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Topic: Atom physics

  PhysicsCentral: Learn How Your World Works
The Color Me Physics Activity Book is a follow up to the popular coloring book.
Your kids are guided by Abigail Atom as they help Hydrogen atoms bond, help electrons find protons and even explore a circuit though a fun board game.
Subatomic physics deals with the smallest particles that make up matter like quarks and muons.
www.physicscentral.com   (220 words)

  Atom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The atomic orbital wavefunctions of a hydrogen atom.
Atoms are generally classified by their atomic number Z, which corresponds to the number of protons in the atom.
The most familiar examples of exotic atoms are the antiatom antihydrogen (composed of an antiproton and positron) which has been produced in tiny quantities, and positronium, an analogue to the hydrogen atom in which a positron is substituted for the usual proton nucleus.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Atom   (3524 words)

 Atomic physics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Atomic physics (or atom physics) is the field of physics that studies atoms as isolated systems comprised of electrons and an atomic nucleus.
The term atomic physics is often associated with nuclear power and nuclear bombs, due to the synonymous use of atomic and nuclear in standard English.
While modelling atoms in isolation may not seem realistic, if one considers atoms in a gas or plasma then the time-scales for atom-atom interactions are huge in comparison to the atomic processes that we are concerned with.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Atomic_physics   (796 words)

 IRC#physics-maze#atom   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Atoms consist of a dense core of protons and neutrons which are surrounded by a diffuse cloud of electrons.
The most obvious properties of atoms are determined by the number of protons and electrons they have.
If you isolate an atom in an atom-trap, you could use specific quantum-mechanical states to make a qbit - the quantum counterpart to a bit which is used in a quantum-computer.
www.moo.uklinux.net /kinsler/ircph/maze/atom.html   (305 words)

 Atom :: Web Articles ::
Atoms of different elements do vary in size, but the sizes are roughly the same to within a factor of 2 or so.
Atoms are generally classified by their atomic number, which corresponds to the number of protons in the atom.
The atomic orbital wavefunctions of hydrogen atom hydrogen.
www.webarticles.com /Science/Physics/Atom   (1721 words)

 Physics   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Physics is the most mature of the sciences and provides much of the conceptual apparatus and instrumentation for chemistry, biology, astronomy, and engineering.
The physics curriculum at Reed College is designed to provide rigorous preparation for those who plan careers in the field while at the same time serving the needs of all interested liberal arts students.
The emphasis is on approximation techniques (time-independent and time-dependent perturbation theory, WKB approximation, variational principles, Born approximation), with applications to atoms, molecules, and solids, the quantum theory of radiation, and formal scattering theory.
web.reed.edu /academic/catalog/phys.html   (1390 words)

 Atomic Physics: Steven Chu Group at Stanford University
The use of ultra-cold atoms, atomic fountains and hyperfine ground states allow interrogation time of up to 1 second thereby improving the precision of such measurements by orders of magnitude.
Mcs is the mass of the cesium atom.
The combination of cold atoms in an atomic fountain and the use of an active vibration isolation system with an effective resonance frequency of 1/100 Hz allow us to achieve a long time between the interferometer pulses.
www.stanford.edu /group/chugroup/amo/interferometry.html   (1100 words)

 Mysticism In Modern Physics
The early concept of the atom was that of a hard, impenetrable, bullet-like particle.
That which passed for the "indivisible" atom in the laboratory would be broken down or found to consist of finer units.
Here is physics for you, and no one is disturbed over Heisenberg's headaches as to what may happen next far down in the atom.
www.edwardtbabinski.us /essays/mystic_physics.html   (1946 words)

 AllRefer.com - atom : Development of Atomic Theory : Discovery of the Atom's Structure (Physics) - Encyclopedia
Using alpha particles emitted by radioactive atoms, he showed that the atom consists of a central, positively charged core, the nucleus, and negatively charged particles called electrons that orbit the nucleus.
The development of quantum mechanics during the 1920s resulted in a satisfactory explanation for all phenomena related to the role of electrons in atoms and all aspects of their associated spectra.
With the discovery of the neutron in 1932 the modern picture of the atom was complete.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/A/atom-development-of-atomic-theory-discovery-of-the-atoms-structure.html   (404 words)

 MIT researchers create a continuous source of coherent atoms - MIT News Office
Because the atom laser operates in an ultra-high vacuum, it may never be as ubiquitous as optical lasers.
But, like its predecessor, the pulsed atom laser, a continuous-stream atom laser may someday be used for a variety of applications in fundamental physics.
If the pulsed atom laser is like a faucet that drips, Chikkatur says the new innovations create a sort of bucket that collects the drips without wasting or changing the condensate too dramatically by heating it.
web.mit.edu /newsoffice/2002/atomsource.html   (1084 words)

University of Latvia, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy
Laboratory of theoretical physics was founded at the Institute of Physics of Latvian Academy of Sciences by Dr. V.Veldre (1926-1967) in 1958.
Laboratory of Theoretical Physics was moved to the Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy at the University of Latvia at the 1st of January 1994.
home.lanet.lv /~asi/teorgrp.htm   (1309 words)

 FHSST Physics Atom:Isotopes - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks
Two atoms are considered to be the same element if they have the same number of protons (atomic number).
Atoms which have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.
This atom is called deuterium and is an isotope of hydrogen.
en.wikibooks.org /wiki/FHSST_Physics_Atom:Isotopes   (247 words)

 Physics Course Descriptions   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Historical introduction; general survey of nuclear and elementary particle physics; symmetries and conservation laws; leptons, quarks, and vector bosons; unified electromagnetic and weak interactions; the parton model and quantum chromodynamics.
The role of indistinguishable particles in quantum mechanics is presented, using the helium atom as an illustration.
Emphasis is on quantum phenomena in atomic, molecular, and condensed matter physics, along with techniques of measurement and data analysis.
www.iit.edu /~bcps/database/search.cgi/Physics:/frontend/undergrad/descrip/phys_courses_search   (1465 words)

 U of A physics: atom interferometry
Atom Interferomery at the U. of A. Our goal is to pioneer new measurement techniques using atom optics.
Atom optics includes elements such as diffraction gratings, beam-splitters, mirrors and lenses which manipulate matter waves coherently.
It is a Mach-Zhender interferometer that splits deBroglie waves of atoms into two physically separate paths, and later combines the waves to produce interference fringes of matter as depicted in the annimation above.
www.physics.arizona.edu /~cronin/Research   (89 words)

 Of Lasers, Atoms and Collisions:Physics Professor Shines Light on Ultracold Molecules
Simultaneously trapping an alkali atom (rubidium) and a noble gas atom (argon) had never been achieved before Sukenik and his group began using lasers to confine ultracold rubidium and metastable argon atoms in a specially designed magneto-optical trap.
“When atoms are that cold, we can study the interactions between them and the interaction between light and atoms,” he explains, adding that at cold temperatures the dynamics of the interactions are different than they are at room temperatures.
Atoms move slowly when they are cold, and if they get cold enough, quantum mechanics – the wave nature description of the interaction between matter and radiation at an atomic level – must be utilized to describe their motion.
www.odu.edu /ao/instadv/quest/laseratomcollision.html   (1225 words)

 Surface Physics Group
In the past, advances in atom optics have demonstrated the manipulation of reactive, ionised or excited atoms via interactions with magnetic or optical fields [8].
The surfaces are prepared in the cleanrooms of the Semiconductor Physics Group at the Cavendish.
As the helium atom beam interacts with only the outermost electronic corrugations, the difference in reflectivity between the delocalised electron sea of a metal and the corrugated surface of a semiconductor can be an order of magnitude, offering a further contrast mechanism.
www-sp.phy.cam.ac.uk /research/mirror.php3   (1433 words)

 Atomic Physics on the Internet
Atomic and Molecular Physics at the University of Manchester
Atomic and Molecular Physics and Atom Optics and Quantum Optics Laboratory at the University of Texas, Dallas
Laboratory of Atomic and Surface Physics at the University of Virginia
plasma-gate.weizmann.ac.il /API.html   (1405 words)

 PHYSICS: Toward Atom Chips -- Fortágh and Zimmermann 307 (5711): 860 -- Science   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Such "atom chips" may find use as sensitive probes for gravity, acceleration, rotation, and tiny magnetic forces.
In their Perspective, Fortágh and Zimmermann discuss recent advances toward creating atom chips, in which current-carrying conductors in the chips create magnetic microtraps that confine the atomic clouds.
Despite some intrinsic limits to the performance of atom chips, existing technologies are capable of producing atom chips, and many possibilities for their construction remain to be explored.
www.sciencemag.org /cgi/content/summary/307/5711/860   (237 words)

 ULB - Service de Physique Atomique Théorique
Present-day laser sources are achieving ever more intense beams which are opening new dimensions to the manipulation of atoms and molecules and to the observation of nonlinear phenomena.
The atom is driven by the laser forces which become comparable or superior to the internal atomic electric forces.
For the solution of the physical models, we rely strongly on numerical techniques, employing a wide range of computer platforms ranging from PCs to parallel supercomputers.
www.ulb.ac.be /sciences/physath/index.html   (328 words)

 Stamper-Kurn Group
Our research is concentrated on creating novel macroscopic and mesoscopic quantum systems using ultra-cold atoms as a resource.
In one, a flexible and robust Bose-Einstein condensation apparatus is used to create a variety of novel, many-body quantum systems by applying various tools to control the internal and external structure or an ultra-cold atomic gas.
In the second experiment, magnetically trapped and evaporatively cooled atoms are delivered to the confines of a high-finesse optical cavity where they are used as a reservoir for producing single or multiple trapped "active" atoms, which are used for studies in cavity quantum-electrodynamics.
physics.berkeley.edu /research/ultracold   (123 words)

 Michigan Engineering | Applied Physics | Courses
Given by a mix of faculty, external lecturers, and the students themselves to acquaint students with the scope of research activity and opportunities, the goal of the seminar structure is to promote a strong interaction among the interdisciplinary work being done in applied physics.
Laser atom interactions: Absorption, emission, and saturation, theory of line width, multiphoton absorption, stimulated and spontaneous Raman scattering; single photon, multiphoton and above-threshold ionization; Rydberg physics; AC stark shifts and ponderomotive effects; multichannel quantum defect theory; Floquet theory; Mechanical effects of light on atoms (atom traps, molasses), atom interferometry.
Chemical physics of extended surfaces: basic surface phenomena which control the physical and chemical properties of extended surfaces.
www.engin.umich.edu /students/bulletin/applied_physics/courses.html   (735 words)

In general, a "Hilbert space" is a linear vector space that can have an infinite number of dimensions, the concept important because in quantum mechanics the state of a system is represented by a vector in Hilbert space.
a particle or collection of particles) to be teleported to an independent physical system via classical communication channels and a shared entanglement resource, the purpose of entanglement swapping is to instill entanglement between systems that hitherto shared no entanglement.
An entanglement resource is required for entanglement swapping to occur; indeed the nomenclature "entanglement swapping" describes the transfer of entanglement from a priori entangled systems to a priori separable systems.
scienceweek.com /2004/sa040827-4.htm   (1168 words)

 Atomic Physics, LTH
Welcome to the Division of Atomic Physics at Lund Institute of Technology (LTH), Lund University, Sweden.
The research at the division is mainly based on the use of lasers, ranging from diode lasers to terawatt lasers at the High-Power Laser Facility.
Some areas of research are: basic atomic physics including interactions between intense laser-fields and matter and VUV/XUV laser spectroscopy, quantum electronics, quantum optics and solid state spectroscopy, applied molecular spectroscopy, laser applications in medicine and biology, and industrial applications.
www-atom.fysik.lth.se   (122 words)

Our research is concentrated on fundamental electroweak interaction measurements (beta-decay asymmetry and beta-neutrino correlations of polarized atoms) and on the sympathetic cooling and Fermi degeneracy studies of cold atoms.
Applicants must be dedicated and have a strong background in experimental physics and/or chemistry with experience in using single-frequency lasers and in performing high-precision atomic spectroscopic measurements.
Expertise in cold atom physics using laser and/or magnetic trapping techniques is highly desirable.
pearl1.lanl.gov /external/atom_trap/opportunities.htm   (375 words)

 Wiley::Atom-Photon Interactions: Basic Processes and Applications
It is devoted to the study of the interactions between photons and atoms in atomic and molecular physics, quantum optics, and laser physics.
The elementary processes in which photons are emitted, absorbed, scattered, or exchanged between atoms are treated in detail and described using diagrammatic representation.
Many applications of these approaches to simple and important physical phenomena are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of each method.
www.wiley.com /WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471293369.html   (180 words)

 Hydrogen Atom / hydrogenatom.html
One atom of Deuterium is found in about 6000 ordinary hydrogen atoms.
Tritium atoms are also present but in much smaller proportions.
Photoionization of the hydrogen atom in strong magnetic fields of White Dwarfs
www.meatnpotatoes.com /hydrogenatom.html   (286 words)

 Syllabi 2005-2006 B-KUL-G0P28A General Physics III
The student is introduced into the developments of physics that have taken place since the beginning of the twentieth century.
The student discovers which indispensable role these new insights play in the development of relatively new research domains, such as atom, molecule and solid substance physics, nuclear physics, physics of elementary parts and cosmology and contemporary chemistry.
Students are introduced to the developments of physics since the beginning of the twentieth century.
www.kuleuven.ac.be /onderwijs/aanbod2005/syllabi/G0P28AE.htm   (525 words)

 paradoxes in modern physics
Consider a small box containing just a single atom and a light wave [photon] which is at the right frequency to be absorbed and re-emitted by the atom.
So the atom increases in mass each time the light wave [photon] is absorbed, and the mass of the atom goes down each time the light wave [photon] is emitted.
The apparent contradiction arising from the use of these conventional physics rules shows that one of the rules of conventional physics used here must be wrong.
www.drtruth.org /paradoxes.html   (1630 words)

 FHSST Physics Atom:The Atom - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks
The planets, the sun, grass and trees, the air we breathe, and people are all made up of atoms.
There are approximately 100 different types of atom, although many of these exist in very small quantities.
Every chemical element is one type of atom, such as hydrogen (H), aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe).
en.wikibooks.org /wiki/FHSST_Physics_Atom:The_Atom   (139 words)

 Modern Physics: From the Atom to Big Science
TOM TO Taught by Cathryn Carson (clcarson@socrates.berkeley.edu) at the University of California at Berkeley, Spring 2003.
The course studies the establishment of the ideas and institutions of modern physics, covering the evolution of the discipline over roughly the last century and a half.
Physical Review assignment (3 pp.): Examine the early years (pre-1910) of the first American physics journal, the Physical Review, and submit a group report.
www.aip.org /history/syllabi/modern.html   (1555 words)

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