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Topic: Arcuate nucleus

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  Nucleus (neuroanatomy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In neuroanatomy, a nucleus is a central nervous system structure that is composed mainly of gray matter, and which acts as a hub or transit point for electrical signals in a single neural subsystem.
Other examples include the Raphe nucleus, which is involved in sleep, and the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which controls circadian rhythm.
All the nerve cell axons terminating on a nucleus tend to employ the same neurotransmitter at their synapses.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nucleus_(neuroanatomy)   (170 words)

 Angiotensin II AT1A Receptor mRNA Expression Is Induced by Estrogen-Progesterone in Dopaminergic Neurons of the Female ...
Colocalization of AT receptor mRNA with tyrosine hydroxylase in the arcuate nucleus
in neurons of the arcuate nucleus of estrogen/progesterone-treated
and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in neurons of the arcuate
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/17/21/8283   (5368 words)

 arcuate nucleus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Age-related decrease in proopiomelanocortin gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the male rat brain.
Acute effect of oral and subcutaneous administration of monosodium glutamate on the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in mice and rats.
Role of the gonads in the histologic aging of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.
www.arclab.org /node_pages/21.html   (1199 words)

 Arcuate nucleus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The arcuate nucleus is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence.
These neurons, in the most ventromedial part of the nucleus, project strongly to the lateral hypothalamus and to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and are important in the regulation of appetite.
The role of this population is not known; many neurons in the arcuate nucleus express receptors for ghrelin, but these are thought to be respond mainly to blood-borne ghrelin.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Arcuate_nucleus   (717 words)

 Expression of the Huntington's disease gene is regulated in astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of ...
Expression of the Huntington's disease gene is regulated in astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of postpartum rats -- HEBB et al.
Expression of the Huntington's disease gene is regulated in astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of postpartum rats
in the arcuate nucleus corresponded to a quantitative increase in
www.fasebj.org /cgi/content/full/13/9/1099   (4439 words)

 Endotext.com - Neuroendocrinology, Hypothalamus, And Pituitary, Functional Anatomy of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary
The arcuate nucleus is the main sensor of circulating levels of leptin, and by projecting to several different regions in the brain, provide the mechanism whereby leptin is capable of integrating a host of responses involved in energy homeostasis.
Vagal afferent signals are then carried to the nucleus tractus solitarius in the brainstem, and after projecting to noradrenergic neurons in the ventrolateral medulla (A2), ascend in the ventral noradrenergic pathway and medial forebrain bundle to terminate in the preoptic region.
Alpha-MSH arises from the neuronal population in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (200), and while it is unknown precisely where a-MSH exerts its actions, the preoptic region including the VMPO is heavily innervated by axon terminals containing a-MSH, suggesting a direct effect on thermosensitive neurons (316).
www.endotext.org /neuroendo/neuroendo3b/neuroendo3b_6.htm   (7098 words)

 Diabetes: Leptin Receptor mRNA Identifies a Subpopulation... @ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
To test the hypothesis that the effects of food intake on arcuate nucleus NPY activation are mediated by leptin, we performed simultaneous triple in situ hybridization colocalization studies to determine whether the subset of NPY neurons that are activated by fasting preferentially expresses the long form of the leptin receptor (Ob-Rb).
NPY gene expression in the arcuate nucleus is increased in response to low leptin levels, as occurs in genetic leptin deficiency (ob/ob mice) (11,12) and fasting (13).
The results suggest that among the population of NPY neuron cell bodies in the arcuate nucleus, Ob-Rb is expressed by the subset that was activated to increase NPY gene expression during fasting.
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1G1:54551194&refid=holomed_1   (4947 words)

 Adenosine Modulation of Calcium Currents and Presynaptic Inhibition of GABA Release in Suprachiasmatic and Arcuate ...
in hypothalamic neurons from the SCN and arcuate nucleus; the
In arcuate nucleus cultures, 21 neurons were examined for the effect of adenosine or its analogues on whole cell barium currents.
coexistence of adenosine A1 and A2 receptors in the arcuate nucleus.
jn.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/77/6/3035   (5424 words)

 Diabetes: Increased expression of mRNA for the long form ... @ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
We hypothesized, therefore, that overexpression of Ob-Rb mRNA in the arcuate nucleus may contribute to the leptin hypersensitivity of mice deficient in leptin (ob/ob mice) (8) or NPY (NPY-knockout mice) (9).
With this riboprobe, the hybridization signal for Ob-Rb mRNA in the arcuate nucleus versus that in the choroid plexus was 2.3 times higher in the lean +/ob mice and 3.7 times higher in the ob/ob and db/db obese mice, respectively (Scheffe's test, P [is less than] 0.001).
Pharmacological doses of leptin were recently reported to decrease Ob-R mRNA in the arcuate nucleus of the ob/ob mouse in a study that omitted the pair-fed group required to control for the anorexic effect of leptin (26).
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1G1:20555732&refid=holomed_1   (4139 words)

 Ovary-dependent degeneration in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The effects of estradiol valerate and constant light exposure on the histological appearance of the arcuate nucleus were assessed in female rats.
The fact that monthly injections of estradiol valerate in male rats produced the same profile of degeneration in the arcuate nucleus suggests that the neuropathological agent may itself be estradiol.
Ovariectomy also significantly reduced arcuate microglial reactivity associated with normal aging, which suggests that cyclic surges of endogenous estradiol may be capable of gradually producing an arcuate lesion.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_7189710.html   (155 words)

 Arcuate nucleus definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms
Arcuate nucleus: A collection of neurons (nerve cells) in the hypothalamus of the brain.
Some arcuate neurons contain dopamine and act to inhibit the release of the hormone prolactin by the pituitary gland.
By monitoring the blood levels of these substances, arcuate neurons are kept informed of whether or not the body has sufficient calories and nutrients so that it can adjust feeding accordingly.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=24340   (228 words)

 Effects of Photoperiod and Androgen on Proopiomelanocortin Gene Expression in the Arcuate Nucleus of Golden Hamsters -- ...
In the caudal arcuate, castration increased the proportion of
POMC gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of rams.
-aromatic-amino-acid decarboxylase immunostaining in the arcuate nucleus and median eminence of male Syrian hamsters.
endo.endojournals.org /cgi/content/full/140/1/197   (6704 words)

 Lactation decreases angiotensinogen mRNA expression in the midcaudal arcuate nucleus of the rat brain -- Speth et al. ...
In lactating rats, ANG II receptor binding in the arcuate nucleus (ARH) and median eminence is decreased.
Angiotensin II AT(1A) receptor mRNA expression is induced by estrogen-progesterone in dopaminergic neurons of the female rat arcuate nucleus.
Lactation alters neuropeptide-Y and proopiomelanocortin gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the rat.
ajpregu.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/280/4/R1169   (5218 words)

 Multiple Neuropeptide Y Receptors Regulate K+ and Ca2+ Channels in Acutely Isolated Neurons From the Rat Arcuate ...
Arcuate neurons were isolated using the techniques modified from Rhim et al.
Broberger, C., Landry, M., Wong, H., Walsh, J. and Hokfelt, T. Subtypes Y1 and Y2 of the neuropeptide Y receptor are respectively expressed in pro-opiomelanocortin- and neuropeptide-Y-containing neurons of the rat hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.
Rhim, H., Kinney, G. Emmerson, P. and Miller, R. Regulation of neurotransmission in the arcuate nucleus of the rat by different neuropeptide Y receptors.
jn.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/81/3/1391   (5290 words)

 Children's Hospital Boston - Investigators   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
We originally proposed that SIDS, or a subset of SIDS, results from a failure of a component of the ventral medulla (i.e., the human arcuate nucleus) in mediating homoeostatic responses to life-threatening challenges (e.g., asphyxia, hypoxia, hypercapnia) during sleep, as the infant passes through a vulnerable developmental period.
The ventral medulla is composed of neurons and glia along the ventral and ventrolateral rim of the medulla that are involved in chemoreception, respiratory drive, and blood pressure responses.
Four of the six affected regions, including the caudal raphé and arcuate nucleus, are considered derivatives of a common embryonic anlage, the rhombic lip, and five of the six regions contain serotonergic neurons in the developing human brainstem.
www.childrenshospital.org /research/mrrc/investigators/kinney/research.html   (735 words)

 Leptin Actions on Hypothalamic Neurons & Arcuate Nucleus
The authors concluded that there is “neural plasticity” in the arcuate cells containing POMC and NPY and that the effects of leptin and ghrelin are at least partially mediated by such changes.
Bouret et al examined the effect of leptin deprivation and leptin administration upon the density of the neural projections between the arcuate nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus (PVH), dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) in intact and leptin deficient (ob/ob) mice.
Relative to WT animals at all ages, leptin deficiency was associated with a greatly decreased number of projections from the arcuate nucleus to all target regions, but not to non-target areas.
www.gghjournal.com /volume20/3/ab03_pf.cfm   (827 words)

 Regulation of arcuate nucleus synaptology by estrogen.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Estrogen modulates the synaptology of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus during sexual differentiation of the rat brain in both males and females.
During adult reproductive life in female rats, circulating estrogen modulates the synaptology of the arcuate nucleus.
Studies on post-synaptic membranes of the arcuate nucleus reveal sex differences in membrane organization and protein content which are estrogen-dependent.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_7802419.html   (355 words)

 Influence of Estradiol on NADPH Diaphorase/Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity and Colocalization with Progesterone ...
neurons of the POA, arcuate nucleus, and ventromedial nucleus
[52] and neuronal subpopulations from the arcuate nucleus and
Projections from the arcuate/ventromedial region of the hypothalamus to the preoptic area and bed nucleus of stria terminalis in the brain of the ewe; lack of direct input to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.
www.biolreprod.org /cgi/content/full/67/3/829   (4505 words)

 Ontogeny of neuropeptide Y expression in response to deprivation in lean Zucker rat pups -- Kowalski et al. 275 (2): ...
nucleus was localized to cells in the medial portion.
Dark-field photomicrographs of prepro-neuropeptide Y (preproNPY) mRNA hybridized in arcuate nucleus of a fed (A) and a deprived (B) pup aged P12 (×50 magnification).
NPY mRNA and peptide immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus are increased by osmotic stimuli: correlation with dehydration anorexia.
ajpregu.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/275/2/R466   (3234 words)

 Effect of Fasting and Leptin Deficiency on Hypothalamic Neuropeptide Y Gene Transcription in Vivo Revealed by ...
in the arcuate nucleus (1, 2), as is neuropeptide Y (NPY), a potent
NPY gene expression in arcuate nucleus neurons are unknown,
of the arcuate nucleus, whereas in the reticular nucleus, the
endo.endojournals.org /cgi/content/full/139/5/2629   (3991 words)

 Insulin Inhibits Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in the Arcuate Nucleus through GABAergic Systems -- Sato et al. 25 ...
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the arcuate nucleus is an orexigenic
NPY gene expression in the arcuate nucleus in hypothalamic organotypic
preceded decreases in NPY mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/abstract/25/38/8657   (292 words)

 Leptin Receptor Long-form Splice-variant Protein Expression in Neuron Cell Bodies of the Brain and Co-localization with ...
for Ob-Rb mRNA in arcuate nucleus NPY neurons (
Håkansson ML, Hulting AL, Meister B (1996) Expression of leptin receptor mRNA in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus—relationship with NPY neurones.
Mercer JG, Hoggard N, Williams LM, Lawrence CB, Hannah LT, Morgan PJ, Trayhurn P (1996a) Coexpression of leptin receptor and preproneuropeptide Y mRNA in arcuate nucleus of mouse hypothalamus.
www.jhc.org /cgi/content/full/47/3/353   (5734 words)

 Progesterone Receptor, Estrogen Receptor {alpha}, and the Type II Glucocorticoid Receptor Are Coexpressed in the Same ...
Photomicrographs of 20-µm-thick coronal sections from the arcuate nucleus (A–D) after immunofluorescent detection of PR in E+P-treated (A, B; ewes 6 and 8) and in P-only-treated (C, D; ewes 9 and 5) animals.
of ER with GR in the arcuate nucleus of the ewe concurs with
Localization of glucocorticoid receptor in neuropeptide Y-containing neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the rat hypothalamus.
www.biolreprod.org /cgi/content/full/67/5/1605   (4955 words)

 World J Gastroenterol
Arcuate nucleus (ARC) is the third largest nucleus of the hypothalamic nuclei with a volume of 0.94mm
Regulation of arcuate nucleus on intragastric pressure in rats.Chin J Appl Physiol (in Chinese),
Effects of stimulation of arcuate nucleus on intragastric pressure and peripheral pathway analysis in rats.
www.wjgnet.com /1007-9327/4/426.asp   (1780 words)

 The arcuate nucleus as a conduit for diverse signals relevant to energy homeostasis
Arcuate nucleus neurons are known to be responsive to a wide array of hormones and nutrients, including leptin, insulin, gonadal steroids and glucose.
Since ghrelin is secreted by the stomach upon content depletion, with a half-life of no more than an hour, the arcuate nucleus may also be important in sensing and responding to acute changes in nutrients.
Thus the arcuate melanocortin system is best described as a conduit of many diverse signals involved in energy homeostasis, with leptin acting tonically to regulate the responsiveness of the circuit to a wide variety of hormones and nutrients.
www.nature.com /cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/ijo/journal/v25/n5s/abs/0801913a.html&filetype=&_UserReference=C0A804ED46B400790A30FEF3EF723E6D7775   (432 words)

 Estrogen Regulation of Neurokinin B Gene Expression in the Mouse Arcuate Nucleus Is Mediated by Estrogen Receptor ...
Estrogen Regulation of Neurokinin B Gene Expression in the Mouse Arcuate Nucleus Is Mediated by Estrogen Receptor {alpha} -- Dellovade and Merchenthaler 145 (2): 736 -- Endocrinology
Estrogen Regulation of Neurokinin B Gene Expression in the Mouse Arcuate Nucleus Is Mediated by Estrogen Receptor
mRNA expression was increased in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) 4
endo.endojournals.org /cgi/content/full/145/2/736   (3393 words)

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