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# Topic: Asymmetric key algorithm

###### In the News (Thu 23 May 19)

 Encryption (Linux Reviews) Algorithms used earlier in the history of cryptography are substantially different from modern methods, and modern ciphers can be classified according to how they operate and whether they use one or two keys. In a symmetric key algorithm (e.g., DES and AES), the sender and receiver must have a shared key set up in advance and kept secret from all other parties; the sender uses this key for encryption, and the receiver uses the same key for decryption. In an asymmetric key algorithm (e.g., RSA), there are two separate keys: a public key is published and enables any sender to perform encryption, while a private key is kept secret by the receiver and enables only him to perform decryption. linuxreviews.org /dictionary/Encryption   (1397 words)

 SSH - Support - Cryptography A-Z - Algorithms - Public Key Cryptosystems One possible algorithm for factoring an integer is to divide the input by all small prime numbers iteratively until the remaining number is prime. The underlying algorithm DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm) is similar to the one used by ElGamal or by the Schnorr signature algorithm. There is no known sub-exponential algorithm for computing discrete logarithms of points of elliptic curves unlike for discrete logarithms in (the multiplicative group of) a finite field, in hyperelliptic curves (of large genus) or in many other groups. www.ssh.com /support/cryptography/algorithms/asymmetric.html   (4043 words)

 Public-key cryptography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia An asymmetric key cryptosystem was published in 1976 by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman, who, influenced by Ralph Merkle's work on public key distribution, disclosed a method of public key agreement. Another potential security vulnerability in using asymmetric keys is the possibility of a man in the middle attack, in which communication of public keys is intercepted by a third party and modified to provide different public keys instead. Whatever the cryptographic assurance of the protocols themselves, the association between a public key and its owner is ultimately a matter of subjective judgement on the part of the trusted third party, since the key is a mathematical entity whilst the owner, and the connection between owner and key, are not. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Asymmetric_key   (4282 words)

 Public Key Cryptography...Encryptoo.com Public-key algorithms typically use a pair of two related keys — one key is private and must be kept secret, while the other is made public and can be widely distributed; it should not be possible to deduce one key of a pair given the other. The first asymmetric key algorithm was invented, secretly, by Clifford Cocks (then a recent mathematics graduate and a new staff member at GCHQ in the UK) early in the 1970s, and reinvented by Rivest, Shamir and Adleman all then at MIT. The public key exponent differs from the private key exponent, and determining one from the other is believed to be fundamentally hard without knowing the primes; these are in turn (if large enough) computationally infeasible to determine at the current state of the computer hardware and large integer factorization arts. www.encryptoo.com /pubcry.html   (801 words)

 Key (Java 2 Platform SE v1.4.2) The key algorithm is usually an encryption or asymmetric operation algorithm (such as DSA or RSA), which will work with those algorithms and with related algorithms (such as MD5 with RSA, SHA-1 with RSA, Raw DSA, etc.) The name of the algorithm of a key is obtained using the Keys are generally obtained through key generators, certificates, or various Identity classes used to manage keys. Keys may also be obtained from key specifications (transparent representations of the underlying key material) through the use of a key factory (see java.sun.com /j2se/1.4.2/docs/api/java/security/Key.html   (508 words)

 [No title] With asymmetric algorithms, the sender generates a pair of keys, one of which is never shared (called the "private key") and one of which is distributed to other group members (called the "public key"). Algorithm and Mode The RSA Public Key Algorithm [RSA] is a widely deployed public key algorithm commonly used for digital signatures. The RSA asymmetric key algorithm is best suited to protect network traffic for which: o The sender has a substantial amount of processing power, and o The network traffic is small enough that adding a relatively large authentication tag (in the range of 62 to 256 bytes) does not cause packet fragmentation. www.ietf.org /rfc/rfc4359.txt   (3330 words)

 Cipher If the algorithm is symmetric, the key must be known to the receipient and to no one else. If the algorithm is an asymmetric one, the encyphering key is different from, but closely related to, the decyphering key. If one key cannot be deduced from the other, the asymmetric key algorithm has the public/private key property and one of the keys may be made public without loss of confidentiality. www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/ci/Cipher.html   (335 words)

 Security Symmetric key algorithms can be of two types: block (encrypt/decrypt blocks of data) or stream (encrypt/decrypt data at the bit level). The key may be of any length within the constraints of the specific implementation being used. Key length is limited to 512 and 1024 bits, and the algorithm can only be used for digital signatures. www.ou.edu /edi/security/securitystandards.htm   (1282 words)

 Encryption : article. Encryption is the process of obscuring information Without the appropriate key, the cipher cannot be used to encrypt or decrypt. In an asymmetric key algorithm (e.g., RSA), there are two separate keys: a public key is published and enables any sender to perform encryption, while a private key is kept secret by the receiver and enables him to perform decryption. Symmetric key ciphers can be distinguished into two types, depending on whether they work on blocks of symbols usually of a fixed size (block ciphers), or on a continuous stream of symbols (stream ciphers). bluefive.pair.com /articles_encryption_and_decryption.htm   (644 words)

 cars - Pretty Good Privacy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) PGP uses asymmetric key encryption, in which the recipient of a message has previously generated a linked key pair, a public key and a private key. The recipient's public key is used by a sender to encrypt a shared key (aka a secret key or conventional key) for a symmetric cipher algorithm; that key is then used to encrypt the plaintext of a message. CAST5) symmetric key algorithm, and the DSA and Elgamal asymmetric key algorithms, all of which were unencumbered by patents. www.carluvers.com /cars/PGP   (4051 words)

 Windows NT Security: A Collection of Topics Asymmetric key encryption creates the key in two complementary pieces, like the two pieces of a raggedly torn dollar bill. Unfortunately, asymmetric key algorithms are hundreds or thousands of times slower than symmetric key algorithms and are suitable only for processing small pieces of information (e.g., a 56-bit symmetric key). The receiver must obtain the public key, recalculate the message digest by passing the rest of the message through the message digest algorithm, and compare the transmitted residue with the newly calculated one. www.windowsitlibrary.com /Content/169/02/15.html   (2325 words)

 Roxen Community: RFC 4359 The Use of RSA/SHA-1 Signatures within Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) and ... This memo describes the use of the RSA digital signature algorithm as an authentication algorithm within the revised IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) as described in RFC 4303 and the revised IP Authentication Header (AH) as described in RFC 4302. When the private key is used to sign the output of a cryptographic hash algorithm, the result is called a "digital signature". Key management mechanisms negotiating the use of RSA signatures MUST include the length of the RSA modulus during policy negotiation using the Authentication Key Length SA Attribute. community.roxen.com /developers/idocs/rfc/rfc4359.html   (3032 words)

 Public Key Cryptography 101 Using Java This program uses a Java implementation of the algorithm provided by the original authors of the RSA algorithm for the computation of the keys e and d and for the common divisor n. The RSA encryption algorithm is described in Figure 2, and is based solely on the use of a numeric input to produce a numeric output. This method implements the algorithm published by the original authors of the RSA method for computing the public and private keys, e and d, as well as the common divisor, n, as described in Figure 2. www.developer.com /java/ent/article.php/3447491   (10533 words)

 Encryption   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) This has a key size that varies from 32-448 bits, meaning it can be exported freely (as up until recently anything above 40 bit encryption was not exportable and considered on the same level as weapons when it comes to exportation). It has three components, the key generator, the encryption algorithm, and the decryption algorithm. It is a symmetric block cipher than can support key lengths of 128 bits, 192 bits, and 256 bits. www.snc.edu /compsci/cs225F05/encryption/Algorithms.htm   (390 words)

 Object Computing, Inc. - Java News Brief - December 2003 An advantage of RSA is that one key can be kept private and the other made available to the general public (hence the names of the keys). Because of this, RSA is usually combined with a symmetric algorithm to support the encryption and decryption of larger amounts of data (since RSA key sizes are relatively small compared to documents or messages exchanged). By having the public/private keys encrypt/decrypt the relatively small secret key and by using the secret key to encrypt and decrypt the actual cleartext, RSA becomes practical for use with larger cleartexts. www.ociweb.com /jnb/jnbDec2003.html   (2453 words)

 Asymmetric Cryptography Asymmetric cryptography, also called public key cryptography, is a relatively new field, it was invented by Diffie and Hellman in 1976 [7]. The keys p and s are mathematically dependent from each other; a requirement to the asymmetric algorithm being that, while p can be computed easily from s, obtaining s from p is computationally unfeasible. Its key length is variable, 512 bits being considered as a minimum today and 2048 bits as to remain very secure in the near future. www.maths.mq.edu.au /~steffen/old/PCry/report/node8.html   (1355 words)

 CompTIA® Security+ Test Questions syo-101 Test guide CCNA Test Questions Guaranteed pass Asymmetric algorithms are also known as public key algorithms. This overcomes the downfall of key distribution, as with the symmetric key algorithm. Since the same key pair is used by all interested parties the Asymmetric key algorithm is scalable. testbusters.net /asymm.html   (329 words)

 Encryption key exchange is difficult because the exchange itself must be secure with no intervening compromise of the key public key cryptography simplifies the management of symmetric keys to the point whereby a symmetric key can be used not only for each trading partner, but for each exchange between trading partners Symmetric key algorithms should be chosen for encryption of confidential data www.cs.umbc.edu /~wyvern/ta/encryption.html   (1369 words)

 Sample Chapter from MicrosoftÂ® Encyclopedia of Security by Mitch Tulloch Since DES is a symmetric key algorithm, both the sender and the receiver require the same key in order for secure communications to be implemented. For example, in a symmetric (or secret) key algorithm, both the sender and the recipient use the same shared secret key to encrypt and decrypt the message. In asymmetric key algorithms such as those used by public key cryptography systems, two keys are used, one to encrypt the message and the other to decrypt it. www.microsoft.com /mspress/books/sampchap/6429.aspx   (7534 words)

 Cryptographic Appliances - Glossary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) Public Key - The portion of a public/private key pair sent to the recipient to establish a secure link. Public Key Algorithm - A cryptographic algorithm that is used to establish a secure communication channel over an insecure transmission medium. This algorithm utilizes a two-part key, containing a "public" and "private" half. www.cryptoapps.com /glossary.html   (450 words)

 Strong Encryption of Restricted Data   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) Berkeley Campus Provisional Requirements for Restricted Data Security Plans strongly recommend requiring end-to-end encryption, with a strong encryption algorithm, except in certain situations when suitable alternative protection measures are specified in Plans. AES is recommended as the best symmetric key algorithm, as it is faster and more cryptographically secure than 3DES. ECDSA is the best asymmetric key algorithm; however, it is not currently in common use. security.berkeley.edu /EncryptRequirements.htm   (223 words)

 HIME Generates the two parameters P and G to be used in the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm All of these versions contain atleast the HIME dll, the HIME helpfile, a demo and a test program (as well as their source code). When using this key, HIME does not display any nagscreens anymore and operates invisible in the background. users.skynet.be /bs248355/devotechs/HIMEMain.html   (2192 words)

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