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Topic: Argument from morality

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  Moral Arguments
The metaethical moral argument contends that the existence of objective moral values either entails the existence of God or at least is best explained by theism (e.g., William Lane Craig, Robert Adams).
Martin argues that a theistic ontological foundation of morality is impossible, that moral realism is possible in a godless universe, that theistic morality is subject to the accusation of arbitrariness whereas naturalistic moral realism is not, and that human beings are not "special" in the sense intended by theists.
Moral arguments for God's existence may be defined as that family of arguments in the history of western philosophical theology having claims about the character of moral thought and experience in their premises and affirmations of the existence of God in their conclusions.
www.infidels.org /library/modern/theism/moral.html   (1192 words)

Morality is a word that we use to extend right and wrong from the factual realm to the realm of conduct.
Defining morality in terms of ought, where the ought describes the obligation of an action in terms of morality, is rather circumlocutory.
Morality is defined by the force that "pushes" society to define the correctness of conduct in a certain way.
www.moo.mud.org /~nathan/morality.html   (2533 words)

Morality speaks of a system of behavior in regards to standards of right or wrong behavior.
The word carries the concepts of: (1) moral standards, with regard to behavior; (2) moral responsibility, referring to our conscience; and (3) a moral identity, or one who is capable of right or wrong action.
In today's world, morality is frequently thought of as belonging to a particular religious point of view, but by definition, we see that this is not the case.
www.allaboutphilosophy.org /morality.htm   (669 words)

 What About Morality?
According to cultural anthropology morality is the functional model for human social interaction that is fundamentally calibrated to the requirements of a society's local economic mode.
Morality's function as a force for group survival is to reinforce the status quo of self and social system in support of the prevailing economy - proscribing the roles, rights and responsibilities among members of the group.
As such morality is extolled to the common person by those in power for the purposes of maintaining their power.
members.cox.net /patriotismforall/morality.html   (2437 words)

 Welcome to Deist's Homepage
Basically the argument is based on the observation of how fine tuned the universe must have been to be existent and give support for life.
The argument is valid in the statement that this universe would not have supported the life of humans if variables were different from the ones we have.
Morality would be meaningless because an action would not fullfill the initial requirements for it to be morally correct but only the command of God.
www.geocities.com /deist_2000/arguments.html   (2219 words)

 Cygnus' Study
The last thing to consider in the argument from religious experience is the fact that many people from many different religions and faiths have claimed to have had divine experiences and they are as divergent and contradictory as the people reporting them.
Since we can see that morality isn't eternal and unchanging, the obvious conclusion is that it is not the result of a god and, therefore, cannot be used to determine a god's existence.
Since this is little more than a restating of the Argument from Morality and the presumption of that which we are seeking to prove, there is little reason for us to go back over the response to those arguments here.
www.cygnus-study.com /arguments.html   (2775 words)

 The Mystery of Morality: Can Biology Help?
Morality, therefore, may not be an adaptive feature itself, but one associated with another trait(s) preferred by natural selection (3).
Moral aptitude is a product of intelligence just like any other intellectual ability—literature, art, and technology, for example—facilities which may not be adaptive themselves (3).
Although it appears that natural selection may favor certain moral codes (the ban on incest and the restriction of divorce, for instance, are moral codes that contribute to successful reproduction) it does not, in fact, favor all ethical norms (3).
serendip.brynmawr.edu /biology/b103/f02/web2/asullivan.html   (1504 words)

 On the Nature of Morality
Third, it is important to distinguish subjective morality from moral relativism, which claims that moral views differ between different contexts or cultures, and from moral nihilism, which states that there is no morality or that morality does not matter.
One possible implication of moral relativism, which is quite often wrongly inferred as being contained in the general class of subjective meta-ethics, is the view that moral statements can only be considered applicable in the context in which they are uttered.
In practice, this means that the moral senses of a human being are formed both on genetic grounds and on the basis of attitudes and information conveyed by parents, schools, and the surrounding society.
www.infidels.org /library/modern/niclas_berggren/morality.html   (3540 words)

 The Moral Argument
The moral argument appeals to the existence of moral laws as evidence of God’s existence.
If the moral argument can be defended against the various objections that have been raised against it, then it proves the existence of an author of morality, of a being that has authority over and that actively rules over all creation.
Together with the ontological argument, the first cause argument, and the argument from design, this would give us proof that there is a perfect, necessary, and eternal being that created the universe with life in mind and has the authority to tell us how we are to run it.
www.existence-of-god.com /moral-argument.html   (945 words)

 The Argument From Morality by Stefan Molyneux
The argument from morality can cost you friends, family, community — and so approach it with courage, and understand that, once you decide to use it, your life will never again be the same.
Simply put, the argument from morality is the most powerful approach to changing society because all major social decisions are made on the basis of ethics.
The argument from morality comes in by stating that, if it is wrong or evil for me to rob Peter to pay Paul, then it is wrong or evil for anyone — including politicians — to do it.
www.lewrockwell.com /orig6/molyneux7.html   (2598 words)

 Moral Relativism Refuted by Apolonio Latar
Moral relativism is the belief that there are no moral absolutes; that morality is relative to something (i.e.
Morality is not dependent on the government, but the government is dependent on the morality.
This proves that either moral absolutism is true or that all moral argument is impossible and meaningless.
www.bringyou.to /apologetics/p17.htm   (1246 words)

 Morality and Truth
The most scathing criticism of my argument that morality is nothing but a collection of competing human rulebooks is the one made by the correspondent I feature on the top page of this month's Spectacle: that I am a moral relativist.
His argument, had he made it using logic instead of insults, would run something like this: If morality is nothing more than a series of human rulebooks, with no empirical reasons for one being favored over another, then the criteria for evaluating one rulebook against another are either nonexistent or weak.
The utilitarian argument is that the victims next door have appealed to us, saying that they would rather live under our rulebook than the one under which they are suffering, and it is useful to grant their request.
www.spectacle.org /1299/moral.html   (2931 words)

 Argument from morality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
All forms of the moral argument begin with the observation of moral normativity.
Immanuel Kant developed his own version of the argument from morality.
But as it is propagated, it is ingrained into the younger generation and colors their conception of morality.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Argument_from_morality   (1582 words)

 Silly Morality Argument
Morality is a measure of tendency toward survival of actions as framed in the context of the system.
Morality has validity to the degree that it establishes those principles of conduct that promote the survival of system or systems at the greatest possible scope.
Morality is not an absolute and cannot be an absolute within any context less than the most complete system possible.
c2.com /cgi/wiki?SillyMoralityArgument   (3505 words)

 The Teleological Argument   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The teleological argument (from the Greek telos meaning 'end' or 'purpose') is also known as the design argument and is based upon examination of the nature of the world.
The argument is perhaps most well known in the form put forward by William Paley (1743-1805) in his book Natural Theology: Or Evidences of the Existence and attributes of the Deity Collected from the Appearances of Nature (1802).
The main thrust of his argument springs from his analysis of cause and effect and his conclusion that our knowledge of such things is based solely on habit.
www.philosophyonline.co.uk /pages/teleological.htm   (1034 words)

 My personal page on religion
They attempt to make the receiver of the argument accept that some being designed or created the universe, and from there use other arguments to show that it was their god that was this creator.
The point is only that atheists exist who have a moral standard of their own, not derived from belief in a god, that in some cases resembles moral standards of highly religious people.
Even the morality of religion is not a measuring stick, it is merely another morality, deemed by the religion to be perfect by virtue of its origin.
home.earthlink.net /~mylnir/debate/rel.html   (4107 words)

One argument often used by Christians trying to prove the existence of their God is as follows: If God does not exist, then there are no objective moral values.
The moral argument for the existence of God says that morality is like this also; there is no reason not to kill, steal, lie, rape, or whatever, other than that God said not to.
Religious morality, for some religions, may be "absolute" in the sense defined above- there is really only one commandment, "Obey the will of God, as reported by the priesthood." When a believer says that his morality is "absolute", it means he is resolutely determined not to apply any of his own intelligence to moral questions.
www.godlessgeeks.com /LINKS/MoralityAndGod.htm   (2624 words)

 The Argument for Natural Morality | UberKuh
Thus, the greatest threat to religious belief, and the weakest argument against it, is the advocation of a relative moral standard.
Therefore, the only argument for a purely natural morality is a lived one.
If you demonstrate that you can live a moral life without belief in a supernatural entity or force, then you will prove that no supernatural entity or force is needed to guide us in making moral decisions.
uberkuh.com /node/504   (205 words)

 What is God?
The ontological argument for the existence of God was first structured in the Proslogion of Saint Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury (1033-1109 A.D.); though it was actually Immanuel Kant, an 18th century German philosopher, who first called the argument “ontological.” Ontology is a branch of metaphysics concerned with the nature and relations of being.
Gaunilo (who was a monk of Marmoutier and a contemporary of Anselm’s) criticized Anselm’s argument saying that one could apply the statement to a lot of things, the most famous example he used was, “the greatest conceivable island” and prove the existence of the island using parallel reasoning of Anselm’s ontological argument.
The argument from morality uses the existence of objective ethics as evidence for the existence of God.
www.angelfire.com /mn2/tisthammerw/rlgnphil/theism.html   (10616 words)

 Maintaining Morality, Exhausting Evil | Progressive U
Their opinion proposes the idea that the moral fight against terrorism is an endless and pointless cause.
It is noted that the notions of morality and immorality are just concepts and that one cannot kill conceptions of the mind.
Iris Murdoch concludes her argument on morality and religion by stating that, “If there is to be morality, there cannot altogether be an end to evil” (Murdoch, 725).
www.progressiveu.org /234818-maintaining-morality-exhausting-evil   (1371 words)

 The Ontological Argument
According to this argument, there is no need to go out looking for physical evidence of God’s existence; we can work out that he exists just by thinking about it.
There are a number of objections to the ontological argument, which many, though not all, accept as decisive.
The first of them is the first cause argument, which seeks to establish the existence of a Creator.
www.existence-of-god.com /ontological-argument.html   (965 words)

 Creationism versus Scientific Evolution Theory: Biblical Morality - Introduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The second is the argument that the Bible is the source of all morality.
As with the atheist morality argument, it is fallacious because the validity of a scientific theory has nothing to do with morality.
Morality is something that people can eventually discern on their own through reason if their minds are uncluttered by dogma, as demonstrated by the universality of certain ethical principles all around the world, with or without Christianity.
www.creationtheory.org /BiblicalMorality   (331 words)

 Argument Against Absolute Morality
EDITOR'S NOTE -- This argument, originally a note found on a Prodigy service bulletin board (all notes posted become part of the public domain), refutes the notion of "objective" and "absolute" morality.
So what your saying, basically, is that your feelings are the right ones because you feel them and if anyone disagrees they are wrong because they aren't feeling the right thing, which is, of course, what you're feeling.
So, to put this in the form of an apparently irrefutable argument for anything whatsoever, you're an idiot, and you're wrong, because I believe it and I feel it.
members.tripod.com /tosdepartment/argument.htm   (411 words)

 Ontological argument - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The ontological argument received much criticism at its time and was rejected by Thomas Aquinas, and therefore by much of orthodox Christian theology.
One of the earliest recorded objections to Anselm's argument was raised by one of Anselm's contemporaries, Gaunilo of Marmoutiers.
Another traditional criticism of the argument (first found in Pierre Gassendi's Objections to Descartes' Meditations, and later modified by Kant) is that existence is not a perfection, because existence is not a property as such, and that referring to it as a property confuses the distinction between a concept of something and the thing itself.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ontological_argument   (3039 words)

 The Argument from Morality Versus the Welfare State
Universal moral theories – like any scientific, mathematical or logical theory – must be absolute, consistent and independent of time – otherwise, they are mere subjective opinions.
Since the moral rule of a "minimum income" is a universal absolute, it must have been true for all time, not just for today and tomorrow.
It cannot be moral or fair, then, that those who stole money from the poor in the past should now have their thefts subsidized by those who have to pay higher taxes in the present and future.
www.prisonplanet.com /articles/january2006/120106morality.htm   (2136 words)

 [No title]
The absence of a distinction between morality and justice is a kind of moralism.
The principle that all moral wrongs should be legally sanctioned as judicial wrongs, erasing the distinction between morality and justice, may be called judicial moralism.
The rules of morality which the individual observes must then be such as to help to preserve both the individual per se for long enough to make his/her distinctive contribution and...
lycos.cs.cmu.edu /info/morality--actions.html   (419 words)

 Can We Have Morality Without God?
The argument in question says that morals can only be objective if there is a God.
If you throw God out of the picture, moral choices become only a matter of feeling, and there’s no standard to decide if one person’s feelings are better than another’s.
Most of them are still moral people, because they can’t get away from the moral law written on their hearts.
www.aubreyrhea.com /morality   (1838 words)

 Other Works
Some other things that I worked on in this class are a fishbowl argument, a morality argument letter, and the logical fallacy we found and analyzed.
Rebuttal to Religion argument: The United States is based on freedom of religion, which includes freedom from religion.
Morality Argument Letter - My letter argues that the legal drinking age should be lowered in the United States.
www.wright.edu /~hinnefeld.2/other.htm   (290 words)

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