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Topic: Artificial intelligence

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  Artificial intelligence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that deals with intelligent behavior, learning, and adaptation in machines.
In many strong AI supporters’ opinion, artificial consciousness is considered as the holy grail of artificial intelligence.
Many practical applications are dependent on artificial neural networks — networks that pattern their organization in mimicry of a brain's neurons, which have been found to excel in pattern recognition.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Artificial_intelligence   (1818 words)

 Portal:Artificial intelligence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is defined as intelligence exhibited by an artificial (non-natural, man-made) entity.
The philosophy of AI As is often the case with a nascent science, Artificial Intelligence ('AI') has enough confusing questions at the fundamental, conceptual level to warrant philosophical as well as scientific work.
An artificial neural network (ANN), also called a simulated neural network (SNN) (but the term neural network (NN) is grounded in biology and refers to very real, highly complex plexus), is an interconnected group of artificial neurons that uses a mathematical or computational model for information processing based on a connectionist approach to computation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Portal:Artificial_intelligence   (589 words)

 Artificial Intelligence: Encyclopedia of Management
The term "intelligence" is difficult to define, and has been the subject of heated debate by philosophers, educators, and psychologists for ages.
Intelligence includes the capacity to learn, maintain a large storehouse of knowledge, utilize commonsense reasoning, apply analytical abilities, discern relationships between facts, communicate ideas to others and understand communications from others, and perceive and make sense of the world around us.
Thus, artificial intelligence systems are computer programs that exhibit one or more of these behaviors.
business.enotes.com /management-encyclopedia/artificial-intelligence   (156 words)

 Emerging Technologies Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence (Indiana University)- Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that studies the computational requirements for tasks such as perception, reasoning, and learning, and develops systems to perform those tasks.
Artificial Intelligence Tutorial Review (Department of Psychology, University of Toronto)- This document was developed for those interested in the field of Artificial Intelligence, especially as it relates to the ongoing investigations in psychology aimed at understanding the human mind.
Artificial intelligence scopes out spam (Network Fusion Magazine)- In the cat-and-mouse game of the antispam industry, staying one step ahead of spammers is difficult because they constantly exploit the weaknesses of e-mail keyword filtering.
emergingtech.ittoolbox.com /topics/t.asp?t=310&p=310&h1=310   (1461 words)

 Artificial Intelligence: Introduction Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Consciousness, Nets and the Future 
We first discuss how we might recognize intelligence in a machine and to what extent neural networks and other approaches to AI can be said to have met this criteria.
A whole new science was born with the aim of producing such intelligent machines - the subject of artificial intelligence or AI.
Many researchers now believe that part of the reason for this failure was that traditional computers function in a way very different from the brain and that the key to true intelligent machines lies in understanding in detail the functioning of the brain and emulating this with artificial neural networks.
brain.web-us.com /brain/ai.html   (909 words)

 Artificial Intelligence To appear, Van Nostrand Scientific Encyclopedia, Ninth Edition, Wiley, New York, 2002.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that studies the computational requirements for tasks such as perception, reasoning, and learning, and develops systems to perform those tasks.
Intelligent artifacts appear in Greek mythology; the idea of developing ways to perform reasoning automatically, and efforts to build automata to perform tasks such as game-playing, date back hundreds of years.
Intelligent tutoring systems make it possible to provide students with more personalized attention, and even for the computer to listen to what children say and respond to it (http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~listen/).
www.cs.indiana.edu /~leake/papers/p-01-07/p-01-07.html   (4399 words)

 Thoughts on Artificial Intelligence
Although there is no clear definition of AI (not even of intelligence), it can be described as the attempt to build machines that think and act like humans, that are able to learn and to use their knowledge to solve problems on their own.
Thus, an artificial mind would also need the 'ability' to die, as well as that to mate and replicate, otherwise the resulting being would be beyond any recognition by a human mind.
This naturally leads to the idea of a higher principle of Intelligence, that human intelligence is only one manifestation of (in order to distinguish between the traditional human intelligence and this new idea of a more general concept, I want to spell the latter with a capital I: Intelligence).
www.kosara.net /thoughts/ai.html   (2189 words)

 Artificial intelligence - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article
Artificial intelligence (AI) is defined as intelligence exhibited by an artificial (non-natural, manufactured) entity.
Research in AI is concerned with producing useful machines to automate human tasks requiring intelligent behavior.
The vision of artificial intelligence replacing human professional judgment has arisen many times in the history of the field, and today in some specialized areas where "expert systems" are routinely used to augment or to replace professional judgment in some areas of engineering and of medicine.
www.startsurfing.com /encyclopedia/a/r/t/Artificial_intelligence.html   (1374 words)

 Artificial intelligence - Future
Artificial intelligence is a field that attempts to provide machines with human-like thinking.
The promises of the artificial intelligence were summed up in the classic 1968 movie 2001: A Space Odyssey featuring artificially intelligent computer HAL 9000.
Intelligence Distribution Agent (IDA), developed for the U.S. Navy, helps assign sailors new jobs at the end of their tours of duty by negotiating with them via email.
future.wikia.com /wiki/Artificial_intelligence   (839 words)

 Basic Questions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world.
Jen98], a leading researcher in human intelligence, suggests ``as a heuristic hypothesis'' that all normal humans have the same intellectual mechanisms and that differences in intelligence are related to ``quantitative biochemical and physiological conditions''.
A few people think that human-level intelligence can be achieved by writing large numbers of programs of the kind people are now writing and assembling vast knowledge bases of facts in the languages now used for expressing knowledge.
www-formal.stanford.edu /jmc/whatisai/node1.html   (2069 words)

 What Is Artificial Intelligence?
Artificial Intelligence by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig, Prentice Hall is the most commonly used textbbook in 1997.
The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), the European Coordinating Committee for Artificial Intelligence (ECCAI) and the Society for Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behavior (AISB) are scientific societies concerned with AI research.
Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence, and Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, and IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence are four of the main journals publishing AI research papers.
www.kurzweilai.net /articles/art0088.html?printable=1   (3720 words)

 Artificial Intelligence   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the science of designing computers and machines to solve problems just like humans do.
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine systems are created to support healthcare workers in the normal daily duties; they are best at assisting with tasks that rely on the manipulation of data and knowledge.
The designers of artificial intelligence systems are ethically obligated to develop accurate and reliable systems that can be used to aid in patient care making sure they are cognizant that they are designing systems and creating decision-support tools that people's lives may depend on.
www.journeyofhearts.org /jofh/jofh_old/minf_528/ai.htm   (2361 words)

 Open Directory - Computers: Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Brains - Articles on artificially intelligent hardware, organized to give topical overviews.
CMU Artificial Intelligence Repository - Free software and materials of general interest to AI researchers, educators, students, and practitioners.
Heuristics and artificial intelligence in finance and investment - Resources on general heuristics, neural networks, genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and tabu search: databases, articles, references, journals, software, links, conferences and education.
dmoz.org /Computers/Artificial_Intelligence   (534 words)

 AI Overview
But slowly artificial intelligence is making its way into the mainstream and the process is drawing in graduates from a many fields as its full potential begins to dawn.
Preface: "Although artificial intelligence, like most engineering disciplines, must justify itself to the world of commerce by providing solutions to practical problems, we entered the field of AI for the same reasons as many of our colleagues and students: we want to understand and explore the mechanisms of mind that enable intelligent thought and action.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the established name for the field we have defined as computational intelligence (CI), but the term 'artificial intelligence' is a source of much confusion.
www.aaai.org /AITopics/html/overview.html   (5824 words)

 Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the area of computer science focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviors that humans consider intelligent.
The ability to create intelligent machines has intrigued humans since ancient times, and today with the advent of the computer and 50 years of research into AI programming techniques, the dream of smart machines is becoming a reality.
This site is an educational overview of Artificial Intelligence, created for ThinkQuest, a national web design competition.
library.thinkquest.org /2705   (299 words)

 Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the key technology in many of today's novel applications, ranging from banking systems that detect attempted credit card fraud, to telephone systems that understand speech, to software systems that notice when you're having problems and offer appropriate advice.
Waltz is President-Elect of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence and was elected a Fellow of AAAI in 1990.
He was President of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Special Interest Group on Artificial Intelligence from 1977-79, and served as Executive Editor of Cognitive Science from 1983-86 and as AI Editor for Communications of the ACM from 1981-84.
www.cs.washington.edu /homes/lazowska/cra/ai.html   (1797 words)

 The World Wide Web Virtual Library: Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Belgium.
Artificial Intelligence books which may be ordered on-line from Reiter Books.
Artificial Intelligence Group and Inductive Learning Group, The Beckman Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.
www.afm.sbu.ac.uk /ai   (698 words)

 Beckman Institute: Artificial Intelligence
The Artificial Intelligence group pursues a broad range of topics spanning robotics, vision, knowledge representation, learning, image processing, scheduling, reasoning, decision and information systems, and natural language processing.
One important artificial intelligence research direction at the Beckman Institute examines computational aspects of biological intelligence.
Observations and theories of human intelligence become guiding principles for artificial intelligence research helping to refine the cognitive theories.
www.beckman.uiuc.edu /research/hcii/ai.html   (460 words)

 IBM Research | IBM Research | Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the study of how computer systems can simulate intelligent processes such as learning, reasoning, and understanding symbolic information in context.
Although it is most commonly viewed as a subfield of computer science, and draws upon work in algorithms, databases, and theoretical computer science, AI also has close connections to the neurosciences, cognitive science and cognitive psychology, mathematical logic, and engineering.
AI Research at IBM goes far beyond game-playing programs and is at the forefront of many of the hottest areas of Artificial Intelligence.
domino.research.ibm.com /comm/research.nsf/pages/r.ai.html   (380 words)

 Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science at The University of Georgia
This comprises both classical artificial intelligence, which focuses on getting computers to behave intelligently, and newer approaches to cognitive computing, where the computer is seen as an extension rather than a model of the human mind.
The Artificial Intelligence Center is an interdepartmental research and instructional center within the Franklin College of Arts and Sciences of the University of Georgia.
The Artificial Intelligence Center houses two degree programs, the Master of Science program in Artificial Intelligence and the bachelor's degree program in Cognitive Science.
www.ai.uga.edu   (268 words)

 AI from TAU - Useful Links
Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence - Part 4 of David Chalmers' remarkable Contemporary Philosophy of Mind: An Annotated Bibliography.
CMU Artificial Intelligence Repository - A very rich collection of files, programs and publications of interest to Artificial Intelligence researchers, educators, and students.
Compiled by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig, the authors of Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach.
www.tau.ac.il /humanities/philos/ai/links.html   (928 words)

 Artificial Intelligence   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The term "Artificial Intelligence" has been defined dozens of different ways, but we all know instinctively what is meant by real AI; it means an AI that is smart, that can understand things, that can talk with us intelligently, understand us at least as well as we understand it.
A real AI may not be able to pass for human, and it may not think the same way humans do, but it will be, fundamentally, the equal of a human being.
Again, the intuitive definition of "transhuman Artificial Intelligence" is exactly what we mean; if the mind is vastly better than a human at virtually everything, that's a transhuman AI.
www.singinst.org /intro/AI.html   (478 words)

 Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
We will become capable of technologically creating smarter-than-human intelligence, perhaps through enhancement of the human brain, direct links between computers and the brain, or Artificial Intelligence.
The Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence was created in the belief that the Singularity represents a tremendous opportunity to accomplish good.
The Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence (SIAI) is a nonprofit research think tank and public interest institute for the study and advancement of beneficial artificial intelligence and ethical cognitive enhancement.
singinst.org   (482 words)

 BBC - Science & Nature - Hot Topics - Artificial Intelligence (AI)
This question underlies artificial intelligence (AI), the study of intelligent behaviour in machines.
One of the most difficult problems in artificial intelligence is that of consciousness.
Steven Spielberg’s AI: Artificial Intelligence (2002) paints a more sympathetic view of artificial life, depicting sensitive robots that are abused by brutal, selfish human masters.
www.bbc.co.uk /science/hottopics/ai   (757 words)

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