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Topic: Artifact observational

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In the News (Thu 20 Jun 19)

 Artifact (observational) -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
For example, a (Click link for more info and facts about compression artifact) compression artifact in (The branch of engineering science that studies (with the aid of computers) computable processes and structures) computer science is a noticeable error caused by (Click link for more info and facts about lossy data compression) lossy data compression.
In (Research with the use of microscopes) microscopy, artifacts are sometimes introduced during the processing of samples into ((geology) the descent of a large mass of earth or rocks or snow etc.) slide form.
This prediction is a statistical artifact, since it is spurious to use the (A representative form or pattern) model when the percentage of citizens making over $50,000 is so high (and silly to predict an approval rating greater than 100%).
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/a/ar/artifact_(observational).htm   (184 words)

 Archaeology of a Vacant Lot
Many artifacts were scattered throughout the length of the fence, with more towards the street and the high artifact concentration near there, but they were not all confined to that one area.
The observational units were chosen based on their location (e.g., on the main path) and not because of the artifacts present (e.g., the unit in the high concentration area was chosen because it was in such an area and close to trees, not because there was a piece of wood there).
For example, near the tree and in the artifact concentration in the northwest corner, a piece of pottery was found that resembled the colour and texture of the piece found across the lot in unit 3.
home.bak.rr.com /astessandori/arch-lot.html   (3077 words)

 Lazarus taxon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lazarus taxa are observational artifacts that appear to occur either because of (local) extinction, later resupplied, or as a sampling artifact.
If the extinction is conclusively found to be total (global or worldwide) and the supplanting species is not a lookalike (an Elvis species), the observational artifact is overcome.
The fossil record is inherently imperfect and contains gaps not necessarily caused by extinction, particularly when the number of individuals in a taxon becomes very low.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Lazarus_taxa   (432 words)

 Artifact   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
An artifact (also artefact) is any object or process resulting from human activity.
Artifact Software Products for software development managers (Artifact Server) and for developers (CodeJack, Artifact Network) which help find, manage, and use code, and other programming resources, regardless of location.
Artifact Photo essay from the Frankfurt Ballet of the William Forsythe production with music from J. Bach and Eva Crossman-Hecht.
www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Artifact.html   (227 words)

 Compound Mediation in Software Development, Spinuzzi
The analytical framework is illustrated by an observational study of how 22 software developers in a global corporation used various textual artifacts to mediate their software development work.
To discuss how such groups of artifacts mediate activities, I turn to Edwin Hutchins' "ecologies of tools." Hutchins found that the many artifacts used on a naval vessel (such as astrolabes, compasses, sextants, and calculators) are arrayed and employed by multiple workers to transform data.
At the end of the observation period, I conducted a stimulated recall interview in which I asked the developer about (a) the artifacts that I had seen him or her using and (b) artifacts that he or she did not use in that session.
wac.colostate.edu /books/selves_societies/spinuzzi   (9482 words)

 [No title]
On the other hand, if testing by observation disproves the Hypothesis, and if the arguments for physical probe superiority are regarded as conclusive, then the case for the nonexistence of ETI based on the Fermi Paradox becomes far more compelling.
Artifact base sites would then be chosen strictly for reasons of efficiency, maintainability, or low environmental risk, and so should be observable by us.
Criterion (1) thus requires the artifact to be sited either in orbit near Earth or the Moon, or in an orbit which frequently carries it close enough to Earth to permit adequate periodic surveillance.
www.setv.org /online_mss/seta83.doc   (5990 words)

The Artifact Hypothesis states that an advanced extraterrestrial intelligence has undertaken a long-term programme of galactic exploration via the transmission of material artifacts.
Another possible function is interaction with the subjects under observation, either further to test and observe them or to influence their development in some way.
The formal observational status of the first four of the five primary orbital sites for extraterrestrial probes is given in Ref. 11 and will not be reviewed here, except to note that the record is woefully incomplete.
www.rfreitas.com /Astro/SETAJBISNov1983.htm   (5413 words)

 a CMB history
This observation, published in 1965, along with the work of Dicke, Peebles, Roll and Wilkinson was to hail the beginning of the moden CMB physics in cosmology.
Even though the CMB was expected to be an artifact of and earlier less structural complex phase the fluctuations should be between the $10^{-6}$ to the $10^{-5}$ level in order to be consistent with the simplest gravitational instability models.
It vindicated the idea that there should be small fluctuations in the early universe that would seed the formation of structure and promised to provide a testing ground for the physics describing the nature of the primordial fluctuations and hence large scale structure of the observable universe.
www.mth.uct.ac.za /~webpages/tim/backup/CMBhistory.html   (1949 words)

 Chapter IV
The general attribution of a stone artifact as a kind of "tool" is an aspectual fact about that stone artifact that fits it somewhere into a broad system of categorization important in archaeological knowledge having to do with stone technology and the systematic range and variation of stone artifact types over time and place.
To refer to the stone artifact as a "scraper" or a "micro-lith" or a "burin" is to further delineate aspectual "facts" that relate that particular object to a larger framework of knowledge.
We may conclude, after days of observation, that all swans in Australia are white, but we may not have sampled the total universe, and we may discover that in fact an occasional fl swan is born to white feathered parents, thus destroying the validity of our original inference.
www.lewismicropublishing.com /Publications/DiggingThePast/ChapterIV.htm   (6281 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Observational studies have consistently shown that people eating more fruits and vegetables, which are rich in ß carotene, and people having higher serum ß carotene concentrations have lower rates of cardiovascular disease and cancer.
For the observational studies the results relate to a comparison between groups with high and low ß carotene intake or serum ß carotene concentration, whereas in the trials the participants randomised to ß carotene supplements were compared with those randomised to placebo.
The suggestion that formal meta-analysis of observational studies can be misleading and that insufficient attention is often given to heterogeneity does not mean that researchers should return to writing highly subjective narrative reviews.
www.junkscience.com /news/bmjmeta2.htm   (3432 words)

 A Spacetime Map of the Universe
To escape from the observational tyranny of the one-way character of time, the finite velocity of light, and the linkage of both with space, we must find a way to disentangle the spatial and temporal dimensions so that we can map what "is" as well as what we are constrained to see.
An observational shell is the 2-dimensional inner surface of a hollow sphere whose radius is determined by the depth of the observer's view into space.
Because the observational shell is 2-dimensional, and we have lost 2 of the 3 spatial dimensions in the map, these shells, regardless of size, appear only as the dimensionless points of intersection between the observer's circle and the spatial circles.
www.people.cornell.edu /pages/jag8/spacetxt.html   (9841 words)

 UPA 2001 Tutorial 9 - The Art of Seeing: Observational Techniques for Learning About Users and Their World
Naturalistic observation requires that observational team members manage their focus, in order to maintain adequate attention.
A key element of her work has been ethnographic observational studies, especially international ones, which are a particular specialty of hers.
His experience in using behavioral data, observation, formal assessment, and interviewing to assess cognitive processes directly contribute to his skills in evaluating designs, identifying and analyzing usability problems, and recommending targeted solutions.
www.upassoc.org /conferences_and_events/upa_conference/2001/reg/program/tutorials/t9.html   (1036 words)

 Researchers determine global warming during the 20th century may be slightly larger than earlier estimates
These findings contrast with claims by greenhouse skeptics who contend that the warming seen in the observational record is an error introduced by incomplete and changing geographical coverage of temperature measurements.
The comparison enabled the researchers to assess the effect of missing observational data on the apparent temperature trend during the 20th century.
If the climate simulations are credible estimates of human effects on historical climate and of natural climate variations, it is extremely unlikely that missing observational data caused the 20th century’s warming to be overestimated.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2001-07/aaft-rd070301.php   (513 words)

 Review of Ophthalmology Online
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan artifacts are seen surprisingly frequently, adversely affect retinal thickness measurements in a high proportion of cases and are diagnosis-dependent, according to Investigators at Duke University Eye Center in Durham, NC.
Retinal scan artifacts, though not observed in normal eyes, were identified frequently in eyes with macular pathology.
Artifacts were observed in 43.2 percent of all scans; of these, an erroneous retinal thickness measurement was obtained in 62.2 percent.
www.revophth.com /archive/newsletter/ro_030705.htm   (1555 words)

Neandertals appear to have been responsible for the artifacts, but some of the artifact types represent a significant change from those used in the previous 200,000 years of Neandertal culture.
Innovation theorists posit that Neandertals developed the new artifacts independently as a response to conditions similar to those that led to their development elsewhere or that both Neandertals and modern humans developed more elaborate symbolic systems as a consequence of contact (d’Errico 2003).
Emulation is a form of observational learning in which the subject understands the goal but applies his or her own procedure for achieving it (Whiten and Ham 1992; Tomasello et al.
web.uccs.edu /twynn/Chatelperronian.htm   (7568 words)

 If They Are Here, Where Are They
This suggests an observational strategy in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), using existing or foreseeable instrumentation, which optimizes the probability of detection of such artifacts in the solar system.
From an observational standpoint all extraterrestrial artifacts fall into one of three classes: (I) Objects intended to be found, (II) objects intended not to be found, and (III) objects for which detection by us is irrelevant or unimportant.
Cislunar objects in equilibrium with the insolation having a bolometric emissivity ~0.1 and a Bond albedo ~0.1 have a temperature ~390 K and infrared magnitude N = +11 at lunar distance and N = +7 to +10 in the geocentric region for R = 1 m at 10 mm (Morrison, 1977; Hansen, 1977).
www.rfreitas.com /Astro/WhereAreThey1983.htm   (3148 words)

The overall observational research I conducted on the child allowed me to create a lesson that allowed the child to be both challenged and successful.
The second artifact that I have included is my second and third grade language development PowerPoint presentation.
The third artifact I have included is a block scheduling research paper I completed for a course in middle school.
www.thecoo.edu /~lydirk/researcher.htm   (568 words)

 IMEJ Article - Using LEGO Robotics in a Project-Based Learning Environment
This type of observational record cannot easily be described in text and still photos, nor does such a medium allow the richness of expression afforded by digital video and audio.
The production of an artifact, that is readily sharable with a larger community of learners, encourages students to make their ideas explicit.
Although students could express their thinking through a variety of sources (audio/video, written logs, physical construction, and computer programming), it was the use of video, as part of the PBL assessment and evaluation process, that appeared to be the most valuable element for both the teacher and students.
imej.wfu.edu /articles/2004/1/02/printver.asp   (3864 words)

 NOVA Online | Teachers | Classroom Activity | Neanderthals on Trial | PBS
Most scientists now believe that the artifact is actually a bone that has been pierced by the canine teeth of a predator.
In the case of the item students were interpreting, some scientists believed the artifact was a flute, supporting the idea that Neanderthals exhibited artistic expression.
It is part of scientific inquiry to evaluate the results of scientific investigations, experiments, observations, theoretical models, and the explanations proposed by other scientists.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/teachers/activities/2902_neandert.html   (916 words)

 PFEL-Climate Change & Global Warming 4
There is some disagreement about the amount of this warming, and even whether it is real or an artifact of observational error or bias.
The consensus of scientists and governmental climate agencies in many countries is represented by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments that conclude "An increasing body of observations gives a collective picture of a warming world and other changes in the climate system".
Other scientists believe this change is due primarily to natural fluctuations unrelated to human influences.
www.pfeg.noaa.gov /research/climatemarine/cmfclimate/cmfcc4.html   (531 words)

 CfPC > Embedded Systems
From an observational point of view a major problem is to make an embedded system behave understandable even in situations that have not been delt with explicitely during the design and implementation process.
When an embedded system is considered from an observational point of view the behaviour of the embedded system is described in categories different from the categories used to describe the internal actions of the control program.
To bridge this gap between categories the metaphore of an autonomous agent with a “body” of sensors and actuators situated in an environment might be useful during the design phase of embedded systems.
www.pervasivecomputing.dk /resAreas/embedSys/embedSys_summary.htm   (469 words)

 Guest Editorial -- Complementary SETI Research Strategies
While manifestations of ET mind and consciousness might also be possible, designing observational experiments to search for such exotic markers does not presently fit within the scope of SETI.
Some argue that extraterrestrial consciousness studies are a necessary ingredient, but observational SETI researchers are not ready to go there.
These artifacts might be robotic probes which emit energies that are detectable on Earth.
www.setileague.org /editor/s3eti.htm   (1110 words)

Criterion (2) requiring maximum lifespan implies that the artifact will attempt to spend as much time as possible in regions of low environmental hazard - e.g., minimum high-energy particle..intensities and electric and magnetic field densities, and minimum danger from micrometeorite and debris impacts.
Minimum organisational and operational complexity demands that the artifact not site itself in locations which may require it to undertake major external construction projects as a general product factory [24].
However, from a hardware standpoint this method of operation is less preferable since it introduces additional failure modes into the mission plan, requires the construction of a fact.
www.setv.org /online_mss/seta83.html   (5407 words)

 Artifact (observational) Encyclopedia Article, Definition, History, Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
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www.alienartifacts.com /encyclopedia/Artifact_(observational)   (375 words)

 A Spacetime Map of the Universe
To escape from the observational tyranny of the one-way character of time and the finite velocity of light, we must find a way to disentangle the spatial and temporal dimensions so that we can map what "is" as well as what we are constrained to see.
We recall that in the collapsing phase we would be somewhere "south of the equator" on the spherical map; the sizes of the earlier Universes are proportional to the length of the "latitude" lines associated with their time periods.
However, the increasingly large observational shells intersect increasingly densely populated regions of space, since the smaller universes nevertheless contain the same total number of galaxies as the larger ones.
www.people.cornell.edu /pages/jag8/stext.html   (9291 words)

 Assessment in Writing Workshop
Through the use of regular observational assessments, conferences with students, and written feedback, I am able to evaluate and support students’ development of writing skills and concepts related to the writing process.
The observational checksheet demonstrates how I track student learning on a daily basis while my assessment goals and student rubric outline the goals, targets, and expectations of student learning.
A student is able to work at a level and with a subject that they find comfortable but are constantly encouraged and expected to raise their level of achievement and broaden their horizons of experience.
www.theknowe.net /portfolio/assessment.html   (1157 words)

 Glossary - Facts - The Triumph of Form Over Content   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
An artifact can be an object that was made for some practical purpose, or the product of human activities.
For example, IQ may be an authentic, measurable property of the human brain, or it may just be an artifact created by the ways in which we analyze IQ tests.
Like artifacts, facts do not have a life of their own out in the world; people make facts.
www3.sympatico.ca /taylormcgreal/facts.html   (885 words)

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