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  Encyclopedia: Athenian Democracy
The Athenian democracy was a democratic government in the city-state Athens and its surrounding lands in Attica, Greece; usually considered to have lasted from the late-6th to the late-4th century BC.
Athenian democracy was based on selection of officials by lot, and decisions in other cases by majority rule.
Athenian citizens had to be legitimately descended from citizens—after the reforms of Pericles from both parents, excluding children of Athenian men and foreign women (450 BC)—or had to gain approval through an elaborate procedure, in which any citizen had a veto, which was very rarely carried through.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Athenian-Democracy   (2135 words)

  
 Learn more about Athenian Democracy in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Athenian Democracy was a democratic government in the city-state Athens and its surrounding lands in Attica, Greece; usually considered to have lasted from the early-6th to the mid-4th century BC.
Following the reforms of Pericles, all Athenian positions except the chief of military officials, the strategos, gained selection by lottery and received payment so that any Athenian citizen could take part in office.
Citizens had to claim descent from citizens - after the reforms of Pericles from both parents, excluding children of Athenian men and foreign women (450 BC) - or had to gain approval through an elaborate procedure, in which any citizen had a veto, which was very rarely carried through.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /a/at/athenian_democracy.html   (644 words)

  
 Bryn Mawr Classical Review 94.06.06
Todd calls attention to the crucial fact that Athenian plaintiffs could often choose from a variety of legal procedures and thereby select the degree of risk that they were willing to assume and to which they wished to expose their opponents: "[t]his very special flexibility lies at the heart of Athenian procedural law" (122).
Todd distinguishes between ancient and modern complaints of Athenian litigiousness: whereas modern writers have often been critical of the politicization of the courts in Athens, ancient critics complain rather that "Athenians, both as individuals and collectively, were too keen on litigation" (147).
Although Athenians were more comfortable with the merging of the political and legal spheres than most modern Westerners are, they were acutely conscious that the legal process (especially volunteer prosecution) could be abused for political purposes: see e.g.
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /bmcr/1994/94.06.06.html   (2044 words)

  
 Ancient History Sourcebook: 11th Brittanica: Pericles
His father took a prominent part in Athenian politics, and in 479 held high command in the Greek squadron which annihilated the remnants of Xerxes' fleet at Mycale; through his mother, the niece of Cleisthenes, he was connected with the former tyrants of Sicyon and the family of the Alcmaeonidae.
In 447 an Athenian army, which had marched into Boeotia to quell an insurrection, had to surrender in a body at Coronea, and the price of their ransom was the evacuation of Boeotia.
The influence of Aspasia on Athenian thought, though denounced unsparingly by most critics, may indeed have been beneficial, inasmuch as it tended towards the emancipation of the Attic woman from the overstrict tutelage in which she was kept.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/ancient/eb11-pericles.html   (2931 words)

  
 Electronic Antiquities Volume I, Number 7
Rather, the ancestors are invoked to impress upon the Athenians of the present their duty to uphold their ancestral reputation by emulating their ancestors' determination, a legacy of honour that is at once a special privilege, and a source of danger and hardship.
It is the unescapable role of Athenians in the present to accept the burdens and challenges of leadership and of the responsibilities of protecting the freedom of all Greeks from their natural barbarian enemies.
Athenian failures must be blamed on deviant individuals: the gods are not to blame but corrupt and vicious leaders, who are responsible for the loss of integrity in Athenian public life.
scholar.lib.vt.edu /ejournals/ElAnt/V1N7/kelly.html   (4261 words)

  
 Politics
The reason for these differences was that, although the machinery of the Athenian democracy could tolerate amateur government, in which inexperienced (and on some occasions no doubt incompetent) citizens had to learn the ropes of their office every year,
It was silver from these mines that allowed the Athenians to build their dominant fleet in the early fifth century and also to issue their famous coins called “owls.” Return to text.
The Athenians did not use a number to designate a given year as we do, but referred to a year by the name of the man who was the eponymous archon in that twelve month period.
depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu /classics/dunkle/athnlife/politics.htm   (3685 words)

  
 Reading the Rise of Pisistratus: Herodotus 1.56-68
The Athenians had allegedly rescued the sons of Heracles, military leaders and founders of the Spartan kingship, from the violent pride of Eurystheus.
Even as Herodotus reveals the final subjection of the Athenians to the tyranny of Pisistratus at the battle of Pallene, he looks forward to the successful resistance to the tyranny of his son Hippias at the battle of Marathon, the one a beginning of their ancestral subjection, the other of their contemporary power.
The Athenians are duped again by a foreign tyrant when Aristagoras of Miletus persuades them to support his revolt in Ionia where he failed to persuade Cleomenes: 'it was easier to fool 30000 Athenians than one Spartan': 5.97.2; 5.50.2.
www.dur.ac.uk /Classics/histos/1997/gray.html   (9311 words)

  
 ARCH 343 Lecture 3: Athens: The City and Politics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
While Americans may be shocked that Athenian popular sovreignty did not include everyone, and that there was no ethical question about owning slaves, they would also be shocked by the degree of participation that the members of the Athenian demos were expected to provide for religious, military, and political activities.
Athenian democracy: Athens in comparison was a dynamic society, the one that allowed Plato the liberty to develop his critique of the polis (philosophers were not allowed freedom of speech in Laconia).
Athenian houses gave blank walls to the streets and got their interior light from courtyards, not unlike the houses we saw of a millenium earlier in Ur.
www.owlnet.rice.edu /~arch343/lecture3.html   (5101 words)

  
 [No title]
Pericles' speech was an encomium on Athenian democracy and it provided the high point of Thucydides' account of the war.
Crowded together in the city as the result of Pericles' strategy, the Athenians fell victim to the virulent sickness that was spreading throughout the eastern Mediterranean.
Thucydides' emphasis on the social and moral effects of the Athenian plague may be augmented by studies of the effects of the Black Death in Europe (for example, Millard Meiss, Painting in Florence and Siena after the Black Death, 1978).
www.indiana.edu /~ancmed/plague.htm   (1288 words)

  
 Eder,_Aristocrats_and_the _Coming_of_the_Athenian_Democracy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Athenians were well aware of the advantages and disadvantages of various constitutions; they discussed in theory their respective merits for the well-being of the city (Raaflaub 1989), and in practice they were ready in desperate times (e.g., in 411 B.C.) to sacrifice democracy in order to be rescued by an oligarchy.
In Athenian history these criteria were met for the first time at the end of the fifth century B.C. By codifying the law and constitutional procedures and by creating or applying more strictly various legal instruments of self-control, the demos created the most durable form of constitution since the time of Solon.
An Athenian who became involved in conflict was expected to lay claim to a non-militant attitude: he was supposed to give short shrift to the demands of honour, play down his desire for revenge, and relinquish the right to punish an aggressor to the civic authorities," that is, the courts (1995: 43).
www.tu-berlin.de /fb1/AGiW/Hospitium/Eder.htm   (17049 words)

  
 Ancient Greek Women in Athens
For a woman to divorce her husband she would have to endeavor to find an archon (and Athenian official) and provide good reasons for a divorce to be granted.
Athenian fathers had all rights to end the marriage, until the woman produced a child.
Athenian women were not allowed to cry neither sacrifice an ox, nor bury more than three garments with the body.
www.angelfire.com /ca3/ancientchix   (2794 words)

  
 cciv243.CIHAGChapter.html
An Athenian's sense of civic identity was both local and 'national': all citizens belonged to one of the 139 demes or 'villages', of which Athens was composed, and of which the largest was Acharnae.
A great many Athenians, however, lived in one of the villages of the Attic countryside, like Dicaeopolis, and most, like him, would have felt strong attachments to their homes, farms, and the variety of local political, religious, and other forms of association which flourished in the demes.
An Athenian citizen was identified by his patronymic and deme: for example, 'Socrates the son of Sophroniscus of the deme of Alopeke'.
mkatz.web.wesleyan.edu /cciv243/cciv243.CIHAGChapter.html   (8046 words)

  
 The Dead media Project:Working Notes:49.8
The focus here is on the kleroterion (the majestic lotto machine Athenians used to select their legislators) and the possibility that it could have been put to good use in Florida last November.
The point, evidently, is not that Athenian democracy was inferior to ours (the women-and-slaves thing was kind of an issue for most of U.S. history, too, if you'll recall) but that it was never as pure as our cultural nostalgia for it might lead us to imagine.
Athenian juries had anywhere from two hundred members to a couple thousand, and each jury was to be composed of equal numbers of members from the city-state's ten political subunits, or tribes.
www.deadmedia.org /notes/49/498.html   (2717 words)

  
 Athenian Ephebia Paper
Taking into consideration Aristotle, Constitution of the Athenians 42, composed in the classical Hellenistic era, a decree honoring the ephebes and their instructors written in the early Hellenistic period, and the Inscriptiones Graecae recorded in the Hellenistic, before Sulla era, it is possible to trace the history and full development of the Athenian Ephebeia.
Besides the fact that Aristotle, Constitution of the Athenians 42, the decree in Document 2 and the Inscriptiones Graecae in Document 3 are all set in different time periods, they all focus on the education of the ephebes on their quest for Athenian citizenship.
Whether the Athenian State itself began to sophisticate or if the Council felt it necessary to set higher standards for the ephebes, there is no doubt that by the time of the Hellenistic era, before Sulla, the training of the ephebes had become truly educational.
www.unc.edu /~sfox/classics.html   (2890 words)

  
 The Athenian
The Athenian cultural scene was one of intense intellectual ferment, one that laid the foundations for Western art, literature, and science for the next two and a half millennia; and Athenian curiosity, and enthusiasm for intellectual discussion and debate, were a byword.
The Athenians knew the early history of their city, when tyrants won power by posing as champions of the people, and they were determined not to let it happen again.
But the Athenians chose their magistrates by lot precisely to ensure that they should not be steersmen of the state: one of the purposes of the lot was to diminish the powers of the magistrates.
www.libertariannation.org /a/f41l1.html   (13069 words)

  
 Download the Athenian Font
The classical Greek font "Athenian" is copyrighted by the American Philological Association; it may be freely distributed to facilitate the distribution of ancient Greek texts on the World Wide Web and other platforms.
NOTE: Athenian fonts may be used with any versions of Macintosh OS (7-9.x and OS X) and various versions of Windows.
(3) You may drag the icon of "Athenian" (shaped like a document when you are running OS X) into the Fonts folder located inside the Library folder inside the folder named for you as a User inside the Users folder at the top level of your startup disk.
www.perseus.tufts.edu /Help/Athenian_Font.html   (794 words)

  
 Lecture 6: The Athenian Origins of Direct Democracy
Finally, one of the noble clans exiled by the sons of Pisistratus, the Alemaeonids, won favor with the oracle at Delphi and used its support to persuade Sparta to attack the Athenian tyranny.
Led by Cleomenes I, the Spartans marched into Athenian territory in 510 B.C. Hippias was deposed and fled to Persia.
Under Pericles, ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY came to mean the equality of justice and the equality of opportunity.
www.historyguide.org /ancient/lecture6b.html   (2724 words)

  
 Bryn Mawr Classical Review 02.01.17
Perhaps the attraction increases as she watches newly autarchic and empowered political communities in Eastern Europe struggle with institutionalizing new freedoms and limiting the constraining powers of institutional and extra-institutional "enforcers." Political co-operation reduces potential political conflict in a manner that minimizes damage to the process (Ar.
Starr develops a nice argument against the denigration of the Athenian direct democracy and its dominant organ, the assembly, as the possession and preserve of a small elite, in brief, as a sham.
Despite significant Athenian upper-class and later literary condemnation, the Athenian community's rapid restoration of the assembly's powers, whenever temporarily suspended (62), testifies both to the contemporary perception of its behavior as responsible and to confidence in the legal safeguards always observed (probouleusis, graphe paranomon, recorded individual proposers for each decree).
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /bmcr/1991/02.01.17.html   (1558 words)

  
 Electronic Antiquities Volume I, Number 2
This may be too legal an approach, given that the goodwill of the Athenian jury is at least as important as the law.
This suggests to me that Athenians could be expected to be suspicious (even more suspicious than usual) about killing for adultery, and possibily unsympathetic to it.
On the other hand, when it came to cases, many Athenians would be troubled by the use of the same procedure for upper-class citizens that would be used on thieves.
scholar.lib.vt.edu /ejournals/ElAnt/V1N2/scodel.html   (2054 words)

  
 | Book Review | The American Historical Review, 105.3 | The History Cooperative
The Athenian household in classical Greece extended beyond the nuclear family and its property (including domiciles, urban workshops, farmhouses, slaves, other livestock, olive trees and grapevines, and farmland transferable apart from plants on it).
The Athenian problem of "overparceling" the smallish Attic farms (a territory smaller than Rhode Island) in a society with a high death rate found various solutions, including small dowries and the epiclerate.
Athenian society and law exhibit primitive and sophisticated features often without analogue or influence on other ancient and subsequent legal systems.
www.historycooperative.org /journals/ahr/105.3/br_115.html   (467 words)

  
 84.02.08: The Athenian Court and the American Court System
The Athenian courts discussed in this unit existed in the second half of the fifth century B.C. and the first half of the fourth century B.C. It should be stated that this is a controversial period in the sense that many facts of this era are still in dispute among historians.
In order to study the ancient Athenian court system it is essential to examine the two legal codes, the Draconian and the Solonian Codes of Law, which had a great influence on the courts in Athens.
Several Athenian cases should be read from Kathleen Freeman’s The Murder of Herodes and Other Trials from the Athenian Law to the students to give them examples of cases tried in Athens and the speeches that were written by logographoi.
www.cis.yale.edu /ynhti/curriculum/units/1984/2/84.02.08.x.html   (5569 words)

  
 Ancient Greece: The Age of Pericles: The Athenian Empire
They had agreed to recognize the Athenian Empire in exchange for Athens giving up claims to continental territories; however, it was becoming apparent that even without the continental territory, the Athenians were a major threat to Sparta and its influence.
Ephialtes was the Athenian leader who had finally divested the Areopagus of all its power; Athens was now solely governed by the council and the democratic Assembly.
Although he was eventually ostracized by the Athenians (he later returned), he dominated the democratic government of Athens with his formidable capacity to speak and to persuade.
www.wsu.edu /~dee/GREECE/ATHEMP.HTM   (1186 words)

  
 Athens - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Most importantly from the point of view of tourism, the area around the Acropolis has been remodelled, and a great pedestrian area from the Temple of Olympian Zeus to Plaka, Monastiraki and the Psirri square has been constructed.
This allows the visitor space for calm walks among the ancient monuments, ruins and trees, from the Acropolis, to the Agora (the meeting place of the ancient Athenians) and then to the narrow streets of the old city of Athens (the Plaka), away from the noise of the city centre.
The Plaka remains the traditional tourist destination, with many tavernas featuring 'traditional' music, but the food, though good, is expensive compared to other parts of the city.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Athens   (2692 words)

  
 The Athenian School, Danville, California
Athenian provides an engaging, challenging education on this beautiful 75-acre campus at the base of Mt. Diablo near San Francisco in Northern California.
Class size averages fifteen students, and virtually 100% of our graduates gain admission to outstanding four-year colleges.
Athenian prepares a talented and diverse student body for the rigors of college and for a life of purpose and personal fulfillment.
www.athenian.org   (93 words)

  
 The rock of the Acropolis rises up in the middle of the Athenian basin
During the period 495-480 B.C. the Athenians began to build, on the site of the present-day Parthenon, a marble six-columned Doric temple which was never completed.
Its sterobate and its foundation and a section of its upper structure were later incorporated by Pericles into the the Parthenon.
The sculptural decoration of the building would be completed in 432 B.C.Iktinos and Kallikrates are known as the architects.The decoration program and the general supervision of the structural work was handled by Phidias.
www.travel-greece.com /attica/info/acropoli.html   (408 words)

  
 The Internet Classics Archive | Solon by Plutarch
This ship Solon took, and, securing the Megarians, manned it with Athenians, and gave them orders to sail to the island with as much privacy as possible; meantime he, with the other soldiers, marched against the Megarians by land, and whilst they were fighting, those from the ship took the city.
The Athenians, now the Cylonian sedition was over and the polluted gone into banishment fell into their old quarrels about the government, there being as many different parties as there were diversities in the country.
Then the wisest of the Athenians, perceiving Solon was of all men the only one not implicated in the troubles, that he had not joined in the exactions of the rich and was not involved in the necessities of the poor, pressed him to succour the commonwealth and compose the differences.
classics.mit.edu /Plutarch/solon.html   (4077 words)

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