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# Topic: Argument

 Argument oral argument, a verbal presentation to a judge by a lawyer Argumentation theory, the science and theory of civil debates Argumentative, a type of evidentiary objection to a question for a witness during a trial www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/a/ar/argument.html   (384 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) The diagonal argument is an example of reductio ad absurdum because it proves a certain proposition (the interval (0,1) is not countably infinite) by showing that the assumption of its negation leads to a contradiction. A generalized form of the diagonal argument was used by Cantor to prove Cantor's theorem: for every set S the power set of S, i.e., the set of all subsets of S (here written as P(S)), is larger than S itself. Analogues of the diagonal argument are widely used in mathematics to prove the existence or nonexistence of certain objects. wikiwhat.com /encyclopedia/c/ca/cantor_s_diagonal_argument.html   (754 words)

 Chinese Room Argument [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] The Chinese room argument - John Searle's (1980a) thought experiment and associated (1984) derivation - is one of the best known and widely credited counters to claims of artificial intelligence (AI), i.e., to claims that computers do or at least can (someday might) think. The thrust of the argument is that it couldn't be just computational processes and their output because the computational processes and their output can exist without the cognitive state" (1980a, p. Beginning with objections published along with Searle's original (1980a) presentation, opinions have drastically divided, not only about whether the Chinese room argument is cogent; but, among those who think it is, as to why it is; and, among those who think it is not, as to why not. www.utm.edu /research/iep/c/chineser.htm   (3035 words)

 Ontological Argument [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] Thus, on this general line of argument, it is a necessary truth that such a being exists - and this being is, of course, the God of traditional theism. For example, the "fine-tuning" version of the design argument depends on empirical evidence of intelligent design; in particular, it turns on the empirical claim that, as a nomological matter, life could not have developed had certain fundamental properties of the universe differed even slightly from what they are. In contrast, the ontological arguments are conceptual in roughly the following sense: just as the propositions constituting the concept of a bachelor imply that every bachelor is male, the propositions constituting the concept of God, according to the ontological argument, imply that God exists. www.iep.utm.edu /o/ont-arg.htm   (6211 words)

 Cogprints - Searle's Chinese Room Argument   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Harnad, Stevan (2003) Searle's Chinese Room Argument, in Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Summary of Searle's "Chinese Room Argument" showing that cognition cannot be just computation. Searle implements a computer programme that can pass the Turing Test in Chinese. cogprints.org /4075   (707 words)

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