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Topic: Atmospheric circulation

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In the News (Sat 25 May 19)

  Atmospheric circulation
Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air by which heat is distributed on the surface of the Earth.
Hadley cell — The major driving force of atmospheric circulation in the tropical regions is solar heating.
Weather —; Weather is a term that encompasses phenomena in the atmosphere of a planet.
www.sciencedaily.com /articles/a/atmospheric_circulation.htm   (667 words)

 300 Atmospheric Circulation
Coriolis effect causes global circulation to be divided into three cells of circulation in the northern hemisphere and three cells of circulation in the southern hemisphere with their boundaries generally at the equator and at 30°N and 60°N latitude and at 30°S and 60°S latitude.
In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic circulation is clockwise.
In the southern hemisphere, anticyclonic circulation is counterclockwise.
www.csun.edu /~khurst/Geo101/Fritche/300atmoscirc.html   (1227 words)

 Publications - On the Coupling between the atmospheric circulation and...
This work studies the two-way coupling between the atmospheric circulation and the ocean surface wave field, as it is described by the recent observations and theories on the dependence of the sea surface roughness on the ocean wave spectrum.
The effect of the coupling on the atmospheric variables and the ocean wave field is analysed by implementing both the atmospheric and the ocean wave models in a periodic channel and simulating a wide range of different situations.
In a strong atmospheric cyclone, with respect to the one-way coupling, the two-way coupling attenuates the depth of the pressure minimum, significantly reduces the wave height and surface wind speed, while increases the momentum flux.
www.pd.infn.it /AOD/lmb.html   (207 words)

 The Habitable Planet Unit 2 - Atmosphere // Online Textbook
Atmospheric circulation is set up when mass moves in the atmosphere.
The atmosphere tries to set up a simple circulation, upwelling near the equator and descending in polar regions, but in reality the Hadley circulation terminates at a latitude of about 30°.
The strength of the atmospheric circulation is controlled by a dynamic balance between motions caused by differential heating and friction that slows down the winds.
www.learner.org /channel/courses/envsci/unit/text.php?unit=2&secNum=6   (1244 words)

  [31.08] Atmospheric Circulation of Hot Jupiters   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The radius depends on the entropy of the (presumably convecting) interior, while the temperature at the emission-to-space level is set by thermal balance with the star.
The two regions are connected by a statically stable layer whose properties depend on atmospheric dynamics, so the dynamical regime must be understood if the radius and effective temperature are to be explained simultaneously.
The circulation pattern also determine whether (and where) clouds exist, which influences the albedo and the depth to which stellar radiation penetrates.
www.aas.org /publications/baas/v32n3/dps2000/565.htm   (334 words)

The long-term dynamics of the atmospheric pressure fields over the Northern hemisphere during the last 90 years are characterised by the alternation of approximate 30-year periods ("circulation epochs") with relative dominance of either zonal or meridional atmospheric circulation (Dzerdzeevski 1969; Girs 1971; Lamb 1972; Lambeck 1980).
The circulation is accompanied somewhat by a decrease in the overall range of surface-air temperature between the equator and poles and by an overall increase in the mean global surface-air temperatures.
It is conceivable that the multi-decadal fluctuations of the earth's rotation velocity results from the redistribution of the angular moment between the atmosphere and solid earth due to the alternation of multi-decadal epochs of "zonal" and meridional atmospheric circulation.
www.fao.org /DOCREP/005/Y2787E/y2787e03.htm   (1938 words)

 Atmospheric circulation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The large-scale structure of the atmospheric circulation varies from year to year, but the basic structure remains fairly constant.
The atmospheric circulation pattern that George Hadley described to provide an explanation for the trade winds matches observations very well.
Disparities in temperature also drive a set of longitudinal circulation cells, and the overall atmospheric motion is known as the zonal overturning circulation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Atmospheric_circulation   (1775 words)

 Atmospheric Circulation - Wind cells, The coriolis effect, Variations and wind patterns
Atmospheric circulation is the movement of air at all levels of the atmosphere over all parts of the planet.
The driving force behind atmospheric circulation is solar energy, which heats the atmosphere with different intensities at the equator, the middle latitudes, and the poles.
These third circulation belts over the poles are known as polar easterlies or polar Hadley cells because they flow in the same direction as the Hadley cells near the equator.
www.scienceclarified.com /As-Bi/Atmospheric-Circulation.html   (1183 words)

 General Circulation
The worldwide system of winds, which transports warm air from the equator where solar heating is greatest towards the higher latitudes, is called the general circulation of the atmosphere, and it gives rise to the Earth's climate zones.
The general circulation of air is broken up into a number of cells, the most common of which is called the Hadley cell.
The general circulation serves to transport heat energy from warm equatorial regions to colder temperate and polar regions.
www.ace.mmu.ac.uk /eae/Climate/Older/General_Circulation.html   (370 words)

 7(p) Global Scale Circulation of the Atmosphere
These three circulation cells are known as the: Hadley cell; Ferrel cell; and Polar cell.
Coriolis force causes the deflection of this moving air in the upper atmosphere, and by about 30° of latitude the air begins to flow zonally from west to east.
Atmosphere pressure values are adjusted for elevation and are described relative to sea-level.
www.physicalgeography.net /fundamentals/7p.html   (1741 words)

 Atmospheric Circulation
Another major contributing factor to the circulation of the air is due to the subtropical highs.
Hadley cell circulation is caused by the movement of high pressure from the latitudes at 5 to 30 degrees north and 5 to 30 degrees south to low pressure areas around the equator.
Two moving patterns of the general circulation of the atmosphere are the cyclones and anticyclones.
www.studyworld.com /basementpapers/papers/stack20_6.html   (682 words)

 Australian Bureau of Meteorology - Forecasting the weather
Atmospheric circulation: three major convective cells between the equator and the pole.
Easterly winds predominate near the equator and in the lower atmosphere at the poles.
In real life this 'single cell' circulation cannot be sustained over the long distances between the equator and the poles, within a relatively shallow atmosphere.
www.bom.gov.au /info/ftweather/page_4.shtml   (767 words)

 Transcription of the lecture
The atmosphere rapidly transports heat, moisture, and trace gases throughout a thin (compared to the radius of the earth) spherical shell over the face of the planet.
To understand the atmosphere we have to start at the sun, which is the source of energy that drives the circulation systems of the atmosphere and oceans.
The atmospheric circulation also controls the precipitation patterns in the subtropical high-pressure belts near 30° north and south of the Equator.
www.iitap.iastate.edu /gcp/atmos/atmos_lecture.html   (2765 words)

High pressure or anti-cyclonic circulation is depicted in yellows and oranges where atmospheric pressure is as high, or higher than 1032 millibars, or 30.48 inches of mercury.
Low pressure or cyclonic circulation is depicted in blues and purples where atmospheric pressure is as low, or lower than 1004 millibars, or 29.65 inches of mercury.
The thermohaline circulation is one of the primary mechanisms that maintains the global heat balance.
www.gsfc.nasa.gov /topstory/20020807seaice.html   (1129 words)

 Global scale circulation
The circulation of air over the earth is largely due to the unequal heating of the surface.
The global circulation of the atmosphere transfers warm air from low latitudes towards high latitudes, and cold air from high latitudes towards low latitudes.
This exchange keeps low latitude regions where there is a net gain of energy through the year from continually heating up and high latitudes from continual cooling due to a net loss of energy (see latitudinal variation in the radiation balance).
www.uwsp.edu /geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/circulation/global_scale_circulation.html   (922 words)

 ATM S 211 - Notes
When such a model atmosphere is 'turned on', starting from a state of rest (no winds, horizontally uniform temperatures) the tropics warm and the polar regions cool in response to the imposed latitudinal contrast in the sun's heating, which is prescribed in a way that mimics that in the real atmosphere.
Once the atmosphere starts to rotate, the conservation of angular momentum begins to generate a component of the flow that circulates around the Earth's axis as shown in panel (c).
The resulting circulation in panel (c) resembles the observed circulation in some ways (i.e., like the Earth it has tradewinds and an equatorial rain belt, but it has no midlatitude westerlies and the deserts are in high latitudes rather than in the subtropics.
www.atmos.washington.edu /2002Q4/211/notes_circulation.html   (1140 words)

 Global Warming Frequently Asked Questions
It is the result of heat absorption by certain gases in the atmosphere (called greenhouse gases because they effectively 'trap' heat in the lower atmosphere) and re-radiation downward of some of that heat.
An enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to cause cooling in higher parts of the atmosphere because the increased "blanketing" effect in the lower atmosphere holds in more heat, allowing less to reach the upper atmosphere.
Large and rapid climatic changes affecting the atmospheric and oceanic circulation and temperature, and the hydrological cycle, occurred during the last ice age and during the transition towards the present Holocene period (which began about 10,000 years ago).
www.ncdc.noaa.gov /oa/climate/globalwarming.html   (3356 words)

 ch8_Global Air Circulation
Of course the earth does rotate once on its axis each day and the resulting Coriolis effect causes the meridional flow to be disrupted as winds are deflected to the right of their course in the northern hemisphere and to the left of their course in the southern hemisphere.
A model of atmospheric circulation showing the convection cells in each hemisphere and the low and high pressure systems and wind patterns that result from their interaction.
Circulation in these cells results from the air flowing toward the poles from the subtropical highs which collides with cold air flowing from the Poles.
www.mhhe.com /earthsci/geology/mcconnell/earths_climate/gac.htm   (811 words)

These long waves affect the atmospheric circulation in the Arctic by strengthening it and warming temperatures, or weakening it and cooling temperatures.
The stronger waves provided the fuel for the atmospheric circulation to warm the stratosphere in the north polar region.
NASA researchers using 22 years of satellite-derived data have confirmed a theory that the strength of "long waves," bands of atmospheric energy that circle the earth, regulate the temperatures in the upper atmosphere of the Arctic, and play a role in controlling ozone losses in the stratosphere.
www.gsfc.nasa.gov /topstory/20010917arctictemps.html   (1195 words)

 Aerosols affect atmospheric circulation : Science Technology
CANBERRA, Australia, Jan. 15 Australian researchers have confirmed the theory that human-generated aerosols are affecting atmospheric circulation trends in the Southern Hemisphere.
They found the shift in air circulation intensifies the trend of the Southern Annular Mode -- a low-frequency pattern of atmospheric variability near Antarctica -- causing a poleward shift and intensification in zonal wind and vertical velocities generated from the atmosphere-ocean interface to the middle of the troposphere.
Those atmospheric circulation responses, in turn, reinforce the ocean circulation changes, the researchers said, suggesting a contribution by human-generated aerosols to the observed trend of the Southern Annular Mode.
www.earthtimes.org /articles/show/173891,aerosols-affect-atmospheric-circulation.html   (244 words)

We now have garnered enough background knowledge to talk knowingly about global circulation patterns of the air, which produce both the systematic and the air mass-controlled winds on the surface and aloft and which accounts for rain- or snow-producing precipitation.
Air, as we have seen, moves under pressure gradients, and is modified by the Coriolis Force and friction, so as to rise, move laterally, and fall depending on its density.
The 60° zone is known as the Subpolar Low, since the converging surface air from both cells is warm and hence expanded to be in the low pressure state.
rst.gsfc.nasa.gov /Sect14/Sect14_1c.html   (3342 words)

 Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics - Cambridge University Press
Although many of the same principles of fluid dynamics apply to both the atmosphere and oceans, textbooks tend to concentrate on the atmosphere, the ocean, or the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD).
It discusses baroclinic and barotropic instabilities, wave-mean flow interactions and turbulence, and the general circulation of the atmosphere and ocean.
Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-Scale Circulation will be an invaluable graduate textbook on advanced courses in GFD, meteorology, atmospheric science and oceanography, and an excellent review volume for researchers.
www.cambridge.org /us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521849692   (705 words)

 Atmospheric circulation Summary and Analysis
The troposphere, the lowest 9 miles (15 km) of the Earth's atmosphere, is the layer in which nearly all weather activity takes place.
Weather is the result of complex air circulation patterns that can best be described by going from the general to more...
Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and the means (together with the smaller ocean circulation) by which heat is distributed on the surface of the Earth.
www.bookrags.com /Atmospheric_circulation   (259 words)

 Atmospheric Circulation
However, this simple, emergent outcome of the atmospheric circulation is controversial and not well accepted in the atmospheric community.
Preliminary results of the PI with an atmospheric general circulation model confirm the existence of a MEP state representative of the present-day climate when the amount of boundary layer friction is varied in the model.
Sensitivity simulations are conducted to investigate the sensitivity of the MEP state to different diabatic heating sources (to mimic the effects of different atmospheric greenhouse concentrations) and to planetary rotation rates.
www.geog.umd.edu /news/kleidon.html   (319 words)

There is a surplus of energy at the Equator, and a deficit nearer the Poles and in the upper atmosphere.
The unstable, warm, moist air is rapidly cooled adiabatically[1] to produce towering cumolo-nimbus clouds, frequent late afternoon thunderstorms and low pressure characteristic of the Equatorial climate.
It is these strong upward currents which form the ‘powerhouse of the general global circulation’ and which turn latent heat first into sensible heat then into potential energy.
www.pupilvision.com /uppersixth/atmos.htm   (630 words)

 CSU Department of Atmospheric Science | M.S. Program
Other important examples of the application of atmospheric science to unique problems include hydrometeorology, air pollution analysis, agriculture and forestry, atomic energy, transportation, heating and power, human health, aerospace operations and the design of space vehicles, communications, air-sea and air-ground interactions, precipitation augmentation or suppression, and fog dispersal.
In order to insure a breadth of experience, Students are required to select a minimum of four credits from the courses listed under atmospheric dynamics, five credits from the courses listed under atmospheric physics and chemistry, five credits from the courses listed under atmospheric circulation systems, and two credits from the category of atmospheric measurements.
Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry and Chemistry and Chemistry and Chemistry and Chemistry and Chemistry and Chemistry and Chemistry and Chemistry
www.atmos.colostate.edu /gradprog/ms.php   (1161 words)

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