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# Topic: Astronomical year numbering

 CalendarHome.com - Astronomical year numbering - Calendar Encyclopedia So the year 1 BCE is numbered 0, the year 2 BCE is numbered −1, and in general the year n BCE is numbered (1−n). For normal calculation a number zero is often needed, here most notably when calculating the number of years in a period that spans the epoch; the end years need only be subtracted from each other. However, both of these astronomers used the applicable BC/AD designations of Latin and French with their year zero, thus near the epoch the years were designated 2 BC, 1 BC, 0, AD 1, AD 2, etc. They did not use −/0/+. encyclopedia.calendarhome.com /Astronomical_year_numbering.htm   (341 words)

 Year numbering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Year numbering is the assignment of integers to calendar years for the purpose of uniquely identifying the years. The numbering system devised by Dionysius Exiguus in AD 525 is still the most common, which is based on the year he assigned to the birth of Jesus, It is now believed that he was born four to eight years earlier. In AH 17, the year AH 1 was assigned to the year during which Muhammad emigrated from Mecca to the city of Medina. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Year_numbering   (1304 words)

 Astronomical year numbering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia So the year 1 BCE is numbered 0, the year 2 BCE is numbered −1, and in general the year n BCE is numbered (1−n). For normal calculation a number zero is often needed, here most notably when calculating the number of years in a period that spans the epoch; the end years need only be subtracted from each other. However, both of these astronomers used the applicable BC/AD designations of Latin and French with their year zero, thus near the epoch the years were designated 2 BC, 1 BC, 0, AD 1, AD 2, etc. They did not use −/0/+. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Astronomical_year_numbering   (339 words)

 Common Era   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23) The Common Era refers to the conventional numbering of years (in the Julian and Gregorian calendars) from an epoch based on the traditionally reckoned year of the birth of Jesus Christ. This convention for year numbering was introduced by the christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in 525 CE, although it was not widely used until later. These abbreviations are placed after the year number, which is counted backward from 1; that is, the first year before the epoch is "1 B.C.", the second year before the epoch is "2 B.C.", etc. Years after the epoch are denoted A.D. (for Anno Domini, Latin for "in the year of the Lord"). www.booklists.net /encyclopedia/common_era.html   (296 words)

 Year zero - Psychology Central   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23) However astronomers, for whom ease of mathematical calculation is more important, have used for several centuries a defined leap year zero equal to BC 1 of the traditional Christian era. Had there been a year zero, which might be considered part of the first millenium, then 1 January 2000 would indeed mark 2000 years since the year numbering datum and be the start of the third millenium. Use of Astronomical year numbering cannot be used to support year 2000 as the first year of the 3rd millennium because the year zero (which corresponds to 1 BC) is still not considered part of the first millenium AD. psychcentral.com /psypsych/Year_Zero   (1968 words)

 Year zero Did You Mean year_zero   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23) The anno Domini method of numbering years was not widely used in Western Europe until the 9th century, and the 1 January to 31 December historical year was not uniform throughout Western Europe until 1752. By the mid 20th century, all astronomers were using negative years before year 0 (hence the sequence ?1, 0, 1). Astronomical year numbering cannot be used to support year 2000 as the first year of the 3rd millennium because of uncertainty regarding astronomical millennia. www.did-you-mean.com /Year_zero.html   (1281 words)

 NASA - Year Dating Conventions The scheme is based on Exiguus' determination of the year in which Jesus Christ was born. Fortunately, there is an alternative which preserves the year numbering established by Exiguus and now an unavoidable legacy of the historical record. The astronomical year 0 corresponds to the year 1 BCE, while the astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE. sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov /eclipse/SEhelp/dates.html   (459 words)

 Millennium - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23) This ordinal numbering is still present in the names of the millennia and centuries, for example 1st Millennium or the 20th century, and sometimes in the names of decades, e.g. The "year 2000" has also been a popular phrase referring to an often utopian future, or a year when stories in such a future were set, adding to its cultural significance. Similarly, it would be valid to celebrate the year 2000 as a cultural event in its own right, and name the period 2000 to 2999 as "the 2000s". www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Millennia   (1048 words)

 The Julian and Gregorian Calendars The system of numbering years A.D. (for "Anno Domini") was instituted in about the year 527 A.D. by the Roman abbot Dionysius Exiguus, who reckoned that the Incarnation had occurred on March 25 in the year 754 a.u.c., with the birth of Jesus occurring nine months later. In that case 1 A.D. is the second year, and 999 A.D. is the 1000th year, of the first Christian millennium, implying that 1999 A.D. is the final year of the second Christian millennium and 2000 A.D. the first year of the third. Astronomers designate years prior to 1 A.D. by means of zero and negative numbers, according to the sequence of numbers..., -2, -1, 0, 1, 2,.... hermetic.nofadz.com /cal_stud/cal_art.html   (3479 words)

 The Goddess Lunar Calendar A year has a 13th month if and only if the number of that year is divisible by 3 or if the digits of the year sum to 2, 22 or 23. The year 2-1003 is not a long year because the digits of the year sum to 4 (= 1 + 0 + 0 + 3) and 1003 is not divisible by 3. Although astronomers cannot actually predict very far ahead (see Comment On Future Accuracy), we can at least say that, on average, the years of the Goddess Calendar can be expected to accord with the seasons for several millennia yet. serendipity.nofadz.com /hermetic/cal_stud/lunarcal/lunarcal.htm   (3228 words)

 Judaism 101: Jewish Calendar A few years ago, I was in a synagogue, and I overheard one man ask another, "When is Chanukkah this year?" The other man smiled slyly and replied, "Same as always: the 25th of Kislev." This humorous comment makes an important point: the date of Jewish holidays does not change from year to year. However, the Jewish New Year is in Tishri, the seventh month, and that is when the year number is increased. After many years of blissful ignorance, I finally sat down and worked out the mathematics involved, and I have added a page on The Jewish Calendar: A Closer Look, which may be of interest to those who want a deeper understanding or who want to write a Jewish calendar computer program. www.jewfaq.org /calendar.htm   (1587 words)

 wikien.info: Main_Page : A/AS/AST   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23) Astrocytosis (astrogliosis) is an abnormal increase in the number of astrocytes due to the destruction of nearby neurons, typically because of hypoglycemia or oxygen deprivation. An \'\'\'astronomer\'\'\' or \'\'\'astrophysicist\'\'\' is a scientist whose area of research is astronomy or astrophysics.\n \n\nAstronomy is generally thought to have begun in ancient Babylon by the Persian Zoroastrian priests (the \'\'magi\'\'). In astronomical year numbering, the year 1 BC is numbered 0, the year 2 BC is numbered −1, and in general the year n BC is numbered −(n − 1). www.hostingciamca.com /browse.php?title=A/AS/AST   (10605 words)

 Help: Time zones   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23) Years before 1 AD must be entered in astronomical year style as negative numbers. The astronomical year -1 corresponds to the historical year 2 BC. The difference arises from the fact that the astronomical year numbering has a year zero, while in the historical year numbering 1 BC is followed by 1 AD. www.astro.com /cgi/h.cgi?f=hade&h=tzhelp&lang=e   (348 words)

 Boulder Community Network, Y2K, Julian and Gregorian Day Numbers The Julian Day number system was invented by Joseph Justus Scaliger (born 1540-08-05 J in Agen, France, died 1609-01-21 J in Leiden, Holland), who during his life immersed himself in Greek, Latin, Persian and Jewish literature. The younger Scaliger combined three traditionally recognized temporal cycles of 28, 19 and 15 years to obtain a great cycle, the Scaliger cycle, or Julian period, of 7980 years (7980 is the least common multiple of 28, 19 and 15). Astronomers adopted this system and adapted it to their own purposes, and they took noon GMT -4712-01-01 as their zero point. bcn.boulder.co.us /y2k/y2kbcalc.htm   (1530 words)

 Calendars - Numericana The Julian day number associated with the solar day is the number assigned to a day in a continuous count of days beginning with the Julian day number 0 assigned to the day starting at Greenwich mean noon on 1 January 4713 BC, Julian proleptic calendar -4712. This numbering scheme was invented aound 1583, in the wake of the Gregorian reform, by Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609). The astronomical event which was once observed to mark the beginning of the actual Inundation (as opposed to the calendrical one) was the so-called heliacal rising of Sirius, the brightest star in the sky. home.att.net /~numericana/answer/calendar.htm   (8129 words)

 When Did the New Millennium Begin? There was no year zero when Pope Gregory XIII introduced the Gregorian Calendar in the 16th Century but there certainly is one now (and in the future), and the new millennium in the Common Era Calendar began in 2000 CE. Dionysius's estimate of the year of Jesus's birth was off by about five years (Jesus was born in 6 B.C. at earliest, when the Emperor Augustus issued a decree for a census, and in 4 B.C. at latest, when Herod died). In this case they are free to begin millennia from the years 1, 1001, 2001, and so on (in which case the third millennium begins on 1st January 2001), or from the years 0, 1000, 2000, and so on (in which case the third millennium begins on 1st January 2000). www.hermetic.ch /cal_stud/newmill.htm   (2268 words)

 The Millenium Controversy And unlike the year (time it takes to go around the Sun), month (approximate time for the moon to circle the earth) and even week (time between major phases of the moon), centuries and millennia have no physical significance beyond the fact that we have ten fingers. Astronomers have needed to do calculations extending before the birth of Christ for years, and so they were the first to feel the effects of not having a year zero. Astronomical year zero is 1 B.C. Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 B.C. but -43 in astronomical years. www.uwgb.edu /dutchs/PSEUDOSC/y2000rt.HTM   (1716 words)

 SWISS EPHEMERIS The astronomical year numbering system does have a year zero; years before the common era are indicated by negative year numbers. Since many years this institute which is in charge of the planetary missions of NASA has been the source of the highest precision planetary ephemerides. The motion of the vernal equinox, which is an effect of the influences of solar, lunar, and planetary gravity on the equatorial bulge of the earth. www.astro.com /swisseph/swisseph.htm   (3761 words)

 Proleptic Gregorian calendar - Free net encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23) In this system the year 1 BC is a leap year (likewise in the proleptic Julian calendar). This is the convention used in astronomical year numbering and in the international standard date system, ISO 8601. Note that the Julian calendar was in actual use after AD 4, until 1582 or later (see From Julian to Gregorian), so historians and astronomers prefer to use the actual Julian calendar during that period. www.netipedia.com /index.php/Proleptic_Gregorian_calendar   (219 words)

 The difference between the Millennium and year 2000 [Free Republic] When going to year 2000, we celebrate that it's a special round number, and in year 2001 we can celebrate a new century, a new Millennium, and that it's passed 2000 years since year 1 started. It's year 2000 that would cause that problem in most cases, not the Millennium/century-shift in year 2001, except for places where code is based on century/Millennium-code, which might be a problem in seldom cases. The main problem with year 2000 is that computers may think it is year 1900 or similar, because they were programmed to use only two digits for year, then presuming that it was 19xx, so when xx=0, they might think it is 1900. www.freerepublic.com /forum/a386cd116140a.htm   (970 words)

 M Minus 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23) The year numbering of the time was from the ascendancy of the Roman Emperor Diocletian. The year reckoning in Rome before Diocletian was counted back to the legendary founding of Rome seen with the initials A.U.C. What Dionysius was after was a time reckoning based on the birth of Christ. In any case on either date I'll be home by the phone supporting my client banks through their year end processing, as I have for the past more than 20 years. ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/bmoler/mminus2.htm   (518 words)

 The Solar Terms and the Chinese 60 Year Calendar Cycle Chinese astronomy divides the year into twenty-four parts, based on the longitude of the sun on the ecliptic, called "Solar Terms." As recounted in "Groundhog Day and Chinese Astronomy", the Chinese seasons begin at the midpoints between the solstices and equinoxes, not at the solstices and equinoxes themselves. The Chinese New Year, according to the rule of the T'ai-ch'u Era (104 BC) of the Emperor Wu Ti of the Former Han Dynasty, is the Second New Moon after the Winter Solstice, which amounts, roughly, to the Closest New Moon to the Solar Term "Spring Begins" (February 3/4). The terms given "P" numbers are called "principal terms," zhongqi, correspond to the beginning of Zodiacal periods and are used to determine the numbering of the lunar months. www.friesian.com /chinacal.htm   (1144 words)

 Learn more about Time in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23) The work humanity has done to increasingly understand the nature and measurement of time, through the work of making and improving calendars and clocks, has been a major engine of scientific discovery. The standard unit for time is the SI second, from which larger units are defined like the minute, hour, day, week, month, year, decade, and century. Having had a number of prescient dreams, he monitored his dreams and found that they generally included as many past as future events. www.onlineencyclopedia.org /t/ti/time.html   (911 words)

 Legion XXIV - New Millennium and Why No Year Zero Our current numbering of years was instituted around 526 AD, by the Roman and Christian Monk Dionysius Exiguus, aka "Dennis the Little"; based on his estimate of the year when Christ (aka Joshua bar Joseph) had been born. Dionysius, however, was off by a few years in his calculations; as the postulated date of Christ’s Birth is now considered to have occurred on April 17, 6 BC, about two years prior to the death of Herod, Governor of Judea, in 4 BC, as documented in the Holy Scriptures. The year 1600 was a leap year in both the "Julian" and "Gregorian (reformed)" calendars; but, 1700, 1800 and 1900 were leap years only in the un-reformed Julian calendar. www.legionxxiv.org /dateyeartime   (3960 words)

 Mother Tongue Annoyances » Speaking of Centuries In all dating systems, centuries are essentially numbered ordinally, as time is a purely relative notion (its physical existence, though indispensable for our understanding of reality, still remains unproven in theory). As far as numbering years within centuries is concerned, the contemporary convention appears to be the use of the astronomical year numbering system, whereby centuries are considered beginning with year 0 and proceeding to year 99. The reason why I pointed out the astronomical numbering system is that there are those who hold that years within a century ought to be numbered beginning with year 1 and proceeding to year 100. www.mtannoyances.com /?p=275   (535 words)

 FrontPage magazine.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23) The Common Era refers to the conventional Gregorian numbering of years from an epoch based on the traditionally reckoned year of the birth of Jesus Christ. This convention for year numbering was introduced by Christians in the 6th century, although it was not widely used until later. Due to the dominant influence of Christianity in the development of Western civilization over the last 2,000 years, the initials B.C. (or A.C.N) and A.D. have been used, to a large extent without question, for many centuries. www.frontpagemag.com /GoPostal/commentdetail.asp?ID=5195&commentID=42419   (211 words)

 Taxanalysis, Inc. - Cash Flow Training & Software Specialists   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23) Widespread understanding of the Year 2000 challenge is an emerging phenomenon. (Note that 4713 B.C. is the year -4712 according to the astronomical year numbering.) The Julian day number of 1996-03-31 is 2,450,174 meaning that on 1996-03-31 2,450,174 days had elapsed since -4712-01-01 (or more exactly, that at noon on 1996-03-31 2,450,174 days had elapsed since noon on -4712-01-01). Division is to be understood as in integer arithmetic, with the remainders discarded. www.taxanalysis.com /y2k.html   (1031 words)

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