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Topic: Aristotles theory of universals


  
  Aristotle
Aristotle defines philosophy in terms of essence, saying that philosophy is "the science of the universal essence of that which is actual".
For Aristotle, therefore, philosophic method implies the ascent from the study of particular phenomena to the knowledge of essences, while for Plato philosophic method means the descent from a knowledge of universal ideas to a contemplation of particular imitations of those ideas.
Aristotle conducted projects of careful empirical investigation, but often drifted into abstract logical reasoning, with the result that his work was littered with conclusions that were not supported by empirical evidence; for example his assertion that objects of different mass fall at different speeds under gravity, which was later refuted by Galileo.
www.fastload.org /ar/Aristotle.html   (2314 words)

  
  Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Aristotles theory of universals
Aristotle thought--to put it in a not-very-enlightening way--that universals are simply types, properties[?], or relations[?] that are common to their various instances.
To further flesh out Aristotle's theory of universals, it is useful to consider how the theory might satisfy the constraints on theories of universals listed in the problem of universals article.
On Aristotle's view, the universal humanity is the same in all humans (i.e., all humans have that exact same type in common); and this allows us to form a concept of humanity that applies to all humans.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/ar/Aristotles_theory_of_universals   (683 words)

  
 Aristotle: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com
Aristotle defines philosophy in terms of essence, saying that philosophy is "the science of the universal essence of that which is actual".
For Aristotle, therefore, philosophic method implies the ascent from the study of particular phenomena to the knowledge of essences, while for Plato philosophic method means the descent from a knowledge of universal ideas to a contemplation of particular imitations of those ideas.
Aristotle conducted projects of careful empirical investigation, but often drifted into abstract logical reasoning, with the result that his work was littered with conclusions that were not supported by empirical evidence; for example his assertion that objects of different mass fall at different speeds under gravity, which was later refuted by Galileo.
www.encyclopedian.com /ar/Aristotle.html   (2305 words)

  
 Aristotle Biography from Basic Famous People - Biographies of Celebrities and other Famous People
Aristotle (in most languages other than English known as Aristoteles) was a Greek philosopher who lived from 384 to 322 BC.
In fact, Aristotle's notion of philosophy corresponds, generally speaking, to what was later understood to be science, as distinct from philosophy.
In the larger sense of the word, he makes philosophy coextensive with science, or reasoning: "All science (dianoia) is either practical, poetical or theoretical." By practical science he understands ethics and politics; by poetical, he means the study of poetry and the other fine arts; while by theoretical philosophy he means physics, mathematics, and metaphysics.
www.basicfamouspeople.com /index.php?aid=15   (1785 words)

  
 The vocabulary of ontology: Universals (History)
On the contrary, by at least one measure, his theory of universals is less extreme than Walter Burley's, as Wyclif himself observes.
In this narrower sense Ockham, for example was not a nominalist since the signs he thought of as universal were primarily those of a mental language, although he was certainly a nominalist in the broader sense I first proposed.
From the fact that Aristotle was not a conceptualist in the broad sense it will follow that he was not a nominalist, so the evidence against broad conceptualism argues against nominalism as well." pp.
www.formalontology.it /universals-history.htm   (1936 words)

  
 Suchmaschine
Both pupil and master regard philosophy as concerned with the universal; Aristotle, however, finds the universal in particular things, and called it the essence of things, while Plato finds that the universal exists apart from particular things, and is related to them as their prototype or exemplar.
Aristotle's conception of logic was the dominant form of logic up until the advances in mathematical logic in the 19th century.
Aristotle examines the concept of substance (ousia) in his Metaphysics, Book VII and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form.
www.dmoz.ch /lexikon.cgi?sprache=en&q=Aristotle   (5033 words)

  
 HYLE 9-2 (2003): Visualization in Medieval Alchemy
Its general theories of natural and artificial formation of substances were cast in terms of the prevailing Aristotelian and neo-Platonic philosophical frameworks.
As long as the conception of the universe as an organic whole prevailed, its dismembering and the experimental reproduction of natural mechanisms were neither thinkable nor realizable.[5] Despite multiple attempts at all-embracing explanations of substantial change, natural and artificial, as well as at systematization of operational procedures, theory remained divorced from experimental data.
[16] Aristotle 1990, 743a 29; Vuillemin 1967, pp.
www.hyle.org /journal/issues/9-2/obrist.htm   (11985 words)

  
  ARISTOTLE'S PSYCHOLOGY
Aristotle argues with some justification that all change and generation require the existence of something complex: when a statue comes to be from a lump of bronze, there is some continuing subject, the bronze, and something it comes to acquire, its new form.
Aristotle approaches his account of the nutritive soul by relying on a methodological precept which informs much of his psychological theorizing, namely that a capacity is individuated by its objects, so that, e.g., perception is distinguished from mind by being arrayed toward sensible qualities rather than intelligible forms (De Anima ii 4, 415a20-21).
Aristotle claims that perception is best understood on the model of hylomorphic change generally: just as a house changes from blue to white when acted upon by the agency of a painter applying paint, so "perception comes about with being changed and affected.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Column/1122/ARSTOTLE.htm   (6309 words)

  
 Aristotle's theory of universals
Aristotle's theory of universals is one of the classic solutions to the problem of universals.
Aristotle thought--to put it in a not-very-enlightening way--that universals are simply types, properties[?], or relations[?] that are common to their various instances.
To further flesh out Aristotle's theory of universals, it is useful to consider how the theory might satisfy the constraints on theories of universals listed in the problem of universals article.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/ar/Aristotles_theory_of_universals.html   (650 words)

  
 CalendarHome.com - - Calendar Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Both pupil and master regard philosophy as concerned with the universal; Aristotle, however, finds the universal in particular things, and called it the essence of things, while Plato finds that the universal exists apart from particular things, and is related to them as their prototype or exemplar.
Aristotle's conception of logic was the dominant form of logic up until the advances in mathematical logic in the 19th century.
Aristotle examines the concept of substance (ousia) in his Metaphysics, Book VII and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form.
encyclopedia.calendarhome.com /cgi-bin/encyclopedia.pl?p=Aristotle   (5024 words)

  
 20th WCP: Aristotle's Reform of Paideia
Aristotle begins Prior Analytics by asserting the aim of the inquiry is demonstration, implying that the study of the syllogism is the means toward that goal.
Aristotle warns that one may be deceived in what one takes to be a demonstration because the premises are true, and produce a syllogism with a true conclusion, but the cause cited is not an immediate cause.
Aristotle illustrates it by a syllogism that concludes that the planets are near because they do not twinkle, when the fact that the planets do not twinkle is explained by their being near.
www.bu.edu /wcp/Papers/Anci/AnciBark.htm   (2740 words)

  
 Aristotle - Crystalinks
Aristotle was born at Stageira, a colony of Andros on the Macedonian peninsula of Chalcidice in 384 BC.
Aristotle was probably influenced by his father's medical knowledge; when he went to Athens at the age of 18, he was likely already trained in the investigation of natural phenomena.
Aristotle says, "The form is the account (and the genera of the account) of the essence (for instance, the cause of an octave is the ratio two to one, and in general number), and the parts that are in the account."
www.crystalinks.com /aristotle.html   (3252 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Aristotle
The Universal as such, in its full-blown intelligibility, is the work of the mind, and exists in the mind alone though it has a foundation in the potentially universal essence which exists independently of the mind and outside the mind.
Mathematics was recognized by Aristotle as a division of philosophy, co-ordinate with physics and metaphysics, and is defined as the science of immovable being.
Aristotle answers that man's happiness is determined by the end or purpose of his existence, or in other words, that his happiness consists in the "good proper to his rational nature".
www.newadvent.org /cathen/01713a.htm   (5724 words)

  
 Expert About un:Universals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Although human universals were of considerable interest to early anthropologists, a later emphasis on sociocultural determinants of behavior produced an ambivalence both toward universals and the concept of human nature.
The universal features of singular things, inherent in these things themselves, were referred to as universalia in re (‘universals in the thing’), answering the universal exemplars in the divine mind, the universalia ante rem (‘universals before the thing’).
Depending on which of these items (universal features of singular things, their universal concepts, or their universal names) they regarded as the primary, really existing universals, it is customary to classify medieval authors as being realists, conceptualists, or nominalists.
www.expertsite.biz /dir/un/universals.htm   (2448 words)

  
 Aristotle's Metaphysics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Aristotle's description ‘the study of being qua being’ is frequently and easily misunderstood, for it seems to suggest that there is a single (albeit special) subject matter — being qua being — that is under investigation.
Aristotle proposes a solution that applies to definitions reached by the “method of division.” According to this method (see Aristotle's logic), one begins with the broadest genus containing the species to be defined, and divides the genus into two sub-genera by means of some differentia.
The answer Aristotle proposes is that the cause of being of a substance (e.g., of a house) is the form or essence that is predicated of the matter (e.g., of the bricks and stones) that constitute that substance.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/aristotle-metaphysics   (12935 words)

  
 THE PROBLEM OF THE SOUL IN ARISTOTLE’S De anima | Page 2
Aristotle gives, as an example of an incidental sensible, the sight of a white object as "the son of Diares." He is perceived incidentally as an accident of a white patch.
Air seems to Aristotle to be a universal carrier, though the intermediary for odor is water.
Aristotle's use of the ontological doctrine of matter and form to sensation is an advance on the earlier speculations of Greek philosophers.
www.socinian.org /aristotles_de_anima2.html   (4803 words)

  
 Aristotle's theory of universals at AllExperts
Aristotle's theory of universals is one of the classic solutions to the problem of universals.
Aristotle thought—to put it in a not-very-enlightening way—that universals are simply types, properties, or relations that are common to their various instances.
To further flesh out Aristotle's theory of universals, it is useful to consider how the theory might satisfy the constraints on theories of universals listed in the problem of universals article.
en.allexperts.com /e/a/ar/aristotle's_theory_of_universals.htm   (698 words)

  
 Universals: Common Ground or Potential Prison
The most readily available example of potential universals in daily life is of universal ethics, moral guidelines common to all humankind regardless of time and space.
The historical enemy of the theory of universals is relativism.
Conflicting claims that belief in the existence of ethical universals causes either tolerance and cooperation or intolerance and judgmental behavior lead one to decide that the theory of ethical universals exhibited as common motivations is the most plausible.
barney.gonzaga.edu /~kstout/Universals.htm   (1835 words)

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