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Topic: Atmospheric entry


  
  Deep Space 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Data was also to be obtained on the atmospheric density profile and near-surface soil stratification using deceleration measurements during atmospheric entry and landing.
The mission was also planned to serve as a technology test for many of the components of the probes and a demonstration of passive atmospheric entry and survivable hard impact.
Atmospheric pressure and subsurface temperature measurements would have been made every hour for the two day nominal mission in conjunction with measurements made by the Mars Polar Lander, and continue as long as the batteries held out.
www.solarviews.com /eng/deepspace2.htm   (1202 words)

  
 Confined Space Entry Policy
Prior to worker entry into the confined space, the attendant shall have determined the location of the nearest functional telephone, and verified the working condition of the two-way radio or other means of communications in case of an emergency.
All Entry Supervisors must be thoroughly familiar with the confined space entry procedures and shall be responsible for ensuring that all entries are conducted according to this procedure.
Atmospheric testing must be conducted for oxygen levels between 19.5% and 23.0% by volume and the percentage found is to be entered on the permit.
www.jmu.edu /safetyplan/facilmgmt/confined/entrypolicy.shtml   (8359 words)

  
 Mars Exploration Rover Mission: The Mission
The entry, descent, and landing (EDL) phase begins when the spacecraft reaches the Mars atmospheric entry interface point (3522.2 kilometers or about 2,113 miles from the center of Mars) and ends with the lander on the surface of Mars in a safe state.
Entry, descent, and landing for the Mars Exploration Rover mission is an adaptation of the Mars Pathfinder method:
Prior to surface impact, retro-rockets are fired to slow the lander´s speed of descent, and airbags are inflated to cushion the lander at surface impact.
marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov /mission/tl_entry.html   (325 words)

  
 A&AE 251 Fall 2002 Team Design Project
Atmospheric entry protection shall be assumed similar to that used by the Mars Pathfinder mission, using an aeroshell and parachute deceleration.
If the aircraft is to depart after the atmospheric entry vehicle has landed, assume the space vehicle has landed at Mars “sea-level” altitude somewhere near the rim of the Valles Marineris.
from the atmospheric entry portion of the spacecraft.
aae.www.ecn.purdue.edu /~aae251/project/fall2002-rfp   (1740 words)

  
 The Pioneer Venus Orbiter Entry Phase   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
After this the periapsis altitude began to descend, and final atmospheric entry of the orbiter was expected to occur in late 1992, around orbit 5000, nearly 14 years after orbit insertion.
One of the main goals of the entry phase (i.e., the last sequence of low periapsis altitude orbits prior to final entry) was to compare ionospheric and atmospheric conditions for different levels of solar activity.
Prior to the entry period it was estimated that of the original 70 lbs (32 kg) of hydrazine propellant roughly 5 lbs (2.3 kg) remained, but with a high degree of uncertainty (J. Dyer, personal communication, 1992).
www-ssc.igpp.ucla.edu /~strange/pvo_entry/pioneer.html   (1778 words)

  
 Hazards of Airplane Fuel-Tank Entry
To determine if the atmosphere in the tank is suitable for entry, the atmospheric conditions should be checked and continuously monitored for oxygen concentration, flammable vapor concentration, and toxic vapor concentration.
Entry should not be permitted unless the oxygen concentration is between 19.5 and 23.5 percent.
The entry crew is composed of the entry supervisor, the standby attendant, and the entry personnel.
www.boeing.com /commercial/aeromagazine/aero_04/textonly/s01txt.html   (2462 words)

  
 RX-107 TR-4 [Dandelion]
Although the Dandelion shifts between an atmospheric entry form, a mobile armor form, and a mobile suit form, this isn't a so-called "transformation." Instead the machine is designed with the concept of a "form shift" adapted to the changing circumstances of atmospheric entry, in which little thought is given to returning to a previous form.
Atmospheric Entry Form: When entering the atmosphere, the Dandelion turns around and orients the heat-resistant lunar titanium alloy armor on its upper surface toward the entry direction.
While its atmospheric entry form is little more than a drop pod with flight capabilities, when the machine shifts to its mobile armor form its characteristics undergo a dramatic change, and it becomes more of a combat-oriented weapon.
mahq.net /mecha/gundam/aoz/rx-107-tr-4.htm   (624 words)

  
 Safety Manual - Section 3.3 Confined Space Program
If a hazard is detected during entry, all employees will immediately evacuate the space and the entry supervisor will evaluate the space to determine how the prohibited conditions developed and implement measures to eliminate the prohibited conditions and prevent its recurrences before any subsequent re-entry.
Individual departments shall contact the entry supervisor to terminate entry and cancel the permit when the work covered by the entry permit has been completed and/or a condition that is not allowed under the entry permit arises in or near the space.
The entry supervisor from Safety and Environmental Affairs and the department supervisor shall coordinate entry operations with the entry supervisor of the outside contractor when employees from the University and the Contractor will be working together in or near permit-required confined space(s).
safety.uchicago.edu /3_3.html   (2540 words)

  
 Mars Polar Lander - Entry, Descent And Landing
Preparations for the lander's entry into the Martian atmosphere will begin 14 hours in advance, when the final four-hour tracking session of the cruise period begins.
About 12 hours before entry, software which normally puts the spacecraft in safe mode in reaction to unexpected events will be disabled for the remainder of the spacecraft's flight and descent to the surface.
About 10 minutes before entry, the spacecraft will be commanded to switch to inertial navigation - computing its position, course and speed from gyroscopes and accelerometers.
mars.jpl.nasa.gov /msp98/lander/edl.html   (921 words)

  
 The ORCBS - Occupational Safety - Programs & Guidelines - Confined Space
Atmospheric testing should be conducted in accordance with Appendix B of the MSU Program.
Each canceled entry permit shall be retained for at least 1 year to facilitate the review of the permit-required confined space program.
At the conclusion of the entry operations, the contractor must be debriefed regarding the permit space program that was followed and concerning any hazards confronted or created in permit spaces during entry operations.
www.orcbs.msu.edu /occupational/programs_guidelines/confined_space/cs_06permit.htm   (1862 words)

  
 Inflatable Emergency Atmospheric-Entry Vehicles
In response to the loss of seven astronauts in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, large, lightweight, inflatable atmospheric-entry vehicles have been proposed as means of emergency descent and landing for persons who must abandon a spacecraft that is about to reenter the atmosphere and has been determined to be unable to land safely.
Such a vehicle would act as an atmospheric decelerator at supersonic speed in the upper atmosphere,and a smaller, central astronaut pod could then separate at lower altitudes and parachute separately to Earth.
As low as this pressure is, it is at least ten times the expected dynamic pressure on the vehicle during the heating portion of very high atmospheric reentry, and hence it is sufficient to enable the ballute to retain its shape.
www.nasatech.com /Briefs/Aug04/NPO40156.html   (523 words)

  
  - Cosmonautics on edge of Centuries
The atmospheric probe spacecraft is deployed by the release of springs or other devices that simply separate it from the mother ship without making significant modification to its trajectory.
An aeroshell protects the atmospheric probe spacecraft from the thousands of degrees of heat created by atmospheric friction during entry.
Data is typically telemetered from the atmospheric probe to the mother craft where it is recorded onboard for later transmission to Earth.
library.thinkquest.org /C006381/SC.shtml   (923 words)

  
 Environmental Health and Safety, University of Utah
Entry without respiratory protection is allowed if Oxygen content is more than 19.5% and less than 23.5%, flammability is less than 2%, Carbon Monoxide is less than 25ppm, Hydrogen Sulfide is less than 10ppm and there is minimal ash present.
Entry type: Modified LEVEL III (Entry Permit - sections 1, 3, 5, 6 and 7): Due to the rapid nature of this entry, the entry permit will be filled out after the entry is made.
Entry type: LEVEL II (Entry Log - sections 1, 2, 4 and 7): entry into the unvented electrical vaults and electrical manholes will not require full permit procedures when forced air ventilation can eliminate atmospheric hazards and the entrant is qualified.
www.utahehs.org /index.php?tier=5&id=64   (6562 words)

  
 ESA Science & Technology: Venus Entry Probe
The Venus Entry Probe (VEP) TRS studies approaches for in-situ exploration of the atmosphere of Venus by means of a balloon.
The objective of the Venus Entry Probe TRS is to study the Venusian atmosphere.
One of the primary goals of the Venus Entry Probe TRS was to identify enabling technologies for potential future in-situ exploration of Venus and other planetary bodies with a significant atmosphere.
sci.esa.int /science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=35987   (1198 words)

  
 Bada_00
A quartz glass sublimation apparatus was designed for the atmospheric entry simulations to handle temperatures up to 1100°C. The Murchison meteorite grains were used as analogue material for IDPs and micrometeorites.
The Murchison meteorite grains were heated for 5 to 60 s in the sublimation apparatus at an oven temperature of 1100°C. Using thermocouples placed at the bottom of the sublimation apparatus, we found that the temperature of the grains reached ~800°C during the 60 s experiment.
This temperature is similar to the maximum temperatures reached by micrometeorites during atmospheric entry.
exobio.ucsd.edu /bada_00.htm   (2779 words)

  
 Cnes - CNES and Aquitaine Regional Council join forces for atmospheric re-entry programmes
Atmospheric re-entry represents a key challenge for the space community.
Two European projects backed by the Aquitaine Regional Council are currently focusing on this extremely tricky phase of a spaceflight mission, which involves getting a spacecraft—and its crew—through the atmosphere and back to Earth unscathed.
Initiated by CNES, Pre-X is an experimental vehicle designed to demonstrate for the first time in Europe the ability to re-enter the atmosphere using a gliding trajectory, like an aircraft.
www.cnes.fr /web/2863-cnes-and-aquitaine-regional-council-join-forces-for-atmospheric-re-entry-programmes.php   (425 words)

  
 Atmospheric Subsystem
These spacecrafts are used to study the atmospheric condition of other planets and record the data.
It is equipped with an aeroshell so as to protect it from atmospheric entry and a parachute to slow its descent.
Balloon package are atmospheric spacecraft and are equipped with a buoyant bag to float with the wind.
library.thinkquest.org /03oct/02144/spacecraft/types/atmos.htm   (123 words)

  
 Mars Pathfinder Entry Strategy
Atmospheric entry and landing will occur at about 17:00 UT (1:00 PM EDT) on July 4.
However, unlike Viking, which went into orbit about Mars before deploying the Landers, Mars Pathfinder is on a direct path into the atmosphere and will reach the thin upper atmosphere (defined at a radius of 3522.2 km, or an altitude of about 130 km above the surface) at a velocity of approximately 7.3 km/s.
A single-frequency carrier wave signal will be transmitted during entry and landing, and after some of the key entry events, a weak semaphore signal will be sent.
nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov /planetary/marsentry.html   (754 words)

  
 Mars Polar Lander
The two missions were designed to study the Martian weather, climate, and water and carbon dioxide budget, in order to understand the reservoirs, behavior, and atmospheric role of volatiles and to search for evidence of long-term and episodic climate changes.
Final contact to retrieve data on the status of the propulsion system was made from approximately 19:45 UT to 20:00 UT. At approximately 20:04, 6 minutes before atmospheric entry, an 80 second thruster firing was to turn the craft to its entry orientation.
The maximum time from atmospheric entry to landing would be 4 minutes 33 seconds.
www.solarviews.com /eng/msur98.htm   (1752 words)

  
 [No title]
For vertical entry, lower hose to within 1 foot of the bottom surface of space to be entered.
Note: When entry to a confined space is by means of a manhole or vertical shaft, the cover must be pried open on the downwind side to allow just enough enough room for insertion of the hose.
For horizontal entry, insert hose into area of confined space where work will be done without breaking plane of confined space with body.
www.uwgb.edu /busfin/safetyrisk/Documents/ConfinedSpaceAppendixB.doc   (694 words)

  
 Deep Space 2 Technology/Probe: Entry System
Unlike other traditional entry systems like parachutes or rockets, the probes don't separate from their aeroshells.
The DS2 project is the first to apply a single-stage strategy (from atmospheric entry until impact).
Yes - the entry system is designed to passively orient itself upon atmospheric entry prior to peak atmospheric heating.
nmp.jpl.nasa.gov /ds2/tech/entry.html   (357 words)

  
 Basics of Space Flight Section III. Space Flight Operations
You will be able to describe the concepts of using aerobraking to alter orbital geometry or decelerate for atmospheric entry, descent and landing.
It may last a few months or weeks or less as in the case of a flyby encounter or atmospheric probe entry, or it may last a number of years as in the case of an orbiter.
At Saturn, Cassini is engaged in a similar exploratory mission, examining the planet's atmosphere, rings, magnetosphere, icy satellites, and the large satellite Titan, which has its own atmosphere.
www2.jpl.nasa.gov /basics/bsf16-1.html   (1524 words)

  
 GPN-2000-001638 - Atmospheric Entry Simulator at Ames
In the middle ground directly behind it is a special trumpet- shaped nozzle, contured so that air flowing through it gradually changes in density in the same way that the Earth's atmosphere changes in density with altitude.
Not visible in this photograph is a high speed gun used to launch a test model at earth re-entry speed (17,000 mph) upstream through a special nozzle while air is flowing through it.
When a gun-launched model flies at full re-entry velocity into the simulator nozzle, it experiences the decelerations, stresses, pressures and temperatures of actual re-entry during a few thousandths of a second.
grin.hq.nasa.gov /ABSTRACTS/GPN-2000-001638.html   (172 words)

  
 NASA Ames Research Center: Galileo Probe   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The spacecraft, which started its journey on October 18, 1989 with the launch of the Space Shuttle Atlantis, consisted of an atmospheric entry probe (Galileo Probe) designed to enter Jupiter's atmosphere, and an orbiter (Galileo Orbiter) designed to orbit the planet and observe Jupiter, its moons, and radiation belts.
The Galileo Probe successfully descended into Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7,1995 and directly measured the atmosphere of a Giant Planet for the first time.
Results from this most difficult atmospheric entry in the solar system have permitted us to better understand many of the scientific mysteries of the largest planet in our solar system.
spaceprojects.arc.nasa.gov /Space_Projects/galileo_probe   (262 words)

  
 Aerothermodynamic Analysis Applications - Modeling and Simulation of Atmospheric Entry, Re-Entry Finite Rate Chemistry ...
Vehicles flying through the atmosphere at hypersonic speeds excite the air surrounding them to very high temperatures in the post-shock and boundary layer regions.
Two configurations were analyzed; one with the fabric cone in an undeformed conical shape, and one with the fabric surface deformed in response to the aerodynamic forces.
CFDRC engineers conducted satellite flow simulations to predict the flow field and critical heat loads on satellite components exposed to the upper atmosphere at an altitude of 90 kilometers and velocities in excess of 2400 m/sec (corresponding to a Mach number of 8.8).
www.cfdrc.com /bizareas/aerospace/aeromechanics/aerothermodynamics.html   (1040 words)

  
 ESA Science & Technology: International Workshop - Planetary Probe Atmospheric Entry and Descent Trajectory, Analysis ...
The purpose of this workshop is to bring together the community of planetary scientists, spacecraft engineers, and mission designers and planners whose expertise, experience, and interests are in the area of entry probe trajectory and attitude determination, and the aerodynamics and measurement of the aerodynamical (aerothermodynamical) properties of planetary entry vehicles.
The workshop will comprise presentations, posters, and discussions on the use of entry probe accelerometry and other techniques to reconstruct the entry and descent trajectory of entry probes.
Issues to be addressed include methods, technologies, and algorithms currently employed, techniques and results from the rich history of entry probe science such as PAET, Venera/Vega, Pioneer Venus, Viking, Galileo, and Mars Pathfinder, upcoming missions such as Huygens, Netlander, and Beagle 2, and new and novel instrumentation and methodologies.
sci.esa.int /science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=33969   (166 words)

  
 The Micro Probe
The probes will collect data to determine the atmospheric density profile, the hardness and thermal conductivity of the soil, and if water ice is present below the Martian surface.
The microprobe entry, descent, and impact (EDI) system is single stage from atmospheric entry until impact.
Collection of a subsurface soil sample is an important demonstration for future science missions that will attempt to analyze soil samples not affected by adverse atmospheric conditions such as chemical erosion and weathering.
www.ghg.net /ritakarl/probe.html   (843 words)

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