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Topic: Arctic Sea


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In the News (Sat 25 May 19)

  
  Shrinking Arctic Tells Many Stories
Sea ice that survives the summer and remains year round—called perennial sea ice—is melting at the alarming rate of 9 percent per decade, according to a study by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center senior researcher Josefino Comiso.
Researchers suspect that loss of Arctic sea ice may be caused partly by global warming and partly by changing atmospheric pressure and wind patterns over the Arctic that move sea ice around, which also help to warm Arctic temperatures.
The summer warming and longer sea ice melt season appear to be affecting the volume and extent of perennial sea ice, the study suggests.
www.spacedaily.com /news/arctic-03g.html   (2229 words)

  
 How does Arctic sea ice form and decay - Wadhams
In quiet conditions the first sea ice to form on the surface is a skim of separate crystals which initially are in the form of tiny discs, floating flat on the surface and of diameter less than 2-3 mm.
In the Arctic, a key area where pancake ice forms the dominant ice type over an entire region is the so-called Odden ice tongue in the Greenland Sea.
In the Arctic, sea ice commonly takes several years to either make a circuit within the closed Beaufort Gyre surface current system (7-10 years) or else be transported across the Arctic Basin and expelled in the East Greenland Current (3-4 years).
www.arctic.noaa.gov /essay_wadhams.html   (2911 words)

  
 Organisms which thrive in Arctic sea ice - Krembs, Deming
Sea ice serves as habitat for an ice-specific food web (sympagic foodweb) [1] that includes bacteria, viruses, unicellular algae, which often form chains and filaments, and invertebrates sufficiently small to traverse the brine network.
Sea ice constitutes a thermal barrier against the cold winter atmosphere with the result that the interface between the ice and the seawater remains at the temperature of seawater.
Because sea ice is a diverse and constantly changing habitat, appearing in such varied forms as nilas pancake ice, several meter thick ridged first year and multi-year ice, and pack ice, animals have had to become very good navigators, using homing cues that are as yet not well understood.
www.arctic.noaa.gov /essay_krembsdeming.html   (819 words)

  
 EO News: Satellites Continue to See Decline in Arctic Sea Ice in 2005 - September 28, 2005
Sea ice records prior to late 1978, for example, are comparatively sparse, but they do imply that the recent decline exceeds previous sea ice lows.
Arctic sea ice typically reaches its minimum in September, at the end of the summer melt season.
Arctic sea ice typically reaches its minimum in September, at the end of the summer melt season, and then recover over the winter.
earthobservatory.nasa.gov /Newsroom/NasaNews/2005/2005092820527.html   (923 words)

  
 Arctic Sea Ice: the Chicken or the Egg?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Melting sea ice in the Arctic is claimed to be one of the major signals that man is dangerously warming the planet.
It is becoming less and less clear, however, whether melting Arctic sea ice is a symptom of warming temperatures or the cause.
Changes in sea ice extent, it turns out, are related to the well known phenomenon known as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index, which is a measure of atmospheric circulation in the Arctic.
www.globalwarming.org /article.php?uid=115   (369 words)

  
 Arctic sea ice continues decline as temperatures rise
Arctic sea ice typically reaches a minimum in September at the end of the summer melt season.
The trend of Arctic sea ice decline documented by satellites is now about 8.4 percent per decade since the 1970s, the group reported.
Arctic sea ice consists of both annual ice and multi-year ice.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2005-09/uoca-asi092805.php   (722 words)

  
 Universe Today - Arctic Ice Formation is More Complex Than Previously Thought
The phenomenon of short-period Arctic sea ice motion was investigated in detail in 1967 and has been the subject of numerous research studies since.
Kwok said current models of the dynamics of Arctic sea ice typically don't take into account processes occurring at short, 12-hour time scales, and the impact of such processes must be assessed.
"If these Arctic sea ice processes are indeed important over the entire Arctic basin, their contribution to the overall amount of ice in the Arctic should be included in simulations of the interactions that take place between the Arctic's ice, ocean and atmosphere to create the overall Arctic climate.
www.universetoday.com /am/publish/arctic_ice_formation_complex.html   (809 words)

  
 News from NSIDC, National Snow and Ice Data Center
Sea ice conditions for September 2002, 2003 and 2004, derived from the Sea Ice Index.
The extent of Arctic sea ice in September — the end of the summer melt period — is the most valuable indicator of the health of the ice cover.
The general downward trend in sea ice, and the extreme losses of the past three years, might therefore be part of a natural cycle.
www-nsidc.colorado.edu /news/press/20041004_decline.html   (711 words)

  
 NASA - Arctic Sea Ice Continues to Decline, Arctic Temperatures Continue to Rise In 2005
Although sea ice records prior to late 1978 are comparatively sparse, they imply that the recent decline exceeds previous sea ice lows.
The perennial ice cover is that which survives the summer melt and consists mainly of thick multiyear ice floes that are the mainstay of the Arctic sea ice cover.
Arctic sea ice extend studies are funded by NASA and NOAA.
www.nasa.gov /centers/goddard/news/topstory/2005/arcticice_decline.html   (1189 words)

  
 Arctic Sea Ice Changes in GFDL R30 Greenhouse Scenario Experiments
The Y-axis is in units of percent, with 100 percent representing the average Arctic sea ice volume simulated in the three model experiments for the decade 1950 to 1959.
So, by the year 2000, the total volume of Arctic sea ice present in the model is between 75 and 80 percent of that which was simulated to exist in the 1950's.
In these coupled climate model simulations, the total volume of Arctic sea ice continues to decrease during the 21st century, so that only about half of that which was present in the 1950s is projected to remain in the year 2050.
www.gfdl.gov /~kd/KDwebpages/NHice.html   (1908 words)

  
 Climate Change and Arctic Sea Ice
The Arctic's sea ice is home to a wide variety of wildlife, including polar bears, arctic foxes, seals, walruses, and whales, fish species such as Arctic cod and char, and sea birds such as guillemots, auks, and eiders.
The sea ice is also used as an important transportation route by caribou and muskox and a traditional hunting ground for the Inuit, that remarkable indigenous culture of the far north.
Many species of seal are ice-dependent, including the spotted seal, which in the Bering Sea breeds exclusively at the ice edge in spring; the harp seal, which lives at the ice edge all year; the ringed seal, which give birth to and nurse their pups on sea ice; the ribbon seal and the bearded seal.
archive.greenpeace.org /climate/arctic99/reports/seaice3.html   (4551 words)

  
 Arctic Sea Ice Melting
The lack of coverage is somewhat understandable because the changes in the Arctic sea ice are less visible and less dramatic.
Since sea ice and sheet ice both consist of fresh water, the result will be a huge increase in the amount of fresh water in the Arctic Ocean.
Extrapolation of the Rothrock et al data indicates that sea ice in the Eastern Arctic Ocean could be entirely gone by September 2001.
www.daviesand.com /Choices/Precautionary_Planning/Arctic_Ice   (571 words)

  
 BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Record ice loss in Arctic
Greenland glacier and sea ice melt, combined with disappearing permafrost, the northern expansion of vegetation, and increased fresh water run-off present a "compelling case that something is going on," said Larry Hinzman, of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.
Such a low-pressure system is characteristic of the Arctic Oscillation, an atmospheric sea-sawing that produces warm weather and is also partly responsible for this year's dramatic Arctic sea ice melt, according to Mark Serreze, a researcher at the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colorado.
The loss of Arctic sea ice is "big news", according to University of Alaska, Fairbanks, researcher Larry Hinzman.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/sci/tech/2558319.stm   (657 words)

  
 12/03/99 -- Arctic Sea Ice Is Rapidly Dwindling
The amount of sea ice in Arctic waters is shrinking, on average, by about 14,000 square miles a year, an area larger than Maryland and Delaware combined, probably because of global warming caused by human activity.
Some other researchers have suggested that the shrinking Arctic ice may be related to global warming, but the new study is the first to bring together five independent data sets and show that the trends in each are extremely similar.
The Arctic ice covers an area roughly the size of the United States, or about 4 million square miles, and ranges in thickness from an inch in "seasonal" ice to 10 feet or more in "multiyear" formations that do not melt over the summer.
www.climateark.org /articles/1999/cooperag.htm   (1184 words)

  
 USGCRP Seminar: Arctic Sea-Ice: Changes, Causes, and Implications
Measurements in the upper Arctic Ocean also indicated an excess of freshwater (largely confined to regions of thin ice), which was consistent with the notion of excess melting during the previous year.
The Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean sea-ice are important supporters and providers of life to the indigenous people whose lives depend on the resources from these very productive seas.
It is important to understand that from the perspective of many indigenous peoples who live in the Arctic region, even small changes in the climate or environment can have dramatic impacts on the lives of those whose livelihood is often directly dependent upon, and tied to natural resources and the functioning of ecosystems.
www.usgcrp.gov /usgcrp/seminars/990412FO.html   (2261 words)

  
 Arctic Animal Printouts - EnchantedLearning.com
Land within the Arctic Circle is tundra, and it supports less life most other biomes because of the cold temperatures, strong, dry winds, and permafrost (permanently-frozen soil).
Many animals who overwinter in the Arctic (like the Arctic fox and the ermine) have a coat that thickens and changes color to white during the winter as camouflage in the snow (blending into the background is called cryptic coloration).
Many animals (like the Arctic tern) spend the summer months in the Arctic, but leave as the weather turns frigid and food becomes scarce (these animals return again the next summer, repeating this pattern year after year).
www.enchantedlearning.com /coloring/arcticanimals.shtml   (815 words)

  
 ScienceDaily: Satellites Continue To See Decline In Arctic Sea Ice In 2005
Arctic sea ice typically reaches itsminimum in September, at the end of the summer melt season.
Arctic Sea Ice Continues Decline As Temperatures Rise (September 29, 2005) -- New satellite records monitored by a national team of collaborators show a four-year pattern of extremely low summer sea-ice coverage in the Arctic that continued in September 2005, which may be the...
Arctic Sea Ice Declines Again In 2004, According To U. Of Colorado Study (October 4, 2004) -- Researchers at the University of Colorado at Boulder have found that the extent of Arctic sea ice, the floating mass of ice that covers the Arctic Ocean, is continuing its rapid...
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2005/09/050930082116.htm   (1963 words)

  
 Arctic Sea Ice Declines Again In 2004, According To CU-Boulder Researchers | News Center | University of Colorado at ...
Researchers at the University of Colorado at Boulder have found that the extent of Arctic sea ice, the floating mass of ice that covers the Arctic Ocean, is continuing its rapid decline.
In 2002, the decline in arctic sea ice during September -- which traditionally marks the end of the summer melt season -- was about 15 percent, a record low, said CU-Boulder researcher Walt Meier of NSIDC.
The decline in sea ice extent during September has averaged about 8 percent over the past decade, said Serreze, who is part of a CU-Boulder team monitoring Arctic sea-ice conditions.
www.colorado.edu /news/releases/2004/295.html   (936 words)

  
 2/12/2002 -- Arctic Sea Ice May Vanish This Century
Perennial sea ice floats in the polar oceans and remains at the end of the summer, when the ice cover is at its minimum and seasonal sea ice has melted.
Since sea ice does not change uniformly in terms of time or space, Comiso sectioned off portions of the Arctic data and analyzed these sections to determine when ice had reached the minimum for that area each year.
Comparing the differences between Arctic sea ice data from 1979 to 1989 and data from 1990 to 2000, Comiso found the biggest melting occurred in the western area - the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas - while considerable losses were also apparent in the eastern region of the Siberian, Laptev and Kara Seas.
www.climateark.org /articles/reader.asp?linkid=18184   (991 words)

  
 Another Record Minimum for Sea Ice Cover in the Arctic Ocean?
The observed decline in Arctic sea ice is fundamentally in accord with climate model projections of continued ice losses through the 21 st century.
5) Attribution of the observed Arctic sea ice decline to greenhouse gas warming is complicated by variability in the atmospheric circulation.
The most reasonable assessment is that the Arctic sea ice cover is beginning to respond to the effects of greenhouse gas warming.
www-nsidc.colorado.edu /news/press/20041611_serreze.html   (798 words)

  
 EO Newsroom: New Images - Dwindling Arctic Sea Ice
The changes in Arctic ice may be a harbinger of global climate change, says Josefino Comiso, researcher at Goddard Space Flight Center, in Greenbelt, Maryland.
Researchers suspect the loss of Arctic sea ice may be caused by changing atmospheric pressure patterns over the Arctic that move sea ice around, and by warming Arctic temperatures that result from the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
The first image shows the minimum sea ice concentration for the year 1979, and the second image shows the minimum sea ice concentration in 2003.
earthobservatory.nasa.gov /Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=16340   (180 words)

  
 Scientists find that humans may be contributing to retreat of the Arctic sea ice
They found from this 5,000-year run that the probability of getting a negative trend -More- Arctic Sea Ice 2-2-2 over 19.4 years as large as that found from the satellite data was less than two percent, suggesting that the negative trend derives from more than just natural variability.
The model results with these human-induced changes included show atmospheric temperature increases and a much better match with the observed sea ice decreases than the model results simulating natural variability, suggesting that the Arctic sea ice decreases could partially be in response to increasing greenhouse gas levels during the second half of the twentieth century.
Vinnikov says that the results suggest that melting Arctic sea ice is probably related to human-induced global warming.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/1999-12/NSFC-Sfth-011299.php   (327 words)

  
 ScienceDaily: Arctic Sea Ice Continues Decline As Temperatures Rise
Arctic sea ice typically reaches a minimum in September at theend of the summer melt season.
Polar Bears' Habitat Threatened By Thinning Of Arctic Sea Ice (October 30, 2003) -- The main natural habitat of the polar bear is under increasing threat as a consequence of the dramatic thinning of the Arctic sea ice.
Climate Scientists Spotlight Arctic Warming, Plight Of Polar Bears (June 19, 2006) -- A climate scientist at the University of Chicago and 30 of her colleagues from across North America and Europe are urging the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to list the polar bear as a threatened...
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2005/09/050929083108.htm   (2010 words)

  
 Arctic Sea Dumping
It is believed that the wastes dumped in the Arctic Sea is similar to the long-lived isotopes from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 (which released an estimated 50 million curies, mostly short-lived isotopes).
For one, the Kara Sea, where most of the reactors were dumped, is frozen nine months out of the year and is said to have little biological activities.
Human Rights: YES If it should become evident that the seas and its habitants have been polluted, this could potentially hurt the livelihood of thousands of people in Norway (and Russia), not to mention the possible health risks that could be involved (especially for people living on the Kola peninsula and in the border region).
www.american.edu /TED/arctic.htm   (4361 words)

  
 :: Climate Change Clues under the Arctic Sea Ice   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
IARC researchers recognize the importance of the carbon cycle in the arctic environment, and are measuring the CO levels near Point Barrow of onshore and offshore wind on fast ice, which is coastal ice or ice attached to a stationary object.
The study of CO in arctic sea ice is a very important component in the study of the carbon cycle.
In this Arctic "climate kitchen," IARC researchers work to determine the impacts of change in sea ice melt and seasonal length, and their interconnection with other ecological processes on Earth.
www.iarc.uaf.edu /highlights/Climate_Change_Clues_Under_Arctic_Sea_Ice.php   (666 words)

  
 Arctic Sea Ice Melting at Record Pace   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
A NASA study finds that perennial sea ice in the Arctic is melting faster than previously thought´┐Żat a rate of 9 percent per decade.
Since sea ice does not change uniformly in terms of time or space, Comiso sectioned off portions of the Arctic data and carefully analyzed these sections to determine when ice had reached the minimum for that area each year.
Comparing the differences between Arctic sea ice data from 1979 to 1989 and data from 1990 to 2000, Comiso found the biggest melting occurred in the western area (Beaufort and Chukchi Seas) while considerable losses were also apparent in the eastern region (Siberian, Laptev and Kara Seas).
www.greennature.com /article2006.html   (628 words)

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