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Topic: Argument from repetition


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In the News (Sun 16 Jun 19)

  
  Ad nauseam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It is a form of proof by assertion.
Argumentum ad nauseam or argument from repetition or Argumentum ad infinitum is the false proof of a statement by (prolonged) repetition, possibly by different people.
This logical fallacy is commonly used as a form of rhetoric by politicians, and it is one of the mechanisms of reinforcing urban legends.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Argument_from_repetition   (284 words)

  
 Logical fallacy
Arguments intended to persuade may be convincing to many listeners despite containing such fallacies, but they are nonetheless flawed.
The argument presupposes its conclusion: one of the premises assumes that the conclusion is true.
Typically, logical fallacies are invalid, but they can often be written or rewritten so that they follow a valid argument form; and in that case, the challenge is to discover the false premise, which makes the argument unsound.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/fa/Fallacy.html   (716 words)

  
 Proof by verbosity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Proof by verbosity should not be confused with proof by exhaustion, the latter being a valid form of proof.
The difference lies in that a proof by exhaustion is used when a number of dissimilar cases must be independently proven, whereas a proof by verbosity tends to be repetitive, with many overlapping proofs for specific cases of a more general problem.
Nor should this be confused with argument from repetition in which the same (unproven) argument is repeated many times, possibly in different ways or by different people, as a mechanism of reinforcement of the (still unproven) point in the listener's or reader's mind.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Proof_by_verbosity   (257 words)

  
 Logical fallacy
A logical fallacy is an error of argument; it is a mistake in the way that the propositions, or statements, in the argument are inter-related.
Arguments intended to persuade may be convincing to many listeners despite containing such fallacies.
By definition, logical fallacies are invalid, but they can often be written or rewritten so that they follow a valid argument form; and in that case, the challenge is to discover the false premise, which makes the argument unsound.
www.guajara.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/l/lo/logical_fallacy.html   (850 words)

  
 Chap 10 Notes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Inductive arguments are arguments that try to apply what is known about known objects or situations to unknown objects or situations.
Both forms of argument begin with a sample, identify a property of the members of that sample, and conclude that the property is shared by one or more items outside the sample.
Formal inductive arguments (e.g., professional opinion polls) tend to follow rigorous guidelines for sample selection and size, and their accuracy is evaluated by means of precisely defined mathematical concepts.
www.humboldt.edu /~campbell/p100lectch10.htm   (3603 words)

  
 Wesleyan University Writing
The argument can be strengthened by tying the arguments together, emphasizing a particular point, providing a strong piece of evidence, or putting the argument in perspective.
Revisiting the introduction is not necessary in every paper; but in a paper which traces a progression of arguments, it may be a good idea to tie those arguments together in the conclusion.
Although introducing new ideas may be harmful, discussing your argument "in terms that widen its significance" can be a very effective way to conclude a paper (Hefferman).
www.wesleyan.edu /writing/workshop/generalinfo/summaryconclusion.html   (264 words)

  
 Arguments - GNU Emacs Manual   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Some commands use the value of the argument as a repeat count, but do something peculiar when there is no argument.
with no argument is special: it kills the text up to the next newline, or, if point is right at the end of the line, it kills the newline itself.
We use the term “prefix argument” as well as “numeric argument” to emphasize that you type the argument before the command, and to distinguish these arguments from minibuffer arguments that come after the command.
www.gnu.org /software/emacs/manual/html_node/Arguments.html   (489 words)

  
 Info Node: (emacs)Arguments   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Numeric Arguments ================= In mathematics and computer usage, the word "argument" means "data provided to a function or operation." You can give any Emacs command a "numeric argument" (also called a "prefix argument").
Another way of specifying an argument is to use the `C-u' (`universal-argument') command followed by the digits of the argument.
But `C-k' with no argument is special: it kills the text up to the next newline, or, if point is right at the end of the line, it kills the newline itself.
www.cs.cmu.edu /cgi-bin/info2www?(emacs)Arguments   (643 words)

  
 Logical fallacy
It is a flaw in the structure of an argument as opposed to an error in its premises.
In this approach, an argument is regarded as an interactive protocol between individuals which attempts to resolve a disputed proposition.
By definition, arguments with logical fallacies are invalid, but they can often be (re)written in such a way that they fit a valid argument form.
www.knowledgefun.com /book/l/lo/logical_fallacy.html   (1802 words)

  
 Jordan on Impeachment--Analysis of Argument and Arrangement
Jordan strongly counters this argument in three sentences; the President has given no indication that evidence is forthcoming (13); the President has been ordered by Congress to produce the evidence and has not (14); and the Committee has already waited in vain for iminent disclosure of evidence by the President (15).
With these opposing arguments cleared away, Jordan presents the most crucial segment of her arguments, namely, her direct and explicit reasoning that the President was guilty of impeachable offenses (15-23).
She then concludes the argument with a repetition of the criterion--implying that the criterion is met (18).
www.wam.umd.edu /~gaines/jordan.html   (1673 words)

  
 Barger on Legal Writing /
Reference in the argument portion of the parties' briefs to material found in the abstract and Addendum shall be followed by a reference to the page number of the abstract or Addendum at which such material may be found.
Counsel are expected to argue the case fully in the original briefs, and the brief on rehearing is not intended to afford an opportunity for a mere repetition of the argument already considered by the Court.
The brief shall contain an argument section that consists of a list of all rulings adverse to the defendant made by the circuit court on all objections, motions and requests made by either party with an explanation as to why each adverse ruling is not a meritorious ground for reversal.
www.ualr.edu /cmbarger/Abstracting_rule.html   (3385 words)

  
 cr94-928
A petition for rehearing is to be used to call attention to specific errors of law or fact which the opinion is thought to contain; the brief on rehearing is not intended to afford an opportunity for a mere repetition of the argument already considered by the court.
Echols first argues in his petition for rehearing that, if this court was correct in holding that his juror bias claim should have been raised in a motion for new trial, then he should now be permitted to argue that counsel's failure to file such a motion constituted ineffective assistance of counsel.
However, he argued this in his original briefs, and petitions for rehearing are not intended to allow an opportunity for "mere repetition of the argument already considered by this court." Ark. Sup.
courts.state.ar.us /opinions/2005a/20050224/cr94-928.html   (570 words)

  
 Jordan on Impeachment--Analysis of Argument, Arrangement, and Style
Here Jordan uses the indignation naturally arising from her character as the context for announcing her direction of argument.; in a climactic structure of three parallel phrases, she amplifies her emotion in disclosing that she is in favor of impeachment.
Jordan strongly counters this argument in three sentences; the President has given no indication that evidence is forthcoming (13); the President has been ordered by Congress to produce the evidence and has not (14); and the Committee has already waited in vain for imminent disclosure of evidence by the President (15).
I say this because, in the segment of argument which immediately follows, Jordan presents her most direct and explicit reasoning that the President was guilty of impeachable offenses (15-23).
www.wam.umd.edu /~gaines/jordan2.html   (2335 words)

  
 A List Of Fallacious Arguments
This fallacy is a variant of the Argument From Age.
Argument By Slogan are useful adjuncts, particularly if you can get the audience to chant the slogan.
This is a relative of Argument By Selective Observation, in that the arguer overlooks arguments that he does not like.
www.don-lindsay-archive.org /skeptic/arguments.html   (6778 words)

  
 Proposed XHTML Module: XForms Basic
If an element is declared as a repetition block but does not have a previous sibling that is a repetition template, then it can only take part in certain aspects of the repetition model (namely deletion and movement, and not addition).
By default, the index is equal to the number of repetition blocks present in the DOM tree between the repetition block and its template (so the first block's index defaults to 0, the second to 1, and so forth).
DOM attribute) when their repetition block could not be moved any higher according to the algorithm above, and when the buttons are not in a repetition block.
www.hixie.ch /specs/html/forms/xforms-basic-1-source   (10458 words)

  
 Web Forms 2.0
attribute, but the element has an ancestor that is a repetition block that is not an orphan repetition block, then the repetition template associated with that repetition block has its template replication behaviour invoked with the respective repetition block as its argument.
repetition template, then the new element is inserted into the parent of the template, immediately after the last repetition block found in the first step above, or after the template itself if there were no such repetition blocks.
repetition block that is not an orphan repetition block and whose template does have an ID, and that repetition block has not yet been added to the list of repetition blocks, it is added.
www.hixie.ch /specs/html/forms/web-forms-3   (11623 words)

  
 jed(1): programmers editor - Linux man page
A prefix argument to a command may be generated by first hitting the Esc key, then entering the number followed by pressing the desired key.
This illustrates the use of the repeat argument for repetition.
Used with a prefix argument aborts the act of defining the region and pops the Mark.
www.die.net /doc/linux/man/man1/jed.1.html   (667 words)

  
 Web Forms 2.0
attribute is activated, and it has an ancestor that is a repetition block that is not an orphan repetition block, then the repetition template associated with that repetition block has its template replication behaviour invoked with the respective repetition block as its argument.
For each sibling that is a repetition block (as defined above), if the repetition block's index is greater than or equal to the template's index, then the template's index is increased to the repetition block's index plus one.
If the first argument to the method was null, then the new element is inserted into the parent of the template, immediately before the template.
whatwg.org /specs/web-forms/2004-06-27-call-for-comments   (11532 words)

  
 Welcome to Knapp Petersen & Clarke - Publications - Litigation
The court rejected those arguments, holding: (1) that the HOA could choose not to cure the default and not to buy the condominium at the senior’s trustee’s sale (notwithstanding the extinguishment of its assessment lien under that sale, the HOA would still retain its right to sue to recover unpaid assessments [Civ.
Normally, transmutation agreements are used to indicate the intention of the parties to hold title as community property, regardless of how it is vested of record, so it is possible that such an agreement may be used to terminate the right of survivorship in appropriate circumstances.
The repetition of such phrases and use of language can be a very effective persuasive tool for the defense lawyer.
www.kpclegal.com /pub_spring_02.htm   (6001 words)

  
 GNU Emacs Manual: Arguments
It multiplies the argument for the next command by four.
These unusual cases will be described when they come up; they are always for reasons of convenience of use of the individual command.
ends the numeric argument, so that the following character always acts a key sequence to be executed.
sunsite.ualberta.ca /Documentation/Gnu/emacs-18.59/html_node/emacs_25.html   (409 words)

  
 Catholic Community Forum Discussion Groups - Tradition is
Rather than working argumentatively to a conclusion, it is expressed in such a way that the conclusion is already established, although it does provide some clues as to how its author got into the position that he did.
This argument appears in the course of the article, although its correctness is assumed from the outset.
In step (3) the argument equates "divine revelation" with "the deposit of faith", which identification is made in the third sentence of the article (and many times thereafter).
www.catholic-forum.com /forums/showthread.php?p=46307#post46307   (5779 words)

  
 Effects of exact and category repetition on true and false recognition memory
Know judgments were not influenced by number of repetitions or by whether spaced or massed repetition was used.
It appears from inspection of their tables that repetition increased false remember judgments somewhat while true remember judgments didn't change very much, resulting in the lower senstivity.
In exact repetition, spacing increases the distinctiveness of separate memory traces.
www.uark.edu /misc/lampinen/read/dewhurst99.htm   (536 words)

  
 GNU Emacs Manual: Moving by Defuns
If you repeat one of these commands, or use a positive numeric argument, each repetition moves to the next defun in the direction of motion.
with a negative argument moves back to an end of a defun, which is not quite the same as
This is an example of how major modes adjust the standard key bindings so that they do their standard jobs in a way better fitting a particular language.
jamesthornton.com /emacs/node/emacs_272.html   (284 words)

  
 Invitation to Islam: A Survival Guide
For some time the Christian will feel that he or she is getting the best of the argument in that way, and this will result in a situation in which he or she might be drawn into accepting rational thinking.
Constant repetition of a false statement wears down the hearer to the point that eventually he will accept it, even without supporting rational arguments.
This can be identified generally by the practice of imitating gestures of the person they are trying to control, by their repetition of phrases taken from the person’s speech, and by their introduction into the conversation of irrational, unrelated topics and stories without a point.
www.al-islam.org /invitationhowto/4.htm   (3568 words)

  
 How Not To Argue - FileFront Gaming Forums
Avoiding the argument by discrediting your opponent is probably the easiest way to get out of an argument, but it is also the least effective.
Instead of commenting on the actual argument, that “safety is not at odds with profit”, this statement attempts to refute the entire argument by offering an exaggerated example.
The fact that some arguments made for a policy are wrong does not imply that the policy itself is wrong.
forums.filefront.com /showthread.php?p=2986921#post2986921   (3069 words)

  
 Most profound South Park quote ever ! (and true, too !) (reddit.com)
That, however, is a theological argument, which I have been trying very hard to avoid, otherwise the reddit team will be after us months from now for filling up their servers with comments in a long dead topic.
Also the argument against "pain as a life lesson" is that God, being omnipotent, could create a situation where there is no pain but the lesson is still learned.
Look I agree that the arguments south park poses are underdeveloped in the context of a true debate, but that is not the intention of the show, nor was it likely to be the intention of the post that you disagreed with.
reddit.com /info/4s02/comments   (6988 words)

  
 Alan Fedoruk - Reference
An argument is "a connected series of statements to establish a definite proposition" [Pyt71].
A deductive argument is one whose conclusion follows validly from its premises; if the premises are true, then the conclusion is gauranteed to be true.
An inductive argument has several instances of a pattern as its premises, the conclusion is that the pattern holds in the general case.
pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca /~fedoruk/reference.html   (12425 words)

  
 Wikinfo | Argumentum ad nauseam   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Argumentum ad nauseam or argument from repetition is the false conception that a statement is likely to be true if it has been repeated over and over many times, possibly by different people.
This logical fallacy is commonly used as a form of rhetoric by politicans.
Images, some of which are used under the doctrine of Fair use or used with permission, may not be available.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Argumentum_ad_nauseam   (170 words)

  
 Repeating a Single Command
Epsilon commands, unless stated otherwise in their description, use a numeric argument as a repetition count if this makes sense.
The argument command, normally bound to Ctrl-U, specifies a numeric argument.
It prompts for the argument with a normal Epsilon numeric prompt, so that you can yank the number to use from the clipboard, or specify it with a different base like 0x1000 (for hexadecimal), or specify the number as a character code like
www.lugaru.com /man/Repeating.Commands.html   (346 words)

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