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Topic: Atomic energy

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  Encyclopedia: Atomic energy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Energy is a fundamental quantity that every physical system possesses; it allows us to predict how much work the system could be made to do, or how much heat it can exchange.
In the past, energy was discussed in terms of easily observable effects it has on the properties of...
nuclear energy, is almost always used to mean the energy produced by nuclear reactors.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Atomic-energy   (876 words)

 Chapter I. Introduction | Atomic Energy for Military Purposes (The Smyth Report) | Historical Documents | ...
This binding energy, B, is the difference between the true nuclear mass, M, and the sum of the masses of all the protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
First we assumed that mass and energy were equivalent; now we are assuming that atomic nuclei can be rearranged with a consequent reduction in their total mass, thereby releasing energy which can then be put to use.
In the nuclear reactions we have described this is not generally true; neither the energy released nor the new particles formed are sufficient to maintain the reaction.
www.atomicarchive.com /Docs/SmythReport/smyth_i-b.shtml   (4029 words)

 AllRefer.com - Atomic Energy Commission (U.S. Government) - Encyclopedia
The act provided for a five-member commission appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, as well as a military liaison committee which the AEC was directed to advise and consult with on all atomic energy matters that related to military applications.
The AEC became the center of a nation-wide controversy in 1954 as a result of Oppenheimer's suspension (1953) as a consultant to the commission on the alleged grounds that he was a security risk.
Although the bulk of the AEC's work was in the field of atomic weaponry, it was also involved in projects relating to the peaceful uses of atomic energy (e.g., the development of atomic power plants for the production of electricity).
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/A/AtomicEnCom.html   (433 words)

 MSN Encarta - Atomic Energy Commission
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), civilian agency of the United States government established by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 to administer and regulate the production and use of atomic power.
The most important goal of the 1946 act, however, was to put the immense power and possibilities of atomic energy under civilian control, although nuclear materials and facilities remained in government hands.
Under the Energy Reorganization Act of October 1974, the AEC was abolished, and two new federal agencies were established to administer and regulate atomic-energy activities: the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761553386/Atomic_Energy_Commission.html   (235 words)

 Energy Citations Database (ECD) - Energy and Energy-Related Bibliographic Citations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Energy Citations Database (ECD) - Energy and Energy-Related Bibliographic Citations
Energy Citations includes bibliographic records of literature in disciplines of interest to DOE such as chemistry, physics, materials, environmental science, geology, engineering, mathematics, climatology, oceanography, computer science and related disciplines.
To achieve a major Federal energy reorganization, the Department of Energy (DOE) was activated on October 1, 1977.
www.osti.gov /energycitations/about.jsp   (789 words)

 Hund's Rules for Atomic Energy Levels
Though often called by the name spin-spin interaction, the origin of the energy difference is in the coulomb repulsion of the electrons.
Note that the energies we are discussing here are electric potential energies, so that a negative electron in the vicinity of a positive nucleus will have a negative energy leading to a bound state.
These influences on the atomic electron energy levels is sometimes called the orbit-orbit interaction.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/atomic/hund.html   (564 words)

 US CODE: Title 42,2011. Congressional declaration of policy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Atomic energy is capable of application for peaceful as well as military purposes.
(a) the development, use, and control of atomic energy shall be directed so as to make the maximum contribution to the general welfare, subject at all times to the paramount objective of making the maximum contribution to the common defense and security; and
(b) the development, use, and control of atomic energy shall be directed so as to promote world peace, improve the general welfare, increase the standard of living, and strengthen free competition in private enterprise.
www4.law.cornell.edu /uscode/42/2011.html   (137 words)

 United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
UK national authority, established in 1954 to be responsible for research and development of all non-military aspects of nuclear energy.
The principal establishments are at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Oxfordshire; the Culham Laboratory, Oxfordshire; Dounreay, Scotland; Risley, Cheshire; and Winfrith, Dorset.
This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /United+Kingdom+Atomic+Energy+Authority   (215 words)

 The Energy Story - Chapter 13: Nuclear Energy - Fission and Fusion
Another major form of energy is nuclear energy, the energy that is trapped inside each atom.
But in atomic bombs, almost pure pieces of the element Uranium-235 or Plutonium, of a precise mass and shape, must be brought together and held together, with great force.
This heat energy is used to boil water in the core of the reactor.
www.energyquest.ca.gov /story/chapter13.html   (761 words)

 Atomic energy quotes & quotations
Theoretical physics forces atomic energy on us; the successful production of the fission bomb forces upon us the manufacture of the hydrogen bomb.
"Since I do not foresee that atomic energy is to be a great boon for a long time, I have to say that for the present it is a menace.
"I think the school's involvement in the development of atomic energy and the bomb left a deep scar on the moral fiber of this place.
en.thinkexist.com /quotes/with/keyword/atomic_energy   (429 words)

 CHP - Atomic Energy Levels   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The energy levels of atoms are quantized and have definite, discrete energies.
The energies are measured relative to the energy required to remove an electron, which is called the ionization potential of the atom.
Transitions between energy levels that involve the absorption or emission of light is the field of spectroscopy.
www.chem.vt.edu /chem-ed/quantum/at-lvls.html   (71 words)

 [No title]
The terms "atomic energy" and "special nuclear material" are defined in Section 11 of the Act (42 U.S.C. Sections 151(c) and 151(d) (42 U.S.C. 2181(c) and (d)) set up categories of pending applications relating to atomic energy that must be brought to the attention of the Department of Energy.
All applications received in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office are screened by Technology Center (TC) work group 3640 personnel, under 37 CFR *>1.14(d)<, in order for the *>Director< to fulfill his or her responsibilities under section 151(d) (42 U.S.C. 2181(d)>)< of the Atomic Energy Act.
Papers subsequently added must be inspected promptly by the examiner when received to determine whether the application has been amended to relate to atomic energy and those so related must be promptly forwarded to Licensing and Review in TC work group 3640.
www.uspto.gov /web/offices/pac/mpep/documents/0700_706_03_b.htm   (311 words)

 Atomic Energy Levels
If you have two electrons, then the state in which their spins are parallel (S=1, triplet state) will be lower in energy than the state in which their spins are antiparallel (S=0, singlet state).
This result is correlated with the fact that the two electrons are identical fermions, and a wavefunction which describes the pair must be antisymmetric with respect to exchange of the electrons (a requirement of the Pauli exclusion principle).
The fact that such electron configurations have lower energy means that they will be filled first, and this fact is noted in "Hund's rule #2".
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/atomic/atstruct.html   (358 words)

 atomic energy on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The International Atomic Energy Agency, thanks to a concerted American diplomatic effort, recently brought Iran's nuclear-weapons program to the forefront of international attention.
Immediately after the International Atomic Energy Agency welcomed Iran's offer to suspend uranium enrichment while negotiating with Britain, France, and Germany over a long-term nuclear deal, Iran's chief negotiator,...
A replica of the Fat Man atomic bomb that was dropped on Nagasak in Japan, destroying the city on the 9th August 1945.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/x/x-atomicen.asp   (632 words)

 National Museum of Nuclear Science and History
The National Atomic Museum is the nation's only Congressionally chartered museum of nuclear science and history.
The museum was established in 1969 as an intriguing place to learn the story of the Atomic Age, from early research of nuclear development through today's peaceful uses of nuclear technology.
Museum visitors can view and photograph displays presenting the development of the Atomic Age, including replicas of the world's first two atomic weapons, Little Boy and Fat Man, which were built and used at the end of World War II.
www.atomicmuseum.com   (500 words)

 Atomic Energy levels
Further, it is usual to express level energies in terms of excitation energy instead of the usual binding energy which would be a negative quantity: Excitation energy is binding energy plus the energy of ionization (the energy required to remove an electron from the most tightly bound level to infinity, the ionization potential).
The n=1 level with the hash marks is the zero excitation energy level, the most tightly bound state of H. We call this the ground level and any atomic transitions that involve the ground level are called resonance lines.
Transitions can occur between continuum states with any energy and are called free-free or Bremsstrahlung transitions and represent a change in the speed of the electron relative to the proton.
www.physics.uq.edu.au /people/ross/phys2080/ael/ael.htm   (682 words)

 Atomic Energy Organization of Iran - Iran Special Weapons Agencies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Atomic Energy Agency (Sazeman-e Energy Atomi) is among the small number of executive branch agencies in Iran that report directly to the President.
Following the August 1997 inauguration of President Khatami, Oil Minister Gholamreza Aghazadeh was appointed to head the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, replacing Reza Amrollahi, who was widely regarded as incompetent.
Various Nuclear Energy Research Centers are coordinated by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran.
www.fas.org /nuke/guide/iran/agency/aeoi.htm   (196 words)

 NUCLEAR SCIENCE (Formerly Atomic Energy)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Choose five individuals important to the field of atomic energy and nuclear science and explain each person's contribution.
Use the three models to explain the difference between atomic number and mass number.
Explain how a reactor could be used to change nuclear energy into electrical energy or make things radioactive.
www.usscouts.org /usscouts/mb/mb024.html   (890 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: Historical Encyclopedia of Atomic Energy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Many histories of the atomic age have been published, but this encyclopedic treatment is a first in the subject area.
Of approximately 450 entries, about a quarter are biographical sketches; a tenth explain concepts and terminology relating to atomic energy, such as nuclear winter, plutonium, and quantum theory; and the remainder describe government programs, treaties, and important events in nuclear history.
Entries are supplemented by a chronology of atomic energy, beginning in 1780 with the discovery of uranium and ending with India's refusal to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty on February 26, 1999.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/ASIN/0313304009/stellarbooksandt   (623 words)

 Energy Merit Badge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Use your demonstration to explain in your own words the ideas of heat, temperature, kinetic energy, calorie, and the laws of thermodynamics.
Prepare a table showing devices for each form of energy that will convert in into another form of energy.
Show and explain to your counselor two articles from a current newspaper or magazine about the use or conservation of energy.
www.meritbadge.com /mb/045.htm   (331 words)

 NIST Atomic Spectra Databases
Data are included for observed transitions of 99 elements and energy levels of 57 elements.
Data are included for observed transitions of 99 elements and energy levels of 52 elements.
This interactive database has energy level data for over 500 spectra, transition probabilities for Sc through Ni, and wavelength data for spectra of several elements.
physics.nist.gov /PhysRefData/ASD1/choice.html?nist_atomic_spectra.html   (377 words)

 Atomic Energy merit badge
This is a collection of Internet resources that I found helpful when preparing to counsel for the Atomic Energy merit badge; I hope both Scouts and counselors alike will find this information handy.
Note: As of January 1, 2005, the Atomic Energy merit badge is superseded by new requirements the Nuclear Science merit badge.
Your site was helpful in planning and I have devised a tentative "agenda" that would have the scount's meet almost all of the requirements for the badge; with the exception that they would construct a model of a nuclear power plant on their own.
www.ece.cmu.edu /~griffin2/scouts/atomic_energy.html   (1761 words)

 NIST Atomic Spectra Database
Energy levels of a particular atom or ion displayed in order of energy above the ground state.
This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date.
The Atomic Energy Levels Data Center and Data Center on Atomic Transition Probabilities and Line Shapes have carried out these critical compilations.
physics.nist.gov /cgi-bin/AtData/main_asd   (334 words)

accordingly; P.A. 75-537 replaced commissioner of finance and control with commissioner of planning and energy policy and United States Atomic Energy Commission with energy research and development administration and nuclear regulatory commission; P.A. 77-614 replaced state planning council and commissioner of planning and energy policy with secretary of the office of policy and management; Sec.
Nothing herein shall be construed as requiring the disclosure of any defense information or restricted data as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended.
No municipality shall adopt an ordinance which in any way restricts the authority of the Commissioner of Transportation to designate the dates, routes or time for the transporting of such radioactive material or waste and said commissioner's authority shall supersede the provisions of any existing municipal ordinance to the contrary.
www.cga.ct.gov /2005/pub/Chap298a.htm   (986 words)

 Atomic Energy for Military Purposes (The Smyth Report) | Historical Documents | atomicarchive.com
The ultimate responsibility for our nation's policy rests on its citizens and they can discharge such responsibilities wisely only if they are informed.
The average citizen cannot be expected to understand clearly how an atomic bomb is constructed or how it works but there is in this country a substantial group of engineers and scientists who can understand such things and who can explain the potentialities of atomic bombs to their fellow citizens.
The present report is written for this professional group and is a matter-of-fact, general account of work in the USA since 1939 aimed at the production of such bombs.
www.atomicarchive.com /Docs/SmythReport/index.shtml   (300 words)

 Wired 13.02: Nuclear Now!
What had been billed as the clean, cheap, limitless energy source for a shining future was suddenly too hot to handle.
The 2001 report of Vice President Cheney's energy task force was only the most high profile in a series of pro-nuke developments.
But energy is not a luxury people can do without, like a gym membership or hair gel.
www.wired.com /wired/archive/13.02/nuclear.html   (1117 words)

 Atomic Energy Commission   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Indian Atomic Energy Commission was first set up in August 1948 in the then Department of Scientific Research, which was created a few months earlier in June 1948.
Subsequently, in accordance with a Government Resolution dated March 1, 1958, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was established in the Department of Atomic Energy.
According to the Resolution constituting the AEC, the Secretary to the Government of India in the Department of Atomic Energy is ex-officio Chairman of the Commission.
www.dae.gov.in /aec.htm   (208 words)

 Atomic Energy Merit Badge
Tell the meaning of the following: alpha particle, atom, background radiation, beta particle, curie, fallout, half-life, ionization, isotope, neutron, neutron activation, nuclear energy, nuclear reactor, particle accelerator, radiation, radioactivity, roentgen, and X ray.
Explain what each of the five discovered in the field of atomic energy: Henri Becquerel, Niels Bohr, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, Otto Hahn, Ernest Lawrence, Lise Meitner, William Roentgen, and Sir Ernest Rutherford.
Explain how a reactor could be used to change nuclear into electrical energy or make things radioactive.
www.scoutingbsa.org /Programs/BoyScouts/Merit_Badges/Atomic_Energy.html   (402 words)

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