The Arctic is an area with a net loss of heat to outer space due to the long periods of little or no sunlight and the high reflectivity of the snow and ice even when the sun is present in the Arctic.
None the less, the Arctic is an ecosystem that teems with life including organisms living in the ice, fish and marine mammals living in the sea, birds, land animals such as wolves, caribou and polar bears, and human societies.
www.arctic.noaa.gov /faq.html   (2495 words)

 Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean has an area of 14,090,000 sq km and an average depth of 3,658 m off of the continental shelf.
The Arctic Ocean is divided into two basins, the Eurasian Basin, and the North American Basin, by the Lomonosov Ridge.
This current is strong due to the number of rivers that flow into the Arctic Sea, the low rate of evaporation, and the land and submarine ridges surrounding the ocean.
www.mnsu.edu /emuseum/information/oceans/arctic.html   (334 words)

 Arctic Ocean
Therefore the Arctic Ocean represents a sensitive indicator for Global Change and it is essential to investigate the Arctic climate, tectonic evolution and controlling processes.
The Arctic Ocean is hence commonly described as one of the lungs of the deep global ocean (the other being the Weddell Sea).
Response of the Arctic during Periods of Extreme Warmth Another important challenge in paleoclimatology and paleoceanography is to develop a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms responsible for maintaining the extreme polar warmth of the Eocene and older as well as younger periods.
www.bgr.de /ecord/polar_oceans/arctic_ocean.htm   (1592 words)

 Arctic Circle -
The Arctic Ocean is almost completely enclosed and close to, and influenced by, large populations and industrial activities.
The Arctic is dominated by permanent ice cover which opens significantly during summer only in the coastal seas to the north of Asia, Alaska and the Canadian Northwest Territories.
The Arctic fauna is impoverished and consists mainly of organisms derived from the Atlantic Ocean.
www.oceansatlas.org /cds_static/en/arctic_circle__en_63679_63924.html   (686 words)

The Arctic is one of the world’s seven seas.
Although the Arctic (min temp -68C) is warmer than Antarctica (min temp -89.2C), it feels colder and is colder in the beginning of a polar expedition.
The Transpolar drift carries ice westward from the Russian Arctic, the Beaufort Gyre is located north of the Alaskan and Canadian coast, and it rotates in a clockwise motion, exiting in the Farm Strait.
www.thepoles.com /expguide/arctic.htm   (501 words)

 NOAA Ocean Explorer: Arctic Exploration
In 1994, the American trans-polar section revealed surprising insights into the biology of these areas, demonstrating large regional differences within the central Arctic, and much higher biological activity in the ice and the water column than was previously assumed.
Summer melt occurs mostly on the vast Arctic shelves, while the central Arctic Ocean is covered by its unique, multi-year ice year-round.
Arctic exploration will tackle questions concerning the existence of life in this unique environment, looking for life on top of the ice, in its interior, and at the ice-ocean boundary layer.
www.oceanexplorer.noaa.gov /explorations/02arctic/background/sea_ice/sea_ice.html   (1048 words)

 Arctic Ocean Exploration
We will be exploring the Arctic Ocean using some of the information released onto the Internet in the last 2 years.
Read the article about thinning Arctic ice, then speculate about the effects if global warming causes the Atlantic warm water inversion to be buoyant enough to float to the surface of the Arctic.
Arctic water that flows along the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean drives a circulation of water around the entire planet.
www.geocities.com /capecanaveral/7639/oceans/arctclab.htm   (763 words)

 Marine Seafloor Sediment Profiling and Classification in the Arctic Ocean
High-resolution acoustic images of the Arctic marine sub-bottom and topographic contours are presented and corroborate the use of a submarine as a platform for acoustic acquisition of geophysical data.
Extreme climate and the inaccessibility of the Arctic region are mainly responsible for the lack of physical data.
The deepest depth observed in the Gakkel Ridge region was 5,173 meters and the shallowest was approximately 600 meters.
www.oceandata.com /ces/seismic   (3155 words)

 Arctic Ocean LME -
The Arctic Ocean Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) lies between North America, Greenland and Asia beyond the Arctic Circle at 66 degrees North latitude.
Pressures on the Arctic Ocean LME are derived from both global and local sources.
The greatest concern for the Arctic Ocean LME is probably the ecological implications of climate change, particularly as sea ice extent and duration are likely to be affected.
www.oceansatlas.org /cds_static/en/arctic_ocean_lme__en_64338_all_1.html?status=ND02NDMzOCY2PWVuJjMzPWN0biYzNz1pbmZv   (556 words)

 Arctic/Subarctic Ocean Fluxes, West
Dense time-space sampling of upper ocean freshwater and heat-dynamics is a key to understanding the large decadal variability seen in convection, freshwater movement and circulation of the subpolar gyre.
FSAO: Circulation in the Freshwater Switchyard of the Arctic Ocean
This program strives to understand the physics of the high-latitude oceans, including their circulation illuminate the role of the polar oceans in climate, identify the links between physical mechanisms and the biology and chemistry of the high-latitude marine environment and achieve a mechanistic understanding of the variability of cold oceans and lakes.
asofw.apl.washington.edu /projects.html   (923 words)

 Arctic Ocean - Search Results - ninemsn Encarta   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Arctic Ocean, body of water variously identified as the smallest of five world oceans or as a virtually landlocked arm of the Atlantic Ocean.
Arctic, The, large, cold area around the North Pole.
The Arctic is not a clearly defined area: it includes the Arctic Ocean, many islands, and parts...
au.encarta.msn.com /Arctic_Ocean.html   (106 words)

 Arctic Sea Ice Changes in GFDL R30 Greenhouse Scenario Experiments   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The Y-axis is in units of percent, with 100 percent representing the average Arctic sea ice volume simulated in the three model experiments for the decade 1950 to 1959.
So, by the year 2000, the total volume of Arctic sea ice present in the model is between 75 and 80 percent of that which was simulated to exist in the 1950's.
The arctic ice thickness anomaly of the 1990s: A consistent view from observations and models, by DA Rothrock, J. Zhang, and Y. Yu appeared in the Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(C3), 3083, doi: 10.1029/2001JC001208, 2003.
www.gfdl.noaa.gov /~kd/KDwebpages/NHice.html   (1908 words)

 Hidden Ocean: Arctic Science Journeys Radio
The expedition is being called the "Hidden Ocean." Their mission: To learn what they can about the Arctic Ocean, a vast sea that's quite literally covered by ice much of the year.
Climatologists and oceanographers predict the Arctic Ocean could be ice-free much of the time within the next 50 years.
Arctic Science Journeys is a radio service highlighting science, culture, and the environment of the circumpolar north.
seagrant.uaf.edu /news/02ASJ/08.30.02hidden-ocean.html   (959 words)

 Wikinfo | Arctic Ocean   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The Arctic Ocean,located entirely in the north polar region, is the smallest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Southern Ocean), and the shallowest.
Nearly landlocked, the ocean is surrounded by the land masses of Europe, Asia, North America, and Greenland and a number of islands, as well as by the Barents, Beaufort, Chukchi, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Lincoln, Wandel, Greenland, and Norwegian seas.
The Arctic Ocean is important as the shortest air route between the Pacific coast of North America and Europe.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Arctic_Ocean   (693 words)

 Worldworx Travel - Regional Information - The World - Oceans - Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest ocean in the world and is comprised of the Kara, Barents, Beaufort, East Siberian and Laptev Seas and the Bering Strait.
In the center of the Arctic is an area of almost permanent sheet ice that spreads outwards from the North Pole.
The Eskimo civilization came to the Arctic more than 40,000 years ago and are famous for their igloo housing made from ice and for fishing through purpose-cut holes in the ice surface.
www.worldworx.tv /regional-information/world/oceans/arctic/index.htm   (266 words)

 AWI: Climate System: Arctic Ocean
The impact of the Arctic Ocean for the European climate
Exchange between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean and cooling/freezing processes result in dramatic water mass conversions.
Recently observed warming of the water and reduction of the ice cover in the Arctic as well as the variation of the deep water formation in the subarctic regions show the necessity to understand the oceanic advection of heat and salt.
www.awi-bremerhaven.de /Climate/rndarcticocean.html   (366 words)

 Arctic Ocean: Oceans of the World ~ Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Southern Ocean
The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by landmasses of Eurasia, North America, and Greenland, and is unlike the other three oceans because of the perennial ice cover.
A unique feature of the ice fields of the Arctic Ocean was the discovery in 1946 of large sized ice islands.
OCEAN serves to celebrate and protect the greatest, most comprehensive resource for life on earth, our world’s ocean.
www.oceansoftheworld.com /arctic-ocean.html   (500 words)

 Arctic Ocean biodiversity
Current knowledge indicates that the Arctic seas hold a multitude of unique life forms highly adapted in their life history, ecology and physiology to the extreme and seasonal conditions of their environment.
Our knowledge of what currently lives in the Arctic Ocean is still rudimentary compared to most other regions, due to the logistical challenges imposed by its multiyear ice and inhospitable climate.
The Arctic Ocean is also the area where the impact of climate change might be strongest expressed.
www.sfos.uaf.edu /research/arcdiv/index.html   (464 words)

 Arctic Ocean   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Arctic water exiting into the Atlantic ocean between Europe and Greenland is an important component of the global deep water circulation of the planet and its heat budget.
In particular, the Arctic is of outstanding relevance in respect to the development of the climate in Europe.
Enabling the detection of any expected changes in abiotic and biotic parameters in the transition zone between the northern North Atlantic and the central Arctic Ocean, and contributing to a better understanding of deep-sea biodiversity, the German Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) established a long-term deep-sea observatory (AWI-"Hausgarten") in 1999.
www.oceanlab.abdn.ac.uk /esonet/arctic.shtml   (453 words)

 USATODAY.com - Deep part of Arctic Ocean holds previously unknown forms of life   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
ANCHORAGE (AP) — An ice-covered, deep part of the Arctic Ocean, which is believed to hold the world's oldest seawater, is being scoured by scientists taking an inventory of aquatic life in the Arctic, the least-documented ocean on the planet.
An Arctic jellyfish (Chrysaora Melanaster) moves through the water in the Canadian Basin in the Arctic Ocean.
Among challenges facing the arctic project are finding and paying for the use of ice breakers, usually scheduled at least two years in advance, researchers said.
www.usatoday.com /weather/resources/coldscience/2004-06-25-arctic-ocean-life_x.htm   (580 words)

 [No title]
Though generally only a few kilometers wide (except in the vicinity of large deltas), the coastal zone of the Arctic Ocean is the site of dramatic changes in not only the land and ocean but...
The Arctic coastlines are highly variable, can be stable or extremely dynamic and are the site of most of the human activity that occurs at high latitudes.
CTD measurements from the Arctic Ocean 2001 expedition reveal that the cold halocline layer (CHL) has returned to the Amundsen Basin at a position close to that found during the Oden'91 expedition.
lycos.cs.cmu.edu /info/arctic-ocean.html   (392 words)

 Arctic Ocean maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists.
Arctic Ocean--Residual Magnetic Anomaly Chart of the Arctic Ocean Region.
The map is done on a polar stereographic projection with notes and legend in the margin.
Shows Quaternary deposits of the Arctic Ocean basin and surrounding land masses.
www.omnimap.com /catalog/int/arcticoc.htm   (135 words)

 TRAVEL PACKAGES   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The position of Alaska’s Arctic near the top of the globe bestows upon it extended periods of light in the summer and twilight in the winter.
The extreme seasonal climate changes associated with the alternating dearth and intensity of solar energy are the forces that have powerfully impacted the natural and cultural landscape of Alaska’s Arctic.
Pass through a traditional hunting camp, visit a historic whaling safety station, and walk the frozen shores of the Arctic Ocean at the northernmost point in North America.
www.arctic-outfitters.com /new_page_5.htm   (974 words)

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